Why Hong Kong & Singapore? Some simple facts: 11.4 tons 5.6 tons CO2 6,043kg 2,488kg oil 8,170kWh 5,699kWh electricity 6.7 4.4 footprint 131 88 HPI rank Singapore Hong Kong
Why Hong Kong & Singapore?
Sustainable Development & Ecological Modernization
Waves of Environmentalism
A Post-Ecological Society?
Strong versus Weak EM
Role of Environmental Movements?
1.Democratic Space & Civil Society
2. Politics of Place, Culture & Identity
Towards a New Theoretical Framework
Murray Bookchin’s Social Ecology
Pierre Bourdieu’s Habitus
Concept of Ecological Habitus
A New Theoretical Framework: Hypothesizing
A set of durable but mutable dispositions towards the relationship between human and nature, and between humans within nature; that results in corresponding behavior.
Spiritual capital can be defined as the level moral consciousness in agents, as seen through their ability to transcend material and hierarchical worldviews of modern capitalism, to move towards postmaterialism and symbiosis. That is, the willingness of agents to recognize the importance of and to engage in, and invest efforts (in spite of personal inconvenience and sacrifice) to behave in ways that are responsible to the environment, ecology and fellow men.