This presentation was presented at the Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Conference 2011 (ESTC 2011), held in Hilton Head...
Sustainable Transportation Certification <br />David Kestenbaum<br /> Outreach Professional Senior, University of Vermont ...
A certification, education and labeling program for the passenger transportation sector<br />(from flip-flops & bicycles t...
Climate Change/Global Warming<br />"warming of the climate system is unequivocal," <br />It is predicted that if warming p...
Atmospheric Carbon<br />Pre- 1750 around 		280 PPM<br />1960 				315 PPM<br />Today				392.5 PPM<br />
US GHG Emissions<br />‘The US must reduce emissions at least 80% below year 2000 levels by 2050)<br />	(Union of Concerned...
U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions<br />U.S., 5% of the worlds population and in 2006 was responsible for 21% of global emissio...
U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions<br />In 2006 passenger transport generated 73% of transportation GHG emissions.<br />Transpo...
US GHG Emissions<br />‘The US must reduce emissions at least 80% below year 2000 levels by 2050)<br />	(Union of Concerned...
Strategies to Reduce Transportation GHG Emissions<br />Low carbon fuels<br />Increasing vehicle fuel economy<br />Improve ...
Consumer Transportation Choice<br />Price<br />Safety <br />Convenience<br />Customer Service<br />Quality<br />
Eco-Labeling<br />Eco-labels provide more complete information, can provoke environmental consideration in an immediate de...
GCC Pilot Program (no frills)<br />
Project Objectives<br />Assessing the impacts of a pilot green certification program on the attitudes and behaviors of mot...
GCC Pilot Program<br />A-1<br />Define Clear<br />Objectives<br />A-2<br />Define Structure and Process<br />A-3<br />Buil...
GCC Pilot Program<br />Certification Criteria<br />Meeting or exceeding the industry average of 148 passenger miles per ga...
GCC Pilot Program<br />
GCC Pilot Program<br />
Sustainable Transportation Certification Program<br />A certification, education and labeling program for the passenger tr...
Mission<br />Build awareness and promote the use of transportation options that: <br />Reduce greenhouse gas and other har...
Methods<br />Recognition of passenger transportation systems, fleets and/or individual vehicles that demonstrate complianc...
Scoring and Certification<br /> Level 1  = 100 to 149   <br />Level 2  = 150 to 199<br />Level 3  = 200 to 299<br />Level ...
Certification Criteria<br />Greenhouse gas emissions per passenger mile<br />Emissions Technologies (criteria pollutants)<...
GHG Emission Per Passenger Mile <br />Total miles traveled<br />Total fuel consumed<br />Fuel type (e.g., diesel, electric...
GHG Emissions Per Passenger<br />B<br />A<br />C<br />F<br />D<br />X<.0253 Kg CO2 EQ PPM<br />.<br />X>.0253 Kg CO2 EQ PP...
Alternative Fuels<br />
Educational Programs<br />
ECO-DRIVER EDUCATION<br />Eco-driving is: a set of simple driving habits that result in using less fuel, generating fewer ...
Carbon Offsets<br />
Waste Management – Points<br />
Marketing Support<br />Website<br />Logoed listings on travel sites<br />Turnkey materials<br />Macro level PR initiative ...
Sustainable Transportation Certification Program Launch <br />WINTER 2012<br />
References<br />Anderson, L.E., L.C. Chase, D.Kestenbaum, and C. Mastrangelo. “Adopting Sustainable Transportation Practic...
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ESTC 2011 Presentation by David Kestenbaum, University of Vermont, Transportation Certification

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Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Conference (ESTC) (http://www.ecotourismconference.org) Presentation by David Kestenbaum, Extension Researcher, University of Vermont, Green Coach Certification - "Sustainable Transportation Certification", presented September 2011. Session: 4.4 Mainstreaming Sustainability: Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Certification. Organized by The International Ecotourism Society (http://www.ecotourism.org), the ESTC is a unique tourism industry annual conference providing practical solutions to advance sustainability goals for the tourism industry.

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  • TGlobal Warming is happening. And we as a society have a few choices to make regarding how we deal with it. 1- During the last century we have seen a 1.3 degree increase in global temperatures2) Examples of risks to human health and safety include those from increased drought, famine, disease, and extreme weather events. 3) what do we mean when we talk about Greenhouse Gases or Carbon? Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and three groups of fluorinated gases (sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs) are the major greenhouse gases and the subject of the Kyoto Protocol, which came into force in 2005.
  • This can be done in a variety of ways. Remember light bulb example.
  • The Primary Greenhouse gases produced by the US transportation sector are - CO2,CH4 N20 and Hydroflourocarbons (HFCs). As a whole the U.S. accounts for 5% of the worlds population and in 2006 was responsible for 21% of global emissions. GHG emissions from the U.S. transportation sector have been growing steadily—from 1990 to 2006, transportation GHG emissions increased 27 percent. Thegrowth in U.S. transportation GHG emissions accounted for almost one-half (47percent) of the increase in total U.S. GHG emissions for the period. Emissiontrends vary by transportation mode. Medium and heavy-duty truck GHGemissions increased 77 percent from 1990 to 2006, while light duty vehiclesincreased 24 percent; and aircraft 7 percent. On-road vehicles accounted for 96percent of the increase in transportation emissions during that period; 55 percentfrom light-duty vehicles, 40 percent from medium and heavy-duty trucks, andone percent from other modes.Generally, Vehicle miles traveled increased and was not outpaced improvements in fuel economy.
  • - Another interesting fact is that when lifecycle costs such as the production of fuel, materials, etc. GHG emission increase by up to 50% or more of operating emissions and almost 8% of global GHG emissions. (US GHG Transportation Document)
  • This can be done in a variety of ways. Remember light bulb example.
  • Examples:Low carbon fuels : 97% of U.S. transportation energy use is from petroleum based fuels Examples of low-carbon fuels that are often discussed and presently being researched include:biodiesel, electricity, hydrogen. Vehicle Fuel Economy: - advance engines, - lighter weight materials, - retrofitting heavy duty trucks with areodynamics fairingsImprove Transportation system Efficiency: - Lowering speed limits, - traffic management, - direct routing of airplanes.Reduce Carbon Intensive Travel Activity: - Pricing strategies such as an increase in fuel tax - , pay as you drive insurance. - Expansion of urban transit services in conjunction with landuse changes and pedestrian/bicycle improvements. - ‘Eco-driver’ educational programs. Reduce Need for travel: - Combine trips - teleconference when needed.
  • Typically, factors such as quality, customer service, price, convenience, and personal security are the greatest influences on consumers’ choices among various modes of transportation (Lumsdon, 2006; Mastrangelo, Anderson, Chase, and Kestenbaum, 2010).
  • A number of parks mentioned in their planning documents the idea of developing a labeling program.
  • Draft standards are in document Program Packet for Field Test Participants.ABA reps, UMA reps.Field testing began May/June 2009. 18 months ended Dec 2010.Currently working on E-1
  • Royal Celebrity bus with GCC labelIn the pilot phase of the program ~1000 motorcoach vehicles (or 3% of motorcoaches in North America) have been &quot;green&quot; certified and relationships have been built with 25 companies who own ~15% of all motorcoach vehicles in the United States.   Survey results indicate that 70% of the bus and motorcoach industry state they have heard of the &apos;green&quot; certification program.  The program has access via networks to almost the entire industry in North America.
  • Coach USA’s megabuses in NY, can take 80 cars off the roadPedicabs have asked about Green certification
  • The STC program will provide certified fleets and vehicles with a Sustainable Transportation Certification label and access to a turnkey marketing program that can be used by owners and operators to promote the use of their products and services. As a key support mechanism, the STC program will provide educational services for transportation providers; develop a marketing campaign that promotes consumer and supplier awareness of the label and awareness of low-impact transportation options; and develop best-practices guidelines for reducing the environmental impacts of travel. The STC’s rigorous standards, quality educational services and branded marketing materials will make it the premier program of its kind.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions per passenger mile —Demonstrating a carbon footprint of less than .125 kilograms (kg) of CO2 per passenger mile.Emissions — Using certain low-emissions vehicles or technologies. Alternative fuels — Using alternative fuels including but not limited to hydrogen, compressed natural gas, methane, electricity, and biodiesel blends of B5 or greater at least 80 percent of the time.Purchase of carbon offset — Offsetting a certain portion of emissions through an endorsed carbon-offset provider.Training programs and idle policy — Conducting eco-driving training and adopting idle-free policies.Waste management — Recycling waste and reducing energy used at transportation office.
  • http://www.nps.gov/transportation/roads/library/Fact%20Sheets%20October%202009/FINAL%20FACT%20SHEETS%20Oct%202009/its_20091019.pdf
  • ESTC 2011 Presentation by David Kestenbaum, University of Vermont, Transportation Certification

    1. 1. This presentation was presented at the Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Conference 2011 (ESTC 2011), held in Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, USA, from September 19th-21st. Organized by The International Ecotourism Society (TIES), the ESTC is a unique annual conference providing practical solutions to advance sustainability goals for the tourism industry.<br />Learn more about the ESTC: http://www.ecotourismconference.org<br />ESTC on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/ESTC_Tourism<br />ESTC on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ESTC.Tourism<br />The International Ecotourism Society | web www.ecotourism.orgemail info@ecotourism.org | tel +1 202 506 5033<br />
    2. 2. Sustainable Transportation Certification <br />David Kestenbaum<br /> Outreach Professional Senior, University of Vermont Extension<br />Lisa Chase, Ph.D.<br />Natural Resources Specialist, University of Vermont Extension<br />Director, Vermont Tourism Data Center <br />Laura Anderson, Ph.D.<br />Post Doctoral Associate, University of Vermont Rubenstein School<br />
    3. 3. A certification, education and labeling program for the passenger transportation sector<br />(from flip-flops & bicycles to trains & planes) <br />
    4. 4. Climate Change/Global Warming<br />"warming of the climate system is unequivocal," <br />It is predicted that if warming persists, climate change will have a number of negative effects on our planet's physical and biological systems. This, in turn, may put the physical health and safely of billions at risk (IPCC, 2007). <br />
    5. 5. Atmospheric Carbon<br />Pre- 1750 around 280 PPM<br />1960 315 PPM<br />Today 392.5 PPM<br />
    6. 6. US GHG Emissions<br />‘The US must reduce emissions at least 80% below year 2000 levels by 2050)<br /> (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2007)<br />
    7. 7. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions<br />U.S., 5% of the worlds population and in 2006 was responsible for 21% of global emissions<br />GHG emissions from the U.S. transportation sector represents over 5% of global GHG emissions<br />Transportation GHG emissions account for 29% of total US GHG Emissions<br />USDOT, 2010<br />
    8. 8. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions<br />In 2006 passenger transport generated 73% of transportation GHG emissions.<br />Transportation has been the highest end-sector emitter of CO2 since 1999 <br />Lifecycle costs increase emissions by up to 50%.<br />(USDOT, 2010)<br />
    9. 9. US GHG Emissions<br />‘The US must reduce emissions at least 80% below year 2000 levels by 2050)<br /> (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2007)<br />
    10. 10. Strategies to Reduce Transportation GHG Emissions<br />Low carbon fuels<br />Increasing vehicle fuel economy<br />Improve system efficiency<br />Reduce carbon intensity of travel activity<br />Reduce need for travel<br />USDOT, 2010<br />
    11. 11. Consumer Transportation Choice<br />Price<br />Safety <br />Convenience<br />Customer Service<br />Quality<br />
    12. 12. Eco-Labeling<br />Eco-labels provide more complete information, can provoke environmental consideration in an immediate decision and create better environmental practices through competition.<br />
    13. 13. GCC Pilot Program (no frills)<br />
    14. 14. Project Objectives<br />Assessing the impacts of a pilot green certification program on the attitudes and behaviors of motorcoach operators<br />Studying the impacts of a pilot green certification program on consumer interest and demand for motorcoach travel<br />
    15. 15. GCC Pilot Program<br />A-1<br />Define Clear<br />Objectives<br />A-2<br />Define Structure and Process<br />A-3<br />Build a TechnicalCommittee<br />C-1<br />Draft <br />Standards<br />B-1<br />Identify Potential Stakeholders<br />B-2 Make Stakeholders Aware of Process<br />B-3 Consultationon Draft Standards<br />C-2<br />Revise <br />the Standards<br />D1<br />Field Testing<br />E-1<br />Publication of the<br />Standards<br />Stakeholders<br />ISEAL Standard Setting Process<br />Source: International Social and Environmental Accreditation and Labeling Alliance<br />
    16. 16. GCC Pilot Program<br />Certification Criteria<br />Meeting or exceeding the industry average of 148 passenger miles per gallon.<br />Running an EPA 2007 compliant engine.<br />Running an EPA 2010 compliant engine.<br />Offsetting carbon emissions by 80 percent through an endorsed carbon-trading program.<br />Running on an alternative fuel such as a blend of biodiesel.<br />Having a strict, documented, and verifiable energy conservation and recycling program.<br />Incorporating other emerging environmental technologies as prescribed by the GCC.<br />
    17. 17. GCC Pilot Program<br />
    18. 18. GCC Pilot Program<br />
    19. 19.
    20. 20. Sustainable Transportation Certification Program<br />A certification, education and labeling program for the passenger transportation sector<br />
    21. 21. Mission<br />Build awareness and promote the use of transportation options that: <br />Reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions<br />Increase energy efficiency<br />Utilize alternative fuels and new technologies<br />
    22. 22. Methods<br />Recognition of passenger transportation systems, fleets and/or individual vehicles that demonstrate compliance with the program’s certification criteria<br />Support of certified operators through public relations, marketing programs, educational programming, and access to labels<br />
    23. 23. Scoring and Certification<br /> Level 1 = 100 to 149 <br />Level 2 = 150 to 199<br />Level 3 = 200 to 299<br />Level 4 = 300 or greater<br />
    24. 24. Certification Criteria<br />Greenhouse gas emissions per passenger mile<br />Emissions Technologies (criteria pollutants)<br />Alternative fuels <br />Purchase of carbon offset <br />Training programs and idle policies<br />Waste management<br />
    25. 25. GHG Emission Per Passenger Mile <br />Total miles traveled<br />Total fuel consumed<br />Fuel type (e.g., diesel, electric, compressed natural gas)<br />Vehicle type<br />Average passenger load <br />
    26. 26. GHG Emissions Per Passenger<br />B<br />A<br />C<br />F<br />D<br />X<.0253 Kg CO2 EQ PPM<br />.<br />X>.0253 Kg CO2 EQ PPM or <.0506 Kg EQ PPM<br />X>.0506 Kg CO2 EQ PPM or <.1265 Kg EQ PPM<br />X>.1265 Kg CO2 EQ PPM or <.253 Kg EQ PPM<br />X>.253 Kg CO2 EQ PPM<br />“Sustainable Zone”<br />75 - 200 Points<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Alternative Fuels<br />
    29. 29. Educational Programs<br />
    30. 30.
    31. 31. ECO-DRIVER EDUCATION<br />Eco-driving is: a set of simple driving habits that result in using less fuel, generating fewer emissions, and increasing safety. <br />Eco driving is economical and better for the environment/ecosystem.<br />The typical eco driver can increase fuel efficiency 10-30%.<br />
    32. 32. Carbon Offsets<br />
    33. 33. Waste Management – Points<br />
    34. 34. Marketing Support<br />Website<br />Logoed listings on travel sites<br />Turnkey materials<br />Macro level PR initiative with partners<br />Road-show<br />
    35. 35. Sustainable Transportation Certification Program Launch <br />WINTER 2012<br />
    36. 36. References<br />Anderson, L.E., L.C. Chase, D.Kestenbaum, and C. Mastrangelo. “Adopting Sustainable Transportation Practices: The Relationship Between Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors and Support for Green Certification,” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation (in review). <br />Black, William R., and Noriyuki Sato. “From Global Warming to Sustainable Transport 1989-2006,” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 2007, pp. 73-89.<br />Crist, P. “Transport Demand Management: Insights From Eco-Driving and Corporate Mobility Management,” International Transport Forum, Leipzig, Germany, May 28-30, 2008. <br />Luers, Amy L., Michael D. Mastrandrea, Katharine Hayhoe, and Peter C. Frumhoff. “How to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change: A Target for U.S. Emissions Reductions,” Union of Concerned Scientists, 2007, retrieved February 15, 2011 from www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/global_warming/emissions-target-report.pdf.<br />Lumsdon, Les, Paul Downward, and Steven Rhoden. “Transport for Tourism: Can Public Transport Encourage a Modal Shift in the Day Visitor Market?” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 14, Issue 2, 2006, pp. 139-156.<br />Mastrangelo, C., L.E. Anderson, L.C. Chase, and David Kestenbaum. “Green Transportation for Tourism: Assessing Demand for Ecolabels,” Compendium of papers for the Transportation Research Board 89th annual meeting, 2010, Report 10-3290.<br />Nathan Associates Inc. Motorcoach Census Update 2009, 2010, retrieved August 24, 2010 from www.buses.org/files/Motorcoach%20Census%20Update%202009.pdf. <br />Potter, Stephen. “Exploring Approaches Towards a Sustainable Transport System,” International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 2007, pp. 115-131.<br />United States Department of Transportation (USDOT). Transportation’s Role in Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Volume 2 Synthesis Report: Report to Congress, 2010, Report 01159301.<br />United States Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2008, 2010, Report 430-R-10-006.<br />United Nations Environmental Program Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chance (UNEP-IPCC). Working Group I First Assessment Report, 2007.<br />National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, retrieved July 18, 2011 from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/global.html<br />National Park Service. Pacific West Region Green Accomplishments from the Past Year, retrieved July 19, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/climatefriendlyparks/downloads/Green-Voice/GV-Climate-Friendly-Region.pdf<br />National Park Service . Climate Friendly Parks Whiskeytown National Recreation Area Action Plan,retrieved July 19, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/climatefriendlyparks/downloads/Action%20Plans%20and%20Inventories/whis-final-cfp-action-plan.pdf<br />National Park Service. Climate Friendly Parks Cape Cod National Seashore Action Plan, retrieved July 19, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/caco/parkmgmt/climate-friendly-parks-program-at-cape-cod-national-seashore.htm<br />National Park Service. Climate Friendly Parks Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Action Plan, retrieved July 19 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/climatefriendlyparks/parks/SEKI.html<br />

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