CAPCO Classroom
Aerosol Adventure Kit
for grades 4-9

• Teacher’s Guide
• Classroom Activities
• Experiments
• Student Mat...
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                2
Dear Educator:

                    Thank you for your interest in teaching your students about aerosol technology.

     ...
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                4
Table of Contents
Section 1: Aerosols and CFCs
      Background About Aerosol Products: History and Facts ...................
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               6
Integrating the Kit
into Your Curriculum
CAPCO is aware that educators must tailor their curriculum to       How it Can Fi...
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                8
Section 1:
Aerosols and CFCs
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                10
Teaching Materials                                                                                                        ...
Teaching Materials                                                                                        Aerosols and CFC...
Teaching Materials                                               Aerosols and CFCs




      Chlorofluorocarbons: FACT vs....
Teaching Materials                                                                                           Aerosols and ...
Teaching Materials                                                                            Activity: Scavenger Hunt

Pr...
Teaching Materials                                                                             Activity: Scavenger Hunt


...
Student Materials                                                                            Activity: Scavenger Hunt


Pr...
Student Materials                                                         Activity: Scavenger Hunt

You can use this chart...
Teaching Materials                                                                      Activity: The Aerosol Collection

...
Teaching Materials                                                                    Activity: The Aerosol Collection

  ...
Student Materials                                                                     Activity: The Aerosol Collection


A...
Student Materials                                                                Activity: The Aerosol Collection

       ...
Student Materials                                                                    Activity: The Aerosol Collection


St...
Teaching Materials                                                              Activity: The Gelatin Party


Activity 2:
...
Teaching Materials                                                                            Activity: The Gelatin Party
...
Teaching Materials                                                                             Activity: The Gelatin Party...
Student Materials                                                                               Activity: The Gelatin Part...
Student Materials                                                                          Activity: The Gelatin Party


S...
Student Materials                                                                     Activity: The Gelatin Party


Step 5...
Student Materials   Activity: The Gelatin Party




            30               www.nocfcs.org
Teaching Materials                                                          Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model

Activity...
Teaching Materials                                                              Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model

Proc...
Teaching Materials                                                  Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model


Another reminde...
Student Materials                                                              Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model

Activ...
Student Materials                                                            Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model


Step 4...
Teaching Materials                                                                               Activity 4: The Big Surve...
Teaching Materials                                                                              Activity 4: The Big Survey...
Teaching Materials                                                   Activity 4: The Big Survey

When the data are all col...
Student Materials                                                                             Activity 4: The Big Survey

...
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products
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Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products

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This is a teacher's kit filled with lessons and experiments to help students learn the science behind aerosol spray products, how they are made, and how they interact with our environment. Please contact the Consumer Aerosol Product Association: admin@aerosolproducts.org, if you have any questions.

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Capco Teacher's Kit for Aerosol Spray Products

  1. 1. CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit for grades 4-9 • Teacher’s Guide • Classroom Activities • Experiments • Student Materials Everything you need to teach about the Earth’s protective upper ozone layer, CFCs and aerosol products
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  3. 3. Dear Educator: Thank you for your interest in teaching your students about aerosol technology. The Consumer Aerosol Products Council’s (CAPCO) Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit contains all of the materials educators need to teach students about the Earth’s protective upper ozone layer, CFCs and aerosol products in a fun and active way. Prepared with the guidance of middle school science teachers, the Kit will aid educators in explaining the basic scientific principles of how aerosols work. Some of these principles include suspensions, the behavior of gases under pressure, gases as propellants and the effect of physical changes and chemical reactions. CAPCO is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to correcting the public misconcep- tion that aerosol products contribute to depletion of the Earth’s upper ozone layer. Because CFCs have been replaced as the propellant in nearly all consumer aerosol products sold in the U.S., “It’s O.K. to Spray!” The CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit includes a teacher’s guide, classroom activities, student materials and experiments as well as the DVD, “Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure” by the producers of “Beakman’s World.” These materials are easily integrated into teachers’ curriculum and can be downloaded free of charge from CAPCO’s website, www.nocfcs.org. Feel free to share this kit with other teachers at your school, or to copy the materials. We hope you enjoy the CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit and find it a useful addition to your lesson plans. Please help us continue to make this education unit the best it can be by letting us know what you think. You can contact us through our website or by calling (703) 683-1044. We hope you and your class have fun with your aerosol adventure! The Consumer Aerosol Products Council ©2007, Consumer Aerosol Products Council (CAPCO) 3 www.nocfcs.org
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  5. 5. Table of Contents Section 1: Aerosols and CFCs Background About Aerosol Products: History and Facts ................................................................................................11 Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire ....................................................................................................................................12 CFC Quiz: Chlorofluorocarbons: “Fact vs. Fiction” ..........................................................................................................13 Pre Activity: Scavenger Hunt ..............................................................................................................................................15 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................17 Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection....................................................................................................................................19 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................21 Activity 2: The Gelatin Party............................................................................................................................................24 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................27 Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model ............................................................................................................................31 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................34 Activity 4: The Big Survey ................................................................................................................................................36 Student Materials for Photocopying ..................................................................................................................................39 Section 2: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer Instruction Guide: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer ............................................................................................47 Ozone Q&A For Instructors................................................................................................................................................48 Student Activities (In-class or take-home): Activity 5: “It’s Atmospheric!” Crossword Puzzle ..........................................................................................................50 Activity 6: Our Atmosphere and the Ozone Layer ........................................................................................................51 Activity 7: Atmosphere & Ozone Rap Poem/Song ..........................................................................................................52 Activity 8: Ozone Depletion Worksheet ..........................................................................................................................53 Activity 9: Whole Body Ozone Chemistry ......................................................................................................................54 Activity 10: Mock Trial......................................................................................................................................................65 Activity Sheet Answer Keys ..........................................................................................................................................80 Section 3: Lab Time! Lab Blueprint: For Organizing Your Experiment and Exploring Results ........................................................................85 Labs (In-class or take-home): Experiment 1: Testing for Ground-Level Ozone (Easy to Moderate) ..........................................................................87 Experiment 2: Correlating Aerosol Knowledge and Consumer Use (Moderate)......................................................90 Experiment 3: Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from the Ground (Moderate to Advanced) ....................................92 Experiment 4: Measuring Atmospheric Ozone from Satellite (Moderate to Advanced) ..........................................94 Experiment 5: The Effect of Increased UV Levels in Population Growth (Moderate to Advanced) ........................96 Sample Lab Report ..........................................................................................................................................................98 5 www.nocfcs.org
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  7. 7. Integrating the Kit into Your Curriculum CAPCO is aware that educators must tailor their curriculum to How it Can Fit into Your Earth or meet State Standards Of Learning (SOLs), determined by grade Environmental Sciences Curriculum and subject area. The CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit If you are investigating such topics as states of matter, atmos- has been designed with your needs in mind and to be easily pheric science, or the environment, the activities in the Kit will integrated into existing teaching structures and methods. It is provide support and reinforcement of existing lesson plans. an excellent complement to basic materials. Some of the activities involve information collection, but others focus on experimentation with what happens when gases are The Kit’s activities get progressively more challenging as stu- compressed and how a propellant works in an aerosol product. dents master the scientific principles of aerosol technology. The activities are particularly well-suited to incorporate into As a teacher, it is up to you to determine which parts of the Kit Earth or Environmental sciences. you implement and use in your classroom. There are three basic sections: How it Can Fit with Your Social Science Curriculum Section 1: Exercises and activities in the Kit include surveying public The first section will help you determine your students’ opinion and analyzing data from the survey. Your students can understanding of aerosols, CFCs and the atmosphere. It develop basic surveying skills that they can use in a number of includes lessons and guides for teaching the material as well as different social science contexts later on. homework assignments and activities to introduce students to the basic principles. Cross-Curriculum Possibilities It is also recommended that your class views the video, While engaged in the activities in this package, your students “Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure,” in this first stage of will have the opportunity to work across the curriculum. In instruction. addition to science, they will be using mathematics (measuring, calculating, estimating, graphing), social studies (surveying Section 2: opinion), language arts (vocabulary, poetry, designing presentations), and graphic arts (structuring visual displays The second section contains fun, hands-on activities that are and layouts). grade-appropriate and that will give your students more in-depth knowledge of what aerosols are and how they work. These activities present numerous exercises to further explore the science of aerosols, and even provide a variety of cross- curriculum options. Section 3: CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit The third section includes labs developed by science teacher for grades 4-9 Michael Baer of South Adams JR/SR High School in Berne, • Teacher’s Guide • Classroom Activities Indiana. These experiments allow students who have attained a • Experiments solid understanding of the scientific principles of aerosol and • Student Materials atmospheric science, to take their knowledge a step further. Everything you need to teach about They can be done at home or in the classroom. A sample lab report is also included in this section. 7 www.nocfcs.org
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  9. 9. Section 1: Aerosols and CFCs
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  11. 11. Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs Background About Aerosol Products: History: In the early 1970s, U.S. producers of aerosol products and Thousands of communities now include aerosol products in packaging voluntarily phased out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) both household residential and curbside buy-back and drop-off as the propellant in consumer aerosol products. CFCs were programs. Most aerosol cans are made of steel. Aluminum theorized to cause upper ozone layer depletion so the aerosol aerosol cans and containers are also recyclable. Check with industry was quick to develop alternative propellants including your local recycling coordinator or aluminum collection site for propane, butane, isobutane, nitrogen and nitrous oxide, details about recycling in your area. Many recyclers are not depending upon the product. aware that the U.S. EPA recommends that all aerosol products (including pesticide containers) are recycled once they are In 1978, the U.S. government passed official regulations ban- empty. ning CFC propellants in nearly all consumer aerosol products produced and sold in the United States. An exception was You can help our environment by encouraging your school and made for some unique medical uses such as inhalers. community to accept empty aerosol cans along with other metal containers. The Steel Recycling Institute can provide In 1987, much of the world came together to sign the more information about recycling. Call 1-800-876-7274 or visit Montreal Protocol. Through this international agreement, www.recycle-steel.org. more than 190 countries have agreed to ban the use of CFCs, including their use as propellants in consumer aerosol prod- For more information on recycling in your community visit ucts. Consumers can now be assured that “It’s O.K. to Spray!” www.earth911.org. and consumer aerosol products do not pose a threat to the Earth’s upper ozone layer. Inhalant Abuse: There are some consumer products (both aerosol and non- As a result of the Montreal Protocol, evidence that the ozone aerosols) that can be abused by “huffing.” If you would like layer is repairing itself has recently been reported by the more information or educational materials for students or National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1 adults on inhalation abuse, contact The Alliance for Consumer Education at www.inhalant.org. To learn more about the Montreal Protocol and how the upper ozone layer is repairing itself, visit: http://www.epa.gov/ozone/2007stratozoneprogressreport.html Recycling: Aerosol products ARE recyclable, just like any other empty steel container! Given the public’s concern about solid waste disposal, the aerosol industry teamed with the steel industry to promote the collection of empty aerosol cans in recycling programs nation- wide. 1 Saiyid, Amena H. “Ozone Depletion, Ozone Hole at ‘Early Stage of Recovery,’ But Progress Still Slow, NOAA Scientists Say.” BNA Daily Environmental Report, August, 2006. 11 www.nocfcs.org
  12. 12. Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire Purpose: To find out what people know about aerosol products. Instructions: Read each statement carefully, then tell us how much you agree or disagree with that statement by checking the box that best fits with your ideas: # STATEMENTS: Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Not Certain 1 Aerosol products such as hairspray and spray deodorants can be bad for the environment 2 Aerosol products are useful 3 Aerosol products harm the upper ozone layer 4 Aerosol containers can be recycled 5 Most of today’s aerosol products contain CFCs For more information and fact sheets on aerosol products and aerosols and the environment, visit www.nocfcs.org. 12 www.nocfcs.org
  13. 13. Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons: FACT vs. FICTION Read each statement and decide if it is Fact or Fiction, then circle the correct answer. 1. Aerosol products made or sold in the United States contain CFCs. FACT or FICTION 2. In the United States, all aerosol products have a “No CFC” logo. FACT or FICTION 3. Until 1978, some aerosol products did contain CFCs, which were linked to upper ozone layer depletion. FACT or FICTION 4. In 1978, the federal government passed regulations to protect the upper ozone layer and banned CFCs from aerosol products. FACT or FICTION 5. After 1987, many more countries joined the U.S. and chose to protect the upper ozone layer by banning CFCs. FACT or FICTION 6. There was a “hole” in the upper ozone layer. FACT or FICTION 7. As a result of the Montreal Protocol, the upper ozone layer is progressively healing itself. FACT or FICTION 13 www.nocfcs.org
  14. 14. Teaching Materials Aerosols and CFCs TEACHER’S ANSWER KEY: Read each statement and decide if it is Fact or Fiction, then cir- 4. In 1978, the federal government passed a regulation to cle the correct answer. protect the upper ozone layer and banned CFCs from aerosol products. 1. Aerosol products made or sold in the United States FACT or FICTION contain CFCs. FACT or FICTION Explanation: In the mid-1970s many companies that produced certain Explanation: aerosol products voluntarily removed CFCs after scientific Consumer aerosol products in the United States do not contain research suggested that CFCs were harmful to the upper ozone CFCs, with exception to some unique medical products such as layer. Then in 1978, the EPA and two other federal agencies asthma inhalers. CFCs were used as a propellant in some passed a mandatory ban on CFCs in all consumer aerosol aerosol products manufactured before 1978, but the U.S. products. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) banned CFC propellants in the U.S. in 1978. 5. After 1987, many more countries joined the U.S. and chose to protect the upper ozone layer by banning CFCs. 2. In the United States, all aerosol products have FACT or FICTION a “No CFC” logo. FACT or FICTION Explanation: In 1987, countries around the world signed the Montreal Explanation: Protocol and banned CFCs to protect the Earth’s upper ozone Many aerosol products do have a “No CFC” logo to serve as a layer. Over 190 countries have signed the Montreal Protocol. reminder to consumers. You can easily find an example of this Other countries are still working towards banning CFCs. to show your students. However, many other product manufac- turers to date have chosen not to put a “No CFC” logo on the label, primarily for aesthetic reasons. 6. There was a “hole” in the upper ozone layer. FACT or FICTION 3. Until 1978, some aerosol products did contain Explanation: CFCs, which were linked to upper ozone layer depletion. The term “hole” is misleading. The upper ozone layer above FACT or FICTION Antarctica experienced significant thinning, but there was never a hole. Explanation: It was not until the 1970s that scientific research theorized that CFCs harm the upper ozone layer. 7. As a result of the Montreal Protocol, the upper ozone layer is progressively healing itself. FACT or FICTION Explanation: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has predicted that by 2060 to 2075, the upper ozone layer will be back to the way it was prior to 1980. 14 www.nocfcs.org
  15. 15. Teaching Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt Pre-Activity: Scavenger Hunt Aerosol products are used by many people for a wide variety of Prep Time useful purposes. This pre-activity is an investigation that will You may want to conduct your own scavenger hunt before help students see the diversity of products that come in assigning this activity to your students. aerosol containers and their many uses. To do this, they will engage in a Scavenger Hunt to collect information about aerosol products. They will focus on just three different aerosol products, and will collect information on them using a data chart. The information your students collect in this Pre-Activity will be used in Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection. Safety Considerations for the CAPCO Classroom Aerosol Adventure Kit PLEASE NOTE: Before your students begin this activity, you will need to complete the Aerosol Store all aerosol products in your classroom where Knowledge Questionnaire to establish what they they will be away from heat and risk of punctures. already know about aerosol products. This will It is best to use cans that deliver personal care form baseline information for comparison when products, such as shaving cream, or food products, they have completed all the activities in this learn- such as whipped cream. Although you may not ing package. The Questionnaire can be found at want to use empty cans, it would be best to find the beginning of this kit. those that only have a little product left in them to avoid the possibility of being accidentally discharged. What do students already know? If you have already shown the “Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure” video to your students, then it is reasonable to assume that they will have a broader understanding of aerosol products than they did before viewing it. If you have chosen not to show the video prior to this activity (perhaps because you prefer to use it at a later stage), then you can make even fewer assumptions about their prior understanding of aerosol products. Background Aerosol products that your students may find include spray paint, air freshener, cleaners, disinfectants, hair spray, hair mousse, whipped cream, deodorant, bug spray, etc. For the lesson after the Aerosol Scavenger Hunt (Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection), students should bring in their completed Scavenger Hunt Information Chart to share. They will be working with the other members of the class in small groups. They also will be drawing on the aerosol picture poster display around the room for ideas and information for Activity 1. 15 www.nocfcs.org
  16. 16. Teaching Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt Procedure Pulling it All Together Arrange for your students to make an Aerosol Picture Take time at the end of the Pre-Activity for students to share Gallery by bringing in pictures of aerosol products they find in what they found in their Aerosol Scavenger Hunt. You may their homes, in newspaper advertising supplements or in wish to have groups pool their charts so that each group magazines. produces one composite chart. These can be enlarged to poster size (using chart paper or poster board) and shared Students may prefer to take photographs of their can samples with the entire class. rather than draw them. Some may even collaborate to video- tape their scavenger hunts. Ask your students to focus All of the charts, whether individual or group efforts, will need particularly on the type of delivery system the can uses. to be brought to class for Activity 1. A photocopy master of this information chart is included at Stress the point that your students will be using scientific the end of this section. You and your students may think that processes throughout the CAPCO Classroom Aerosol another design would do a better job. You also may want to Adventure Kit. design a chart using a computer program. You may want to ask your students if they can list some of the For the Aerosol Scavenger Hunt, you could ask your things that scientists do when they investigate a problem. students to take the chart home for a few days, or even a weekend, to see what they can find out about aerosol Collect their thoughts and make a whole class list on the products at home or from looking through magazines. board. The Aerosol Picture Gallery: The aerosol drawings and pictures from magazines that students bring in can be put up on posters around the room. Students will need to refer to this display later in Activity 1. For Activity 1, students should bring in their completed Scavenger Hunt Information Chart to share. They will be working with other members of the class in small groups. 16 www.nocfcs.org
  17. 17. Student Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt Pre-Activity: Scavenger Hunt Getting Started You are going to start your investigation by going on a scav- enger hunt to find examples of different aerosol products. This should be done ahead of time to help you to begin your investigation. You are going to search for examples of aerosol products in your home, in advertisements, in magazines or on coupons. Your teacher will help you to organize and get started. During the Aerosol Scavenger Hunt you will need to look for as many different aerosol products as you can find. You may find some in your home or in advertisements. The Assignment Find three different products using aerosol technology, observe them closely, collect information about each one and record the data on a sheet your teacher will give you. Make a drawing of each product. Be sure to be clear and complete. Remember to bring all your drawings and observation information to class for Activity 1. 17 www.nocfcs.org
  18. 18. Student Materials Activity: Scavenger Hunt You can use this chart for recording information about the 3 aerosol products You have found, or adapt it to suit your particular needs. Scavenger Hunt Information Chart Items Aerosol X Aerosol 1 Aerosol 2 Aerosol 3 (for example only) Name of Product Whippy Type of Product Whipped cream (food) Metal (steel or alu- Type of can minum? Could you test with a magnet to find out?) Nozzle that gets pushed Delivery method sideways Contents Cream, whipping gas, etc. Advantages Convenient, can direct spray, stays fresh Disadvantages Can’t see contents, cap falls off easily, can’t be refilled Warnings/cautions Don’t puncture, don’t burn, keep cool Special notes Can can be recycled Any other items? Lots of information printed on can 18 www.nocfcs.org
  19. 19. Teaching Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection Prep Time This activity is designed to introduce your students to aerosols Make a collection of aerosol products that your students can as a topic of investigation. To do this, they will use the informa- use for this activity. It would help to enlist the aid of other tion on aerosol products that they collected in the Pre- faculty to contribute to the class collection. Activity, The Aerosol Picture Gallery in the room and a collection of aerosol products that you will provide. Your Procedure students may have a good sense of the variety of aerosol products available for the home market. They may not, 1. You may want to take some time prior to this activity to ask however, know that aerosol products are used in medicine, your students if they know of any types of specialized aerosol industry, art and a number of other areas. products. Some used in dentistry, for example, have a numbing effect on tissues. This spray lets the dentist work on a patient This activity is geared towards younger students, and teachers without pain to the gum tissue. of grades 7-9 may want to go directly to Activity 3. Certain kinds of art media, such as chalks, get “fixed” onto Your students will first be working in small collaborative paper with an aerosol product. This keeps the chalk from groups, and then as a whole class, to determine the key points rubbing off later. about aerosols: the variety of aerosol products, different ways in which they are used and the advantages and disadvantages of using them. After finding some key points, each group will Give your students time to think before they begin the activity. specialize in one aspect of aerosols, using the information they Then, list on the board any specialized aerosol products they collect to produce a poster displaying their findings. may know about. Teaching Objectives: 2. You will be asking each group to design and make a poster To raise awareness of the different varieties of which will inform others about their aerosol specialty. Let your aerosol products students use their charts and posters as review guides. To establish groundwork for further discussion Making the posters will help the students to collect Skills: information and focus on just one aspect of aerosol products. Each student group then can become the “experts” in that • Investigation, classification, discussion, creative area. They can be consulted by other groups as they build up a thinking, organization complete picture of aerosol products. Materials: • Pre-Activity Scavenger Hunt sheet (page 30) • Various aerosol can products from household • Poster board • The Aerosol Picture Gallery created during the Pre-Activity 19 www.nocfcs.org
  20. 20. Teaching Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Pulling it All Together Some ideas for the core concepts for these Take time at the end of the activity to help your students pull posters might include: together all their discoveries about aerosol products into a list • Uses: clean ovens, hold hair in place, disinfect of Key Facts About Aerosol Products. wounds, cover a surface with paint, eliminate odors, etc. NOTE: This may be done using a chalkboard chart. • Can materials: steel, aluminum You may also create a chart to hand out to each student. • Components: upright nozzles, “press-down” valves, valves with a directional attachment, etc. • Delivery forms: mist, streams, foams, gels, etc. Safety Considerations • Contents: read labels for this information For This Activity Store all aerosol products in your classroom where • Advantages: delivers product precisely, provides large they will be away from heat and risk of punctures. amount of product in a small storage space, delivers It is best to use cans that deliver personal care ready-to-use product, can be recycled, doesn’t spill, does products, such as shaving cream or food products, not require contact with skin to apply (e.g., disinfectant), such as whipped cream. Although you may not is air- tight, tamper-resistant, and can sit on a shelf for a want to use empty cans, it would be best to find long time those that only have a little product left in them to avoid the possibility of being accidentally dis- • Disadvantages: can’t see contents, requires special charged. handling, actuator on some products can get clogged, needs to stay away from sources of heat, etc. • Warnings and cautions: container can’t be punctured as it is under pressure, must be kept away from direct heat sources 3. The poster display: The posters can be put up around the room and students can go on a tour to see what each of the groups has discovered. Each touring group should take notes on any new information they see displayed about aerosol prod- ucts so that everyone has a common knowledge base. 4. Each group should be asked to make a short presentation about their poster. 20 www.nocfcs.org
  21. 21. Student Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Activity 1: The Aerosol Collection There are many things about aerosol products that you might With your teacher’s help, post up all the aerosol product not have noticed before. Like many things we use and see drawings to make up the Aerosol Picture Gallery. Also, every day, there is much more to them than meets the eye. organize a display table for The Aerosol Collection. Only when we observe them closely and ask questions do we begin to understand more about them. In this activity, you and your group are going to become investigators finding out about one important area of aerosols. Your teacher will divide you into groups, and each group will look at a certain aspect of aerosol products. Finally, all the information will be shared and, together with your teacher, you will make a list of Key Facts About Aerosol Products. Step 1 Everyone should have helped to collect data about aerosol products ahead of time. You also will have looked for examples of them in your home or in advertisements, magazines or coupons, and drawn pictures of them. These drawings now should be ready for display so that others can examine them. Safety Warning In addition, your teacher will have collected and brought in some actual aerosol products for The Aerosol Collection. Do not activate any of the aerosol cans, even if they seem to be empty, unless your teacher asks you to do so. 21 www.nocfcs.org
  22. 22. Student Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection • Different types of buttons and nozzles, and why Step 2 we need them • Information about contents written on the cans • Advantages of using aerosol products • Disadvantages of using aerosol products • Warnings and cautions and their reasons • Directions for use Together with your teacher, decide which group is going to specialize in which area (or areas). Once this is decided, your group must try to find out as much as it can about its specialist area by: With your group, take some time to study the Aerosol Picture • Observing real cans and drawings carefully Gallery and your Scavenger Hunt Chart. Keep these ques- tions in mind while you are doing this: • Noting all the ideas you have about your specialist area(s) based on your observations • What do all aerosol products seem to have in common? • Agreeing on the most likely reasons for the can • What differences do aerosols have? being the way it is • What different kinds of products come in aerosol cans? Now discuss these questions in your group. Make a note of the things you have observed about each question. Record this information on the chart your teacher has given you. Step 3 Now your group is going to specialize in one area of aerosol products. Here are some sample areas. If you can think of any others, add them to this list. • Different shapes of cans • Range of different aerosol products • Materials from which aerosol products are made 22 www.nocfcs.org
  23. 23. Student Materials Activity: The Aerosol Collection Step 4 Step 6 Now your group is going to make a poster showing what you With your teacher’s help, you are going to review all the things have discovered about your aerosol specialty. You first must about aerosol products that you have discovered from your decide the best way to do this so that others can easily see and investigations. understand. Be prepared to explain your poster to others. Because each group specialized in a different aerosol area, you need to be sure that you understand what other groups have done. This is your chance to ask any questions about other groups’ areas. If you are not clear about something, ask the specialists for clarification. Step 7 Finally, your teacher will help you create a list called: Key Facts About Aerosol Products. Step 5 Each group can now pin up its poster for everyone else to see and discuss. It may be helpful if each group, in turn, gives a short presenta- tion to explain the reasons for the information group members have included in the poster. Organize a space This list will be the ideas you found during your investigation. where the posters can As you learn more about aerosol products and the science be left on display for behind them, you may need to revise, change or add to this later reference. list. Keep this list for future reference (or make your own copy). What other questions can you ask about aerosol products? 23 www.nocfcs.org
  24. 24. Teaching Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Activity 2: The Gelatin Party This activity will show your students how a gas can expand. It also will let your students investigate the difference in volume Teaching Objectives: between the contents of an aerosol product and the discharged • To introduce the concept of pressure and amount. Using whipped cream, your students will work propellants in aerosol cans collaboratively to measure the discharged product as it is sprayed out of the can. • To give students a better understanding of how volume and pressure work together They will then record this amount and compare it, mathematically, to the can’s volume. (Directions for finding • To establish the use of metric units in the can’s volume by water displacement are given.) collecting data This will help them see the effects of putting the can’s contents Skills: under pressure. When the pressure drops, as it does outside the can, the volume of the contents increases. The discharged • Investigation, measuring, collecting data whipped cream can be put to good use by having a gelatin party as the closing event for this activity. Materials: Your students may already have wondered at some time how so much whipped cream can come out of an aerosol can. If they have read the label, they will know that the contents are under pressure. Most of them, however, will not have any real understanding of what “under pressure” means. This activity will help them get a mathematical sense of the difference in volume between the contents in the can of whipped cream and the contents when it comes out of the can. You will build on this knowledge using later activities in this package that will help students understand expansion and • Whipped cream in aerosol can contraction of gases in aerosol cans. • 4-5 10-oz beakers or graduated cylinders Background The gas inside aerosol products, the propellant, which is • Stack of clear 10-oz cups dissolved in the other ingredients, pushes the product out of the can. • Computer or calculator There are two types of propellants used in aerosol products: • Paper towels compressed gases, which are present only in a gaseous form, and liquefied propellants, which are gases at room temperature • 2 boxes of gelatin (optional) and pressure, and liquid under higher pressure. The majority of consumer aerosol products use liquefied propellants, most of which are naturally occurring hydrocarbons such as propane and butane. Propellants are under pressure inside the aerosol 24 www.nocfcs.org
  25. 25. Teaching Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party can; outside the aerosol can, the pressure is less. In nature, as Prep Time can be seen with air masses in the atmosphere, gases move 1. You will need to arrange for a room outside of the science from areas of high pressure to lower pressure. In an aerosol lab for this activity as your students will both be handling and product, when the valve is opened, the product moves through eating food. the dip tube and out of the can. When it comes out into the air, the gas expands. 2. You also need to send home a permission slip just in case Aerosol Fact you have any students who can’t have sucrose (table sugar) or lactose. The gelatin desserts will need to be made and chilled CFCs have been banned in the U.S. for consumer in advance. If the cost of the whipped cream is a problem, you aerosol products since 1978. An exception has been could do this activity as a demonstration, but still have the made for some unique medical uses such as inhalers. gelatin party for the whole class. Your students may think that some aerosol products 3. The whipped cream and gelatin will need to be chilled (deodorant, for example) seem to have less product than other until your students are ready to use them. packaging forms (i.e., stick). This may be because there appears to be empty space inside the can. In most aerosol 4. Your students will spray whipped cream into clean 10-oz products, a small amount of space is needed to enable the plastic cups. To make this job easier, each of the students in a product to work. This space contains the gaseous propellant particular group will have a specific job: one will be in charge and prevents rupture or distortion of the can. of spraying, one will measure volume, one will record, and one will collect and take back the materials. Metric measuring Demonstration Option devices for students to copy and cut out are provided in the back of this activity. If your budget is limited, or you are concerned about creating a mess in the classroom, you may want to do the activity as a demonstration for the whole class. In Determining the Volume of a Can this case, you can ask two student groups to do the One way to determine the volume of a can is to see spraying and measuring for the whole class. how much water the can displaces. These are the steps you should use: Two groups will give enough data for comparison, but will keep the expense and mess to a minimum (and Step 1. Fill a large container with water all the way to you will still have enough whipped cream for the the top party). Step 2. Put the water-filled container in a pan to hold the overflow which will spill over the top when you The propellants in whipped cream are compressed gases and put the aerosol can in the water are used to push product out of the can and to provide an aeration effect, i.e., whipped cream. You can simulate the Step 3. Place the whipped cream can completely action of the gas in whipped cream by whipping a pint of heavy under the water cream for your students. This will give them some sense of how much the addition of a gas can inflate a product. Step 4. Measure the volume of the overflow water now in the pan by putting it in a measuring cup 25 www.nocfcs.org
  26. 26. Teaching Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Procedure Your students can compare this calculated value with their measured value from the experiment. A typical can of whipped 1. Students will do a displacement exercise to find the volume cream has a discharged volume that is about 1.5 times greater of the whipped cream can. They will then use their calculators than the undercharged volume of the can. to figure out how much greater the discharged volume of whipped cream is than the volume of the can. They can do this by dividing the discharged volume by the estimated can vol- 5. To whip heavy cream, place it in a chilled stainless steel bowl. Beat it at high speed with an electric mixer until it is still. ume. The value they get will tell them how many times the vol- Be sure to measure the volume before and after you whip the ume of the contents expanded when it was discharged. air into it. When the students are finished with the spraying and measur- ing, it would be a great time to have them put their whipped Pulling it All Together cream onto gelatin for a class party. Ask students to post their results for the “before and after” can volume on a chalkboard data chart. They also can list the val- 2. Advise your students that it would be a good idea to get ues that they calculated for how many times the volume some sense of the volume that their cups hold (in metric units) increased from inside the can to outside. before they start spraying whipped cream. They can tape the measuring strip (provided at the end of this section) to the Ask your students to look for agreement and disagreement side of a 10-oz. clear plastic cup. among the values. If you find some that are way off, ask stu- dents to look for the causes of this. It may have been a meas- urement error, or a calculation problem. The top and bottom diameters, and the height of the side for the appropriate type of cup have been provided on the photo- See if your students can come up with logical reasons for why copy page. If you have graduated cylinders available, then your the volumes inside and outside are so different. What inflates students can use these to verify the metric volumes at certain the whipped cream so much? heights on their 10-oz cups. This will ensure that they have the measuring strip taped in the correct position. If you have chosen to whip the heavy cream as a demonstra- tion for your students, they will be able to see what the incor- The cream won’t deflate immediately, but it has a tendency not poration of air into the cream can do for its volume. to keep its full volume for very long. If they have figured out how much the cups hold in advance, that will make the meas- uring process much smoother. 3. To provide another illustration of what happens when a gas Safety Considerations For This Activity mixed with a product expands, you can whip a pint of heavy Since your students will be working with and tast- cream into a metal bowl with a mixer. Be sure to record the ing food products, you will need to conduct this cream’s volume, both before and after it is whipped. As you activity outside the science classroom. You may beat air into the cream, its volume increases greatly. want to move to the cafeteria, a regular classroom or the Home Economics lab. Be sure that all mate- 4. Some of your students may be able to figure out the dis- rials used for containing and eating the food are charge volume by reading the can’s label carefully. Using the clean. part of the label where serving size information is provided, it is possible to figure out the discharged volume by multiplying the serving size volume by the number of servings per can. Two tablespoons are equivalent to one fluid ounce. 26 www.nocfcs.org
  27. 27. Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Activity 2: The Gelatin Party Make a Prediction Most aerosol cans seem to squirt out a lot of stuff. It’s as if the product you get is much more than the can appears to contain. In this activity, you will be working with your group to investi- Before you begin investigating, gate the difference between the volume inside a can of discuss what you think the likely whipped cream and the volume of the whipped cream when it result will be, based on your is sprayed. knowledge of aerosols. How many cups do you think the squirted out whipped cream is Step 1 most likely to fill up? Now make your PREDICTION Collect all the materials for your group: and record it like this: “My prediction is that the aerosol will deliver:” •aerosol can of whipped cream (unused) _______ cups, or •spoons (one for every person) _______ fluid ounces, or •stack of 10-oz clear plastic cups (about 10) _______ cubic centimeters •metric volume measuring strip •cups of gelatin (one for every person) Also record the reasons for your prediction: •paper towels •container large enough to hold the whipped cream can “The reasons for my prediction are:” •pan to hold water overflow •volume measure (such as a graduated cylinder or measuring cup) ___________________________________________ (Your teacher will arrange for either a large ___________________________________________ ice cooler or refrigerator to be available.) ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 27 www.nocfcs.org
  28. 28. Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Step 2 Step 4 This activity moves quickly, once you start spraying and meas- You can estimate the volume inside the can this way: uring whipped cream. You will need to divide the work so that: • one person is the sprayer • one is the measurer • one is the recorder • one is the materials manager (gets and takes back 1. Fill the large container materials) with water all the way to the top. 2. Place the water-filled container into a pan that will hold any overflow. 3. Hold the whipped cream can completely under the water. 4. Measure the volume of the overflow from the container by pouring it into a measuring cup. Step 3 Once all the materials are assembled and the recorder is ready, set up a row of cups and begin squirting the whipped cream in, cup by cup. It is important that each cup is filled to the same level each time. The recorder needs to be ready to write down the volume right away, before the whipped cream deflates. 28 www.nocfcs.org
  29. 29. Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party Step 5 Compare the estimated volume of the can with the discharged whipped cream volume. What is the difference? How many times greater is the discharged volume than the can volume? ( You can find this out by dividing the discharged vol- ume by the can volume.) THINGS TO THINK ABOUT • Were your results close to what you predicted? • How far off were you? • What do you think has to happen for the can volume to expand that much? • Watch your teacher demonstrate how cream is whipped. What is there about this process that can help you understand what is happening in the can? 29 www.nocfcs.org
  30. 30. Student Materials Activity: The Gelatin Party 30 www.nocfcs.org
  31. 31. Teaching Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Activity 3: Your students may have seen the effects of a gas under pres- sure when they shake up a soda bottle before opening it. The The Foaming Bottle Model contents of the bottle rush out when opened. This activity will let your students investigate the science of The gas that inflates whipped cream from an aerosol can is how aerosol propellants work and help them understand how under pressure inside the can; outside the can the pressure is the can works to deliver the product. less. When the valve on the aerosol opens, the gas carries the product through the dip tube and out of the can. The gas Your students will be generating carbon dioxide gas in plastic expands when it comes out into the air. 16-oz bottles to propel their product (dish detergent) out of the bottle. The model works on the principle that a gas will It is important that you make the distinction to your students move from an area of high pressure (inside the bottle) to an that the ingredients inside aerosol products are specially area of lower pressure (outside the bottle). matched to be chemically compatible. In other words, they don’t react to form other products. The ingredients that the Teaching Objectives: students are using for their model, vinegar and baking soda, do react to form a new product, carbon dioxide. In this respect, • To show how gases move from areas where they the foaming bottle model does not show the chemical compati- are under high pressure to areas where they are bility of aerosol ingredients. under lower pressure Demonstration Option • To review the concept of pressure and propellants If you are concerned about creating a mess, or in aerosol cans about your students investigating gases under pressure, you could do this activity as a demon- Skills: stration. • Investigation, classification, discussion, data collection Prep Time Materials: 1. You will need to collect 16-oz plastic soda bottles and large • Baking soda cafeteria trays prior to this activity. Each group of students will • Vinegar need to have a bottle and a tray covered with a paper towel to • 16-oz plastic bottles work on. If you don’t have sinks in your classroom, you will • Cafeteria trays or cookie sheets need to move somewhere where water is readily available for • Dish detergent cleaning up after each use. • Safety goggles 2. Make sure that your baking soda has not been sitting around the classroom too long, or you may not get the results Background you want. Your students probably will have heard the rush of gas as it escapes from an aerosol can. They will know by this time that 3. Students should wear safety splash goggles for this activity. the contents of the can are under pressure. When the valve on While all they are generating is carbon dioxide gas and soap the can is pressed, a pathway is opened to the outside air suds, soap in the eyes is a distinct possibility without protec- where the pressure is less. The propellant rushes out, taking tion. the other contents of the can with it. 4. Provide plenty of paper towels for this activity. 31 www.nocfcs.org
  32. 32. Teaching Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Procedure NOTE: It is up to you whether you want your stu- dents to actually try their methods of putting 1. Your students will first collect all of the needed materials and their gas under greater pressure. The safest cover a tray with paper towels. method is for you to mix the vinegar and baking soda in a demonstration bottle, briefly capping the bottle as the reaction occurs. 2. They will then put a bottle in the middle of the tray, and put the soap and vinegar into the bottle. 7. Your students could increase the pressure of the gas inside Note: The soap is added to the baking soda and their bottles by putting their hands over the bottles as the reac- vinegar mixture for a couple of reasons: it acts as tion occurs, then removing their hands. Be sure everyone is the “product” carried out of the container by the wearing goggles throughout this activity. gas, and it makes the reaction results easier to observe. Any household dish detergent will work fine. Liquid hand soap, however, will not give Safety Considerations for this Activity good results. Do not let your students put a cork or stopper into the end of the bottle, as it could fly out and hurt 3. Allow your students a chance to make their predictions and someone. record their reasons for them. Students must wear chemical splash goggles for 4. Add the baking soda to the bottle. When baking soda and this activity to keep soap suds out of their eyes. It vinegar are combined, they react to form a salt, water, and car- is also important to remind students to clean up bon dioxide gas. The reaction happens as soon as the chemi- any spills immediately, as soap suds are very slip- cals are combined, so warn your students to be ready! pery on the floor. This gas, when shaken with the soap, makes the soap foam. The foam will escape out of the bottle and onto the tray. Pulling it All Together Remind your students to use senses other than sight to make Ask your students to share their observations of the foaming observations during this investigation. Hearing and touch will bottle model at the end of the class period. If you choose to both come into play when observing the baking soda and vine- allow the students to put their gas under greater pressure, also gar reaction. ask them to share their methods for doing this. 5. You will need to set up a demonstration to show your stu- Ask your students to reflect on the foaming bottle as a model dents what happens when you shake the bottle. By doing this of what happens inside an aerosol can. as a demonstration, the soap suds are reduced and contained, and you can use the opportunity to question your students How is the foaming bottle a good model? (It shows how gases about what they think might happen, and what might be a bet- move from areas of high pressure to lower pressure. It also ter way of going about the task. shows how the gas can carry a product out of the container.) How could the foaming bottle be a better model? (It could con- 6. When the students have finished making their first foaming tain chemical compatible ingredients. It also could have a valve bottle, they will have a chance to brainstorm suggestions for to control the rate at which the product is delivered.) how they could put a gas under greater pressure before it escapes, and then try the activity again. How is the propellant in aerosol products kept from escaping from the can? 32 www.nocfcs.org
  33. 33. Teaching Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Another reminder for your students is that in aerosol products there is no chemical reaction taking place. This experiment does involve a chemical reaction in the making of carbon diox- ide. At this point, draw your students’ attention to the fact that the gas under pressure moved rapidly to where the pressure was less (outside the bottle). Ask them to draw a parallel between this and what happens in aerosol products. Using the DVD You may want to use the video “Another Awesome Aerosol Adventure” at this point to illustrate or emphasize some of the concepts that your students have been investigating. Refer to minutes 3:20 through 6:30 in the videotape to show how aerosol products work. 33 www.nocfcs.org
  34. 34. Student Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model You will be working with a group of your classmates to make Step 2 and test a model of what happens when a gas moves from a place where it is under high pressure to where it is under lower pressure. This is what happens with aerosol products. In It is important that your team is organized for this investiga- aerosol products, the gas inside (the propellant) is under such tion. It will take several pairs of hands to do this activity, so high pressure when the can’s valve is opened, the propellant you will need to divide up the work so that: rushes out to where the pressure is lower, taking the product with it. You will be using a chemical reaction to make the gas in • one person measures your model. This reaction is not what happens inside a real the vinegar, baking aerosol, but it is an easy way to demonstrate how a gas behaves soda and dish under pressure. detergent • one person adds the Step 1 ingredients to the bottle Collect all the materials for your group: • one person shakes the bottle • 16-oz plastic soda bottle without cap • liquid dish detergent • one person records observations and results • large tray • funnel • tablespoon measure Step 3 • baking soda • vinegar Everyone in the group • paper towels needs to put on goggles • safety goggles first. Cover your tray with paper towels and put the bottle in the middle of the tray. Once all the materials are assembled and the recorder is ready, two tablespoons of dish detergent and three tablespoons of vinegar should be put into the bottle. (The funnel will help with this.) Rinse and dry the funnel. 34 www.nocfcs.org
  35. 35. Student Materials Activity 3: The Foaming Bottle Model Step 4 Step 6 Put 2 tablespoons of baking soda Look over your recorded observations. Share what your group into the funnel, but keep your fin- has found with other groups in your class. ger over the end. Carefully put the funnel into the bottle and See what ideas other groups have had for increasing the pres- shake the baking soda into the sure of the gas inside the bottle. (This is carbon dioxide gas bottle. Put your finger over the that you were making. Carbon dioxide is the same gas that bottle and shake, then put it gives carbonated beverages their “fizz”, and is one of the gases down in the center of the tray. used as a propellant in a small percentage of aerosol products.) Did anyone in your class have any ideas for how to release the Safety Warning gas and the other ingredients with a valve? Do not place a cap on the bottle. Things to Think About Watch what happens to the contents. • Were your results close to what you predicted? If Record your observations. not, how can you account for the difference? Step 5 • How is the foaming bottle investigation like the release of a product from an aerosol? How is it dif- ferent? When you finish, talk over with your group members how it might be possible to increase the pressure of the gas inside the • What could you do to make the foaming bottle bottle. Discuss your ideas with your teacher. Rinse out the bot- more like what really happens with aerosol prod- tle and try the investigation again. Your teacher will do a ucts? Is it possible with the materials you have? demonstration later to show what happens when the pressure of the gas is increased. • What part of the foaming bottle was the propel- Prediction Point lant? What was the product? How did the differ- ence in pressure inside and outside the bottle • What do you think will happen to the bottle’s cause the propellant to work? Discuss some of contents when the gas in it is under greater these ideas with other people in your group. pressure? • Record your predictions and your reasons for them. 35 www.nocfcs.org
  36. 36. Teaching Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Activity 4: The Big Survey In this activity, your students will be pulling together what they Teaching Objectives: have learned so far about aerosol products to construct a sur- • To introduce the concept of social sciences in vey to discover what other people know and believe about order to understand public opinion aerosol products. Many people still mistakenly hold the belief that “aerosol products destroy the Earth’s upper ozone layer.” • To develop an understanding of surveys and their role in the sciences Before the activity, your students will have worked with you to choose their target audience for the survey. Each of them will • To build writing skills used for scientific have been responsible for identifying five people from that documents audience to survey. Skills: Your students will draw on a number of resources for back- ground information to use in constructing their survey. Other • Creativity, data collection, investigation, sources are the DVD and your students’ findings from the classification, evaluation, discussion, presenting activities. Although your students will work in small groups for results some of this activity, the survey that is finally produced will be a whole-class effort. Each of your students will give the survey Materials: to members of the identified target audience. The data from • Data chart the completed surveys will be pulled together, analyzed, and • Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire compared to the students’ own knowledge and beliefs. Background Prep Time Your students have probably completed surveys at one time or 1. Give your students enough notice that they will need to give another, or have seen survey forms in magazines or newspa- the survey to five people outside your class. pers. What they may not have done is design and conduct a survey. When designing a survey, it is important to be clear on the type and quality of information that you want to collect. 2. The class as a whole will need to decide which audience Your students first will be brainstorming, and then prioritizing they would like to survey about aerosols They may choose to the key points on which they may want to survey their audi- work with parents, another class in their school, members of ence. You may want to have some copies of commercial survey the community, teachers or other audiences. forms available for your students to use as models. They may want to focus in on the types of responses that are expected 3. Your students can use the Aerosol Knowledge from the survey subjects. Questionnaire for ideas. 36 www.nocfcs.org
  37. 37. Teaching Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Using the DVD 4. The data then will be collated and organized into a data You may want to use portions of the DVD to review chart. You will need to decide if a graph is the best way of some of the key ideas connected with aerosol showing patterns and relationships in the data. Allow students products. Some of the more controversial issues to post their results and see what they found. A whole-class related to aerosol products and the environment sharing session may also be effective. are dealt with in the video. This may help students clarify their own ideas about what they want to 5. Ask students to post or otherwise share their results from discover through their survey. Refer to minutes the survey. Look to see how the data naturally group them- 6:30 through 10:30 in the videotape to address selves. You may want to use percentages to show relationships, these issues. and then turn these into a bar graph. Procedure If you choose not to have students design their own survey 1. After pulling together their resources, your students will questionnaire, they can use the one provided at the end of this make a list of the five most important things they think that the activity. general public should understand about aerosol products. There are a variety of types of survey questions that your stu- dents could use. The important point to remember is that all of 2. Through sharing, the class will come up with a list of no the final questions for the survey will need to follow the same more than 10 items. They will divide this list so that each group format for the data to be easy to compare. gets one item to work on. Each group will write a survey ques- tion on their item, using the format that the class has agreed Some of the question forms include: upon. • Likert scale: usually a five point scale Help your students to focus not just on one aspect of aerosol ( for example, 5 = Strongly Agree to 1 = strongly products, but a combination of attitudes, stereotypes and gen- Disagree) eral knowledge. Some of the items on the lists that your stu- • True/False or Yes/No responses dents may come up with include: • Open-ended or fill-in-the-blank responses • Multiple choice responses • Wide variety of spray products and forms • How the cans work The survey questions that have respondents either checking or • Special delivery of products through aerosols circling their answers are easiest to score but limit the variety • History of CFCs and the ozone layer of responses. Open-ended questions can provide a great deal • Recyclability of cans of information on an item, but take a much longer time to • Removal of CFCs analyze. • Warnings on the label • Delivery of a controlled dose Since your students are probably beginners in survey design, • Advantages of an air-tight container encourage them to choose a simple type of question for this survey. Encourage your students to be creative as they brainstorm the important points about aerosol products. You will need to make copies of the students’ survey forms. If you have a student who is adept in word processing or desktop 3. After reviewing the items, you will need to print out copies publishing, enlist his or her services to lay out the survey so of the survey for your students to distribute and collect. that it is attractive, easy to read and easily completed. 37 www.nocfcs.org
  38. 38. Teaching Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey When the data are all collated from the survey, make up a whole-class chart with your students to display what they found. They will be comparing these data with what they them- selves thought about aerosol products during the Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire. Pulling it All Together When your students have completed their survey analysis, take time to let them complete the Aerosol Knowledge Questionnaire. When they have completed that, re-distribute their questionnaire results from the beginning of the program. Let them compare what they knew and believed then with their current knowledge and attitudes. Then ask your students to compare their answers with their survey results. How similar are the survey results to their answers before com- pleting the activities in this kit? How similar are the results to their answers after completing the activities? What would your students suggest be done about educating the public about aerosol products? Give them time to brain- storm to see what they think would work best. By analysis your students will be able to get some sense of any change in their knowledge of and attitudes about aerosol products. Take time with your students to look back over the experience. Did your students enjoy learning this way? What other topics would they like to investigate in a collaborative fashion? What other questions do they have about aerosol products that have not yet been answered? How could they find out these answers? 38 www.nocfcs.org
  39. 39. Student Materials Activity 4: The Big Survey Activity 4: The Big Survey We live in a world that is changing fast. Because of rapid com- Step 2 munications (Internet, cable television, cell phones, etc.), we get to hear about important discoveries, issues and news in a Before you design your survey, you need to be sure that you way which our grandparents could not have imagined when yourself understand the issues. To help you with this, please they were young. But, because we get so much information, visit the CAPCO website www.nocfcs.org, which has back- we tend to only remember those things that really concern us ground information on aerosol products and their relationship at the time. We do not always “update” our knowledge, and with the environment. this can mean that we continue to “believe” what we originally learned, even though it may no longer be true. Read this over in your group and make notes of any important points that you think people should understand about You will be working with a group of your classmates to find out aerosols. what people know and believe about aerosol products: how they work and their relationship with the environment. You will It also will be helpful to refer to any resource materials in your be conducting a survey to find out. classroom, or school library, on aerosol products and how they work. Step 1 Step 3 The first thing you will need to do is to choose your target sample (the group, or groups, of people you are going to sur- With your group, discuss what you think are the five most vey). Once you decide, each of you will be responsible for important things that the general public should understand identifying five subjects (people) from that group to be sur- about aerosol products. veyed. You can share your list with another group to get some more Sample Groups ideas. Target sample groups might include: • • other students parents Step 4 • people from your community • a combination of these groups With your teacher’s help, hold a whole-class sharing session. • other groups (e.g., people aged 20-40) One person should be nominated as “recorder.” His or her job will be to make a list of the most important points about aerosol products that you all agree would be helpful for the public to understand. Discuss these and come up with an agreed-upon list of no more than 10 points. These points will become the basis of your survey. 39 www.nocfcs.org

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