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1-800-992-9392 www.stutteringhelp.org • www.tartamudez.org T HE S TUTTERING F OUNDATION A Nonprofit Organization WINTER 2006 Since 1947... Helping Those Who Stutter The age factor in stuttering, page 3 Kenyon Martin lights up young lives, page 9 Annie’s Mailbox reaches millions, page 3A look at genetic Redesigned Web site easier to useand neurological I nformation about stuttering is just a mouse click away. on July 4th,” says Jane correlates The Stuttering Foundation has redesigned its Web site, Fraser, president of the Foundation. www.stutteringhelp.org, so “Hits jumped from of stuttering the public and speech clin- 550,000 a month on theBy Lisa Scott, Ph.D. icians can more easily find old site to 850,000 inThe Florida State University September to a In November, four of the leading scien- the informationtists in stuttering presented their latest re- they need. record 1,250,000search at the American Speech-Language- There are spe- and 1,300,000 in Hearing Association con- cial pages for October and vention in San Diego. children, teens, November re- Participating in a session en- adults, teachers, spectively.” titled, “Genetic and Neurological Correlates of SLPs and em- The Web site Stuttering,” were Drs. ployers. uses the latest Dennis Drayna, NIDCD, All the foun- technology to Christine Weber-Fox, dation’s quickly up- Drayna Purdue University, Ann brochures are load informa- Foundas, Tulane University, available on- tion and keep and Gerald Maguire, University of California- line and sev- the Web site Irvine. In a session coordi- eral books up-to-date. nated by Dr. Christy are too. Loading Ludlow, NIDCD, four pre- Favorites precise ad- senters focused their discus- like the ex- dresses and Weber-Fox sions on state-of-the-art re- search in the understanding tensive list information of genetic and neurological of famous people for 6,500 libraries factors that contribute to who stutter now regularly is no small stuttering. Three of the four highlight the head- task, but our dedi- researchers, Drs. Drayna, line banner. cated staff makes it Weber-Fox, and Foundas, For those who pre- What’s Hot seem easy. have previously contributed articles on their research to fer to check out Celebrities who stutter Why speech therapy? “Those who FAQ Special education law Foundas past issues of this newsletter. books and videos at Is my child stuttering? Downloadable books, haven’t been to the Genetics and Stuttering libraries, the site lists Research on stuttering brochures and poster Web site recently Dr. Drayna described the 6,500 libraries that Insurance questions Exciting new pages should check it current knowledge of the role Electronic devices just for kids and teens shelve the founda- ADHD and stuttering Areas specifically for out,” Fraser said. of genetics in stuttering. He “I believe they provided an overview of how tion’s latest materials. Referral list to special- teachers and parents genetics are studied, including “The response has ists in stuttering Cluttering will find the infor- Answers for employers Coming soon: mation timely and the use of twin and adoption been tremendous Referral to libraries Streaming video Maguire Continued on page 6 since the launching valuable.” ❑Annenberg Foundation grant helps SFA reach children An unprecedented grant from the kids learn more about stuttering willAnnenberg Foundation is making want to see this tape,” says speech-Stuttering: For Kids, By Kids available language pathologist Bill Murphy offree of charge to every public library in Purdue University. “The children fea-the country. By year-end, more than lots of press these days — from daily tured are a perfect example of how to6,500 libraries will have the new DVD and weekly newspapers and leading openly and honestly handle stuttering.whose animated star, Swish, is doing a magazines like Woman’s Day to the This is an important tool for familiesjump shot above. ASHA Leader and Advance for SLPs. and teachers of kids who stutter too.” The 12-minute DVD is getting “All those interested in helping Continued on page 2
2 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392On the air on NBC NBC stations around the nation Stuttering and the basal gangliaaired a health segment about stuttering By Per Alm, Ph.D. able to do it when receiving external “tim-during their local news- University of Alberta ing cues,” is characteristic of dysfunction ofcasts in early December. the basal ganglia motor circuits (including The broadcast featured Editor’s note: Per Alm has a Ph.D. in neu- related structures, such as the supplemen- ropsychology and has been working with re- tary motor area (SMA)). Normally, thespeech-language patholo- search on stuttering in Sweden but is current- basal ganglia seem to provide “go-signals”gist Dr. Tricia Zebrowski ly teaching at the University of Alberta, for the segments in a motor sequence, e.g.of the University of Iowa working Edmonton. We asked Per if he could write the syllables in speech.with a 7-year-old boy who stutters. something about his research and his view on Without sufficiently strong go-signals WIS TV in Columbia, S.C., told stuttering and the brain. the speech cannot be started or will beviewers, “There’s no miracle cure for disrupted. The rhythm effect appears tostuttering and it’s best to evaluate a The variability of stuttering is often strik- be a key feature of stuttering, providing aproblem early.” The station then list- ing to the listener and mysterious for the strong indication that stuttering is relateded the Stuttering Foundation as a re- person who stutters. to some type of disturbance of the basalsource for parents. Based on personal ganglia motor circuits. In addition, WIS TV linked to the experiences I have There are several other indications forFoundation’s Web site from their felt that the lack of the important role of the basal ganglia inhome page and posted the story and a real knowledge about stuttering, for example: (1) Lesions thatvideo clip online for Internet users. the underlying mech- cause “acquired stuttering” often affect the anisms of stuttering is basal ganglia (Ludlow et al., 1987). (2) TheViewers could even e-mail the news a problem in many drugs that have shown the clearest effect onsegment and story to others who may ways. It makes itneed this valuable information. ❑ stuttering, to make it better or worse, affect more difficult to treat, Per Alm, Ph.D. the dopamine system. Dopamine is a key it leaves the field transmitter that regulates the function of open to unfounded the basal ganglia. (3) Basal ganglia motorAnnenberg Continued from front page speculations, and it makes it difficult for disorders characteristically worsen during Children on the DVD share their persons who stutter to reach self-under- stress and “nervous tension,” and improveviews on dealing with teasing, how to standing. For this reason, I changed my vo- under relaxed conditions.teach others about stuttering, and what cation from engineering to research on the In the review on stuttering and the basalhelps them manage their stuttering. nature of stuttering, about 10 years ago. ganglia (Alm, 2004), it was also argued Speech-lan- When I began my Ph.D. studies, it was that the typical pattern of onset of stutteringguage pathologists not easy to know what to do to advance around age 2.5 to 3, with a large percentagewho specialize in the understanding of stuttering. So many of early recoveries, may be related to a nat-the treatment of flu- ingenious efforts had already been made. ural phase of the development of the basalency disorders spent Comparing this research to a puzzle, it ganglia. Specifically, it has been shownmore than a year de- felt important to try to make sense of the that children in general have a peak in theveloping the script for this film. scattered pieces. Therefore I worked both number of dopamine receptors type D2 in The concept of Swish was thor- with experimental studies and theoretical the basal ganglia at this time. There are the-oughly researched by a computer overviews of previous research findings. oretical arguments for how a large numbergraphics design team at Purdue In this article I will focus on the main of D2 receptors may increase the risk forUniversity for optimum appeal and theoretical work, regarding the possible re- stuttering. Furthermore, the drugs that havememory attention for children in lation between stuttering and the basal shown the best documented effect on stut-grades 2-6. Once created, the boun- ganglia, brain structures involved in au- tering act by blocking these D2 receptors.cy, genderless cartoon character tomatization (Alm, 2004). This work led The number of D2 receptors has alsowith a kid’s voice and vocabulary to the proposal of the dual premotor sys- been reported to show correlation withwas extensively field-tested in tems model of stuttering (Alm, 2005). The cognitive performance, which is in ac-speech clinics at Purdue and The idea that stuttering is related to the basal cord with the observation that childrenFlorida State University. ganglia is not new. The first account came with early onset of stuttering often dis- Judging from the letters that con- from the German physician Sahli, based play precocious language developmenttinue to pour in, libraries around the on studies of epidemic encephalitis around (Watkins, Yairi, & Ambrose, 1999).country are very excited and grateful 1920. Among later examples can be men- In the thesis, On the causal mecha-for this donation. tioned Caruso (1991) and Molt (1999). nisms of stuttering (Alm, 2005), the “On behalf of the Board of Conditions where stuttering tends to be basal ganglia model was developed fur-Trustees, staff and patrons, I want to absent provide important clues about the ther, based on the theoretical work on thethank you for the material your orga- underlying dysfunction. One such condition human motor system proposed bynization has provided for our collec- is the “rhythm effect”: persons who stutter Goldberg (1985, 1991) and others.tion,” writes the director at the usually become fluent when speaking to the Goldberg argued that the human brainAracnum, Ohio, library. pace of a metronome. They seem unable to has two parallel premotor systems, i.e. The library director in stutter when following the beats. This dis- systems involved in planning and execu-Chatham, Ill., echoed that senti- tinction, to have a problem performing a tion of movements, including speech.ment, “This resource is a welcome motor sequence on your own, but beingaddition to our collection.” ❑ Continued on page 12
WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 3 The phones The age factor in stuttering Ehud Yairi, Ph.D. tional processes contribute to stuttering; keep ringing University of Illinois Age is among the strongest risk factors hence the possibility of relations among stuttering, language, and articulation.Annie’s Mailbox reaches for stuttering with several important impli- Although our own data (Watkins, Yairi, &millions, even in South Korea cations. Although the disorder begins with- Ambrose, 1999), and those of our col- The Memphis staff is hearing ring- in a wide age-range, current robust evidence leagues from Germany (Rommel et. al.,ing in their sleep after a wave of calls indicates that, for a very large proportion of 1999), show that the language skills offlooded the Stuttering Foundation’s cases, it erupts during children who stutter, as a group, meet orswitchboard follow- the preschool period. exceed norms, we suspect that there areing mentions in two Data obtained at the differences in the ways in which they pro-syndicated columns. University of Illinois cess language. One research priority con- One mother Stuttering Research sequent to information about age at onsetwrote, “My son Program revealed that is experimental manipulation of similari-sometimes can’t say for 65% of the child ties and/or differences in language pro-anything and then participants, stuttering cessing and production between childrenwill say the same onset occurred prior who stutter near the onset of the disorderword over and over. to age 3; the figure and normally fluent children, particularlyPlease help!” Marcy Sugar rose to 85% by 3 1/2 Ehud Yairi, Ph.D. in terms of the nature of linguistic knowl- “Since I read the years of age (Yairi & edge and the time course of knowledge ac-column, I feel like Ambrose, 2005). tivation. Varied responses to semantic andthere is hope for Leaving room for some sampling errors, phonological distracters, slower reactionmy daughter,” said children past age 4 face a relatively low risk time, and/or alternative activation pathsa father in Ohio. for stuttering. From clinical considerations, may reveal differences in language pro- On Oct. 22, these statistics call for greater emphasis on cessing. One of the intriguing questions is:Int’l. Stuttering preparing clinicians for working with early does age at stuttering onset – prior to, orAwareness Day, childhood stuttering. after, a certain point in language develop-Annie’s Mailbox Age brings out other factors. The fact ment – underlie distinct subtypes of thelisted SFA as a Kathy Mitchell that the critical age for stuttering onset par- disorder? Currently, scientists in severalsource of help and allels the age span when significant rapid laboratories are pursuing such issues.information on developments occur in the anatomy of the Brain imaging studies of children shouldstuttering and in- speech system, as well as in complex lan- also enhance understanding of this issue.cluded SFA’s Web guage and articulatory skills, invites spec- Our team members, Chang, Erickson, andsite address and ulations that interferences in these matura- Continued on page 8toll-free phonenumber. The col-umn’s authors,Marcy Sugar andKathy Mitchell, Robert Wallace Outreach to pediatricianssaid, “We are By June Campbell, M.A.happy to help out. Thanks for all Physicians once again flocked to the SFA Exhibit Booth at the Beforethe good work you do.” Their syndicated column is read by American Academy of Pediatricsnearly 90 million people. Annual Conference and Exhibition inNewspapers as far away as Seoul, Washington, D.C., this October. It wasSouth Korea, carried the story, which noted that the demographics of physi-resulted in many requests for help. cians stopping by to discuss cases and Earlier this summer, Dr. Robert materials was broadening: whetherWallace, who writes Tween 12 & 20, young into their careers or well-sea-mentioned the Foundation twice in soned, physicians came not only fromtwo separate columns that reach many major U.S. metropolitan andnearly 5 million readers. rural areas such as Fly Creek, N.Y., On Aug. 18, he described and Homer Glen, Ill., but also fromStuttering: Straight Talk for Teachers Sydney, Australia, Athens, Greece,as an important resource and listed Lima, Peru, Trinidad, West Indies, andthe SFA Web site. many locations in Mexico. On Sept. 17, a single New Requests for Spanish editionOrleans mother without Internet ac- books and brochures was at an all-cess wrote Dr. Wallace seeking helpfor her young son. He followed up time high as were the DVD formatted films. Kudos to SFA for reaching out Duringby listing eight tips from SFA right to the medical field which can most June and Allen Campbell discuss Stuttering: For Kids,in his column. ❑ help with early intervention! ❑ By Kids with a pediatrician.
4 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392 Iowa workshop brings together clinicians from around the worldT he Stuttering Foundation and the University of Iowa held the second Workshop forSpecialists in Stuttering in Iowa Citythis past summer, under the leader-ship of Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D.,and Toni Cilek, M.A. The event hosted 20 cliniciansfrom 10 states and eight foreigncountries. Guest lecturers during the twoweek course included Edward G.Conture, Ph.D., of VanderbiltUniversity and Peter Ramig,Ph.D., of University of Colorado-Boulder. The first workshop atIowa was offered in 2003, and thethird will be offered in the summerof 2007. “The second workshop metour expectations – and thensome,” said Patricia Zebrowski. “Ihope we continue our track recordof receiving applicants from all The Class of 2005 gathers for pictures during Stuttering Therapy: Workshop for Specialists, sponsored by theover the world – this year we had Stuttering Foundation and the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Front row (from left): Jeamjai Jeeraumporn, Jennifer Tseng, Jennifer Peacock, Calista Keck, Ashley Jackson, Jane Fraser, Erol Belgin, and Nao Yasuda. Second row:specialists from the United States Amie King, Suzanne Sylvester, Patricia Zebrowski, Michelle Jones, Toni Cilek, and Joe Fulcher. Third row:as well as from Russia, Italy, Margaret Schmidt, Maria Gurrister, Yulia Filatova, Cheryl Arismendi, and Mavis Kulak Kayikci. Back row: NinaTurkey, Thailand, Japan, Taiwan Conrad, Peter Ramig, Massimiliano Marchiori, Peter Reitzes, Michelle Snead, and Kathleen Scaler Scott.and New Zealand.This course gives me the opportu-nity to talk about how researchand clinical practice complementeach other, and to hear from spe-cialists in the field about how thisrelationship functions in the realworld of therapy. The international flavor pro-vides an excellent opportunity to Ashley Jackson, Peter Reitzes, anddiscuss diverse practices and expe- Toni Cilek take time for a picture dur-riences with people who stutter, and ing the workshop.these discussions help all of us who Jennier Peacock (from left),work with this population.” Massimiliano Marchiori, Calista Keck, The response from those attend- Peter Reitzes, and Ashley Jacksoning this year’s workshop has been visit the Field of Dreams.outstanding. “Attending the Iowa workshop who are also wanting to help those viding training to speech-languagemade me feel like I was part of an who stutter. I appreciate your gen- pathologists throughout the world.‘All-Star’ stuttering team wrestling erosity in making workshops like It provides many speech-patholo-with this complicated disorder,” said this one come to life. I will have an gists who could never otherwise af-Peter Reitzes of Brooklyn, N.Y. opportunity to meet with my col- ford it the opportunity to be well “What a fantastic workshop leagues in the school district to trained in the field of fluency.”here at Iowa,” said Cheryl share the workshop information.” Information on upcoming work-Arismendi of Pomona, Calif. “I Kathy Scaler Scott of shops can be found on the Stutteringhave learned so much and had a Flemington, N.J., said, “This pro- Foundation’s Web site, www.stutter-wonderful time meeting others gram is an amazing method for pro- inghelp.org. ❑
WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 5“I’m not hiding All-new DVD series for 1.0 CEUs Do you ever remember a name, but whether treatment is recommended for anymore” not recognize a face? Well, that’s what may happen when you see one young children. E. Charles Healey, Ph.D., of theBy Rob Bloom I stutter. I always have. In fact, I can re- of SFA’s newest productions. University of Nebraska-member being three years old and trying The Child Who Stutters: Lincoln addresses the con-very hard to push out the word “d-d-daddy.” Practical Ideas for ceptual framework When it became apparent that I was not the School of CALMS as agoing to “grow out of it,” I decided I would Clinician Series model for planningdo whatever it took to keep my shameful has the same title stuttering assess-stuttering a secret from the world. And thus as a former pro- ment and treatment.began a life of substituting words, avoiding duction, but you Kristin A.sounds, and quite won’t recognize it Chmela, M.A., offrankly, living in fear. because everything Guitar Ramig Northwestern I hid my stuttering about it is new. University discussesthroughout college, The six-DVD se- counseling, listeningoften taking drastic ries, which offers and valuing, creat-means to do so — speech-language ing communicativefrom claiming to pathologists 1.0 space, taking timedhave laryngitis to CEUs, has been to- risks, and document-giving a fake name tally redone. Chmela ing your goals. Healeywhen meeting new Six fluency spe- Bill Murphy, M.A.,people. Sure, I was Rob Bloom cialists went before of Purdue Universitysuccessful in lying to the camera this past discusses the emo-the world…but the truth was catching up year to remake this tions of school-agewith me: in the form of a stomach ulcer. popular series. children, the stutter- After graduation, I took a job writing for Barry Guitar, ing triangle, essen-an advertising agency where I continued to Ph.D., of the tial tools, conspira- Murphy Zebrowskiportray the role of a fluent speaker on the University of cy of easy fluency,outside. But despite professional success Vermont describes and keys to progress.and recognition, I could barely look at my- stuttering modification and Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D., of theself in the mirror. When the economy fluency shaping and demonstrates University of Iowa offers help toslumped and my job was eliminated, I had both concepts. understand adolescence and discuss-the opportunity to do a little soul-search- Peter Ramig, Ph.D., of the es motor training, mental training,ing. It was then that I had a startling real- University of Colorado-Boulder and emotions.ization: I needed to stop hiding. gives general information on stuttering, For more information on this DVD I forced myself to face my fears directly. outlines basic principles, offers case series, visit www.stutteringhelp.orgOne way I did this was to do the very thing studies, and suggests ways to determine or call 1-800-992-9392.that scared me more than anything else:stuttering. I walked into situations and in-tentionally stuttered. Although agonizinglydifficult at first, I slowly began to desensi- SFA materials travel the world helping peopletize myself to the behavior. In addition, I Stuttering knows no boundaries. young people who stutter injoined Toastmasters where I willingly It is a disorder that affects people Hebrew in the last 35stood before a group of people and spoke. everywhere. years or more,” saysDid I stutter? Of course. But I also proved Just this year alone, SFA material Benny, chair of ISA.to myself that I was much more than the has been translated into The DVDs, Stutteringbehavior of stuttering and even came to re- several different lan- and Your Child: Help foralize that I actually enjoy public speaking. guages — most recently, Families, Stuttering: In opening up about stuttering, I’ve dis- Lithuanian, Japanese, Straight Talk forcovered the stigma and fears that I’ve based and Hebrew. Teachers, and Stuttering:my life around die a little bit more with each The Stuttering For Kids By Kids, have been convertedpassing day. I’ve also accepted the fact that, Problem Club of to Japanese this year.yes, I do stutter. I now know that if I stutter, Lithuania translated “It’s our really great honor tomy arms aren’t going to fall off and my head two books, Stuttering: An Integration produceisn’t going to spin around. I’m just going of Contemporary Therapies and and pub-to…well…stutter. And while this may al- Counseling Those Who Stutter into a lish suchways be the case, I now realize that there are single publication. excellentmuch more important things to focus on. Benny Ravid of the Israeli programs Rob Bloom is a humor writer who has stuttered his en-tire life. In addition to his humor column, Rob has written Stuttering Association translated as your titles in Japanese versions,”for the Cartoon Network, Travel Channel, and National Do You Stutter: A Guide for Teens writes Kazunari Katsumasa, CEOPublic Radio. You can read some of Robs work at his Web into Hebrew. of the Institute of Medicalsite, www.robbloom.com. ❑ “It is the first publication for Education. ❑
6 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392Boston workshoppers leave with enthusiasmBy Diane Fillion Parris, M.S. Twenty speech-language patholo-gists representing nine states in the U.S.,Turkey, Thailand, and Lebanon, attendedthe New England Workshop at BostonUniversity from June 22 – 26, 2005. Instruction and practical experiencesin the diagnosis and treatment of childrenand adolescents who stutter were lead byEdward Conture, Ph.D., VanderbiltUniversity, Susan Dietrich, Ph.D., HarvardMedical School, Sheryl Gottwald, Ph.D.,University of New Hampshire, and DianeParris, M.S., Boston University. During the five-day workshop, partic-ipants received instruction in differentialdiagnosis of fluency disorders, interpreta-tion of diagnostic findings, treatment tech- Front (front): Laura Halley, Vanessa Sheets Paddock, Jane Fraser, Elise Goodman, Debra Robinson, Ponjit Jithavech, and Susan Dietrich. Second row: Sheryl Gottwald, Burcu Ardaman, Nancy Swartz, Dollen Tabri,niques for motor speech behaviors as well Amanda Taylor, Tara Turken, Helen Selle, Rose Marie Pietrzyk, Susan Carnavale, and Laura Delaney. Backas desensitization and counseling strate- row: Joe Fulcher, Diane Parris, Paul Quin, Christine LaFleur, Joe Wohlgemuth, Karen Dohn, Terry Colyar. Notgies, and approaches to working with par- pictured are Jo Ellen Ryan and guest speaker Ed Conture.ents and teachers. knowledge,” says Joseph J. Wohlgemuth writes, “I learned new therapy techniques Guided practical training with local of New Jersey. in a wonderful, professional environment,preschoolers, school-age children, and “The intense format of the work- techniques I have already put successfullyyoung teens left participants with enthusi- shop combined with the practice with in use with more than one patient. Theasm and confidence in their new skills. children helped transition the theory into joint efforts led by the Stuttering “All of my students who stutter are practice,” states Paul Quin. Foundation of America are making a greatgreatly benefiting from all of my new Dollen Tabri of Beirut, Lebanon, difference in many people’s lives.” ❑ Language Processing and Stuttering respiratory systems but is also determined byStuttering Continued from front page Dr. Christine Weber-Fox discussed the language processing.studies and studies of families in Africa. neurological evidence for how individuals who She uses a research technique called The evidence for genetic factors in stutter- stutter process linguistic information. Her pur- event-related potentials to illustrate how theing is overwhelming, with genetic factors playing pose in pursuing this line of research is to inves- brain processes information. A series of elec-a role in at least half of all cases. Although stutter- tigate whether individuals who stutter exhibit trodes are placed on a person’s head and theing does cluster in families, severity does not. In atypical brain functions when they are process- electrical energy that is emitted while the indi-other words, if you have a family member who ing linguistic in- vidual completes a task is measured by thestutters, you are more likely to stutter. However, formation, such as Editor’s note: This en- electrodes. The researcher then examines theif you have a family member who stutters severe- deciding whether tire article, including Drs. print-outs of the electrical waves to determinely, his or her severity does not put you at addition- a sentence con- Maguire’s and Foundas’ in what areas of the brain, and how quickly, theal risk for stuttering nor does it relate to the sever- tains a grammati- research, can be found at brain processes a given signal.ity of your own stuttering. cal error or www.stutteringhelp.org Her findings for adults who stutter show dif- Another interesting finding is that the whether two under What’s New. ferences in their ability to accurately judge gram- words rhyme. Her This article was great- matical information such as verb-agreement vio-male-to-female ratio in familial cases of stutter-ing is approximately 1.5:1. This means that in work is based on ly abridged because of lations. This reduced ability was also character-families who appear to have some genetic trans- the theory that space limitations. ized by differences in the degree and patterns ofmission of stuttering, for every 1.5 cases of moments of stut- electrical energy in the brain. Additionally, in amales who stutter, there is a case of a female tering, or breakdowns in speech motor control, study where individuals had to process differentwho stutters. This figure is considerably differ- are related to difficulty processing elements of types of words or phrases (e.g., I didn’t knowent from past reports of male-to-female ratios language such as grammar, retrieving specific what time it was so I looked at my rain), thosefor stuttering, which have previously been de- words, or processing small units of speech such who stuttered showed a delay in processing thatscribed as 4 or 5 males for every 1 female. This as individual speech sounds or syllables. She was not seen in individuals who did not stutter.suggests that genetic transmission of stuttering stated that current thinking in this area of re- Because the brain is plastic, or change-affects females almost as frequently as males, search is that there are bidirectional influences able over time with experiences, it is difficultand that the male-to-female ratio is much high- between language and motor processing. That is, to determine if these differences exist at theer, probably 7 or 8 males for every 1 female, for the complexity of the sentence or timing de- onset of stuttering and thus could be partiallyindividuals with no family history of stuttering. mands in recalling a specific word seem to influ- responsible for the problem. Alternatively, Despite this genetic evidence, however, ence the individual’s ability to generate the nec- because of plasticity, it might be that livingDr. Drayna cautioned that most human medical essary sequence of muscle movements to say the with stuttering over time may contribute toproblems are a combination of genes and sentence, and vice versa. the differences being noted in adults as the“something else,” such as environment or learn- Dr. Weber-Fox discussed a series of stud- brain attempts to compensate for stuttering.ing. Also, geneticists who study stuttering are al- ies she and colleagues at Purdue University Therefore, Dr. Weber-Fox’s current researchmost certain that there are many genes that con- have conducted that have led to their conclu- is focusing on making similar types of mea-tribute to stuttering rather than one particular sion that stuttering is not based solely on an in- surements in children who stutter to deter-gene having most responsibility. For example, dividual’s ability to execute a sequence of mine whether the differences noted for adultsthere are over 100 genes that cause deafness. muscle movements in the mouth, larynx, and are present in younger individuals. ❑
WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 7An almost famous singer While the SFA’s Web site list of constantly passed over for a record-Famous People Who Stutter includes ing contract.many high-profile names, we like to Rory had to deal almost on a dailythink that every person who stutters basis with the Beatles’ success becauseis unique in their own right. his sister Iris was Paul McCartney’s One person who stutters who un- girlfriend for awhile, both before andfortunately never became famous after the Beatles’ success. She waswas Rory Storm. Paul’s last Liverpool girlfriend, and Next time you peruse a magazine at the doctor’s office, Born Alan Caldwell in Liverpool even after their break-up, Paul kept in don’t be surprised if you see a public service ad for thein 1942, he took the name Rory touch regularly with Rory’s mother, Stuttering Foundation. Oprah’s O Magazine, Redbook,Storm when he formed his own rock Violet Caldwell. In fact, when Paul Forbes, Good Housekeeping, Better Homes andband, Rory Storm wrote Yesterday, the Gardens, Ladies Home Journal, Cosmo, Cosmogirl,& the Hurricanes. first person he called and Newsweek are just a few of the major magazinesRory stuttered was Violet Caldwell who have donated space this year. Major specializedbadly but was total- to sing it to her over publications supporting the foundation include Physicians Practice, School Nurse News, and Discovery,ly fluent when the phone. which is distributed aboard Princess Cruise ships. ❑singing, as is the It was difficultcase for many peo- for a talented per-ple. All accounts of son like Rory to beRory describe his passed over duringspeech problem as the Liverpool crazebeing severe. in rock history. He Rory Storm & found it most diffi-the Hurricanes was cult to adjust to athe most popular life in which heband in Liverpool Photo from www.beatlesource.com had to speak ratherand — at one point Rory Storm & the Hurricanes than sing.— even had more Another hardshipfans than their friends The Beatles. would come later. While known onRory’s blonde hair and blue eyed the club scene throughout England,good looks made him quite popular his trademark moves on stage cou-with young women in Liverpool. pled with his blonde hair and good Rory would indirectly make his- looks were legendary. It is widely be-tory when he advised his drummer, lieved that an upstart singer RodRitchie Starkey, to change his name Stewart, who saw Rory performbecause it did not sound artistic. Not many times in the early days, “stole” SFA material received special attention at thewanting to change his name, the the singer’s trademark persona and Rensselaer (Ind.) Public Library.drummer finally did when Rory sug- found success of his own with well-gested he take the name “Ringo” be- choreographed moves on stage and flaunting his blonde hair. A special bookshelfcause of the drummer’s penchant forwearing rings. Rory successfully treated his The Rensselaer (Ind.) Public speech problem and became a flu- Library did more than just place Ironically, Rory Storm & the books and material on stuttering on aHurricanes played in the same club in ent disc jockey for several years. However, tragedy would follow. In shelf. Glenda Brown made a specialHamburg with the Beatles for a year. display complete with posters of fa-Ringo Starr had to fill in many times 1972, shortly after the death of his father and down on his luck, Rory mous people who stutter, videos andfor original Beatle drummer Pete other resources.Best and it always went well. took an overdose of pills and The material on the display was When the Beatles canned Best whiskey to end his life. His dis- also available to check out.just prior to recording their first traught mother died hours later of a The display was so good that therecord in 1962, Ringo was the heart attack. local newspaper did an entire articleunanimous choice to replace the True followers of the Liverpool on it and SFA supporter, Leonpopular Best. club scene prior to 1962 know that “Jigger” Sirois. Rory was sorry to lose Ringo Rory Storm was just as talented as The Stuttering Foundation is able tobut wished him well. Unfortunately any of the acts that found fame in the make resources available free offor Rory, he and the Hurricanes “British invasion.” Success was all charge to public libraries nationwidewould never see any glory days. around Rory Storm for many years, because of donations from people likeWith Beatlemania in England, other but life dealt him an unfortunate Sirois of Williamsburg, Va.groups out of Liverpool, such as hand. While he did not achieve fame If your local library doesn’t haveGerry & the Pacemakers, achieved and fortune, his unique accomplish- SFA material, please encourage themsome success. However, Rory and ments put him on our radar screen as to contact the Foundation at 1-800-his band fell on hard times and were a famous person who stutters. ❑ 992-9392. ❑
8 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392ASHA 2005 While temperatures for much of thecountry began to drop for winter, it was adifferent story in warm San Diego, Calif.,which hosted the 2005 convention for theAmerican Speech-Language-HearingAssociation in mid-November. The Foundation booth was wildlybusy with a number of items proving tobe very popular, including Stuttering: ForKids, By Kids and the new DVD series. Many volunteers staffed the booth.A special thanks to Peter Ramig, Joe E. Charles Healey (left) and Joe Donaher speak with a customer.Donaher, Charlie Healey, Peter Reitzes,Tony Buhr, Vianne Bjornberg, LizEdwards, Steffi Schopick, Judy Kuster,Nancy Ribbler, Glenn Weybright, Maria SFA anchor Carol Ecke gets ready for theGurrister, Brenda Malepeai, John Ellis, big rush.Ryan Pollard, Tom Gurrister, DarrellDodge, Lorrie Scott, Julie Anderson,Mark Pellowski, Kathleen Chase,Jennifer Watson, Linda Louko, andSusan Hamilton. ❑ Susan Hamilton and Marlene Taylor donated $500 to the Stuttering Foundation from money they raised by selling jewelry at the Cookie Lee booth. Peter Reitzes answers a question. SFA materials draw a crowd.Age factor Continued from page 3 reason for shunning direct speech therapy accumulating at a rapid pace but much for preschoolers. Whereas some three-year remains to be learned.Ambrose (2005) successfully obtained olds are either clearly, or appear to be, References Ambrose, N., & Yairi, E. (1994). The develop-high resolution structural MRI data from aware of stuttering, available experimental ment of awareness of stuttering in preschool chil-stuttering and control children ages 8-13. data show a very large increase in aware- dren. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 19, 229-245.Initial results indicate significant group ness between ages 4 and 5, including nor- Chang, S., Erickson, K., & Ambrose, N. (2005). Regional white and grey matter volumetric growthdifferences in white and grey matter vol- mally fluent children (Ambrose & Yairi, differences in children with persistent versus recov-ume in brain areas involved in integrating 1994; Ezrati, Platzky, & Yairi, 2001). This ered stuttering: An MRI (VBM) study. Presented atsensory and motor aspects of speech. information would seem to justify direct in- the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, tervention techniques as well as provide 2005, Washington, D.C. Program No. 565.5. 2005Testing younger children closer to onset Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Onlineshould advance our knowledge. clues for the timing of intervention and Cox, N., Roe, C., Suresh, R., Cook, E., Evidence is also accumulating that age should be considered in counseling of par- Lundstrom, C., Garsten, M., Ezrati, R. Ambrose,at onset may bear a relation to genetic fac- ents and teachers about reactions of normal- N., & Yairi, E. (2005). Chromosomal signals for genes underlying stuttering. Presented at thetors, in particular, it appears there may be ly fluent children to their stuttering peers. Oxford Disfluency Conference, Oxford University,a trend for persistent stuttering to have a Finally, important information about Oxford, United Kingdom.slightly later onset than recovered stutter- persistent stuttering may be uncovered by Ezrati, R., Platzky, R., & Yairi, E. (2001). The young childs awareness of stuttering-like disfluen-ing (Yairi & Ambrose, 2005). As the studying upper age groups — people who cy. Journal of Speech, Language, and HearingIllinois team continues to uncover possi- have stuttered for many years into ad- Research, 44, 368-380.ble interactions among different genetic vanced ages. Perhaps they exhibit more Rommel, D., Hage, A., Kalehne, P., &loci (Cox, et al., 2005), the age factor pronounced characteristics that reveal Johannsen, H. (1999). Developmental, mainte- nance, and recovery of childhood stuttering:should become more clear. differences not easily identifiable in the Prospective longitudinal data 3 years after first con- Age is also a risk factor in regard to chil- typical child or young adult who stutters. tact. In K. Baker, L. Rustin, & K. Baker (Eds.),dren’s awareness of disfluent speech. The Indeed, our team’s members are current- Proceedings of the fifth Oxford disfluency confer- ence (pp.168-182). Chappell Gardner, UK:belief that preschoolers who stutter lack in ly pursuing structural brain imaging stud- Windsor, Berkshire.such awareness played a major role in theo- ies of aged people who stutter. Watkins, R., Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N.G. (1999).ries and developmental models of the disor- All of the above serve to highlight the Early childhood stuttering III: Initial status of ex- pressive language abilities. Journal of Speech,der. For many years, clinicians’ assumption role of age in the onset and development Language, and Hearing Research, 42, 1125-1135.that awareness would trigger strong emo- of stuttering, in subtype differentiation, Yairi, E. & Ambrose, N. (2005). Early childhoodtions (e.g., anxiety) in children was the main and in treatment strategies. Knowledge is stuttering. Austin: Pro-Ed, Inc. ❑
WINTER 2006 1-800-992-9392 9 Dear SFA: Reader Response Send letters to SFA, P.O. Box 11749, Memphis, TN 38111-0749 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.Video gets four stars School scares meDear SFA: Hi: Stuttering: For Kids, By Kids is I am very happy I found your Webabout stuttering. What I liked about site. Stuttering is a real problem forthe movie was that the children in the me and I think it is going to limit thevideo say that they are not shy to talk. opportunities I have in life. I am onlyAnother thing I liked about it was that 13. I always get nervous in school andthe children stutter and they just kept sometimes I can’t ask important ques-on talking. For example, when they tions because I can’t say it quickly. Ifspoke they just let their stuttering out I didn’t stutter, I would look forwardand did not care about their stuttering. to school and I would be an actress During speech class, I watched this and sing! But I can’t and I am scaredvideo with four of my friends. My when I go to school because you don’tfriend Katie said, “I learned that stutter- know if you are going to have to reading is not a big deal because everyone something out loud. If you have anyhas problems.” Jennifer said, “I learned ideas for helping me, please e-mail!that some people can help themselves Thank you for your support and I ap-with stuttering.” Martha said, “What I preciate every bit of it!!learned was that you should tell your Sarahfriends if you stutter.” Susan said, Atlanta“What I learned is that stuttering is not Editor: Help has gone out to Sarah.funny.” My speech teacher said, “I amso glad that Melissa shared her stutter-ing and this video with her friends.” Photo by Fernando Medina/NBAE via Getty Images. Copyright 2004 NBAE. Used with permission. Workplace surveyMelissa Since our summer newsletter, we have heard from Marshall Rice, Ph.D. of York many people who have been inspired by Denver University in Toronto, Canada, isFifth grade Nuggets basketball sensation Kenyon Martin. He is nowNew York included on our 16 Famous People Who Stutter poster. conducting a survey on the impact of stuttering at work. To enable him to am surprised that so many famous peo- better understand the issues andI do what I want to do ple stutter. I like reading the letters. challenges that people who stutterDear SFA: John My name is John. I am 11 years face on the job. The research may Chicago help identify policies that will helpold. I am a 5th grader in Chicago. Ilike to read and hang out with to prevent discrimination againstfriends. I have been stuttering since Web site a great help people who stutter. Please complete Dear SFA: the confidential survey online at:kindergarten. At first when I stut- I thank you for your Web site. Mytered I couldn’t get every word that www.survey-city.com/survey/stut- mother has stuttered all of her life. ter/pws.html. If you have questions,I said out of my mouth. But then And she has always been embar- contact Dr. Marshall Rice atwhen I got older I tend to repeatwords two or three times and then I rassed to talk to people due to her email@example.com or at 416-am fluent. My dad also stutters but stuttering. I also use to stutter when 736-2100, Ext. 58241.not that much. My little brother I was younger. I still do, when I amalso stutters. nervous. My son, brother and many Online journal I notice that when I am not paying of my uncles and aunts still stutter. I Peter Reitzes and Gregory Snyder willattention to how I talk, I don’t stutter. was so surprised to see how many launch an online journal, The Journal ofI never stutter when I sing or when people has stuttered. Because of Stuttering Therapy, Advocacy, andI’m in a play. I don’t let stuttering your Web site, my mother is not as Research, to be ready in February,stop me from doing any thing I want ashamed of her stuttering. www.JournalofStuttering.com. To sub-to do. When I am stuttering I don’t I cannot thank you enough for al- mit papers, e-mail Gregory Snyder, atlike it when people interrupt me. lowing so many people to see that they OleMiss@GregorySnyder.com. I don’t care that I stutter. Stuttering were not alone. If you can help othersactually helps me meet new people as you did my mother and myself, NSSLHA chapters donatebecause either some of my friends in- than you are doing something great. Thanks to The Florida State Universitytroduce me to their friends or they Keep up the good work. God bless and the Eastern Washington Universitymake sure that I am in a group pro- you all for reaching out to people like chapters of the National Student Speech-ject, and I meet new kids there. me and my family. Thank you. Language-Hearing Association, which My speech therapist told me about Francis recently donated to the SFA. Their gener-your Web site and your newsletter. I Boston ous gifts will help children who stutter. ❑
12 www.stutteringhelp.org 1-800-992-9392Brain Continued from page 2 pertain to the metronome effect, unison ganglia may be disturbed because of reading, imitation of an accent, and role deficient input from the primary motor(However, he did not discuss stuttering.) play. Furthermore, cortex. In this way the basal gangliaAccording to this model, both systems there are re- model is compatible with the recent re-have the ability to provide go-signals for search data ports of structural anomalies of the cor-movements, but under somewhat differ- supporting tex and the white matter, e.g. in the sen-ent conditions. The lateral system, con- that it is the sorimotor region for the speech organssisting of the lateral premotor cortex and lateral system (Foundas et al., 2001; Sommer et al.,the cerebellum, is active when the move- that is dominant for 2002; Jancke et al., 2004; Watkins etment is controlled in relation to the senso- go-signals during al., 2005). A more detailed account ofry input — like when speaking to the singing and rhythmic speech, conditions this dual premotor model of stutteringpace of a metronome or reading in uni- know to improve fluency.son. Similarly, the lateral system is dom- is currently under way. An interesting question is how the A pdf-file of the thesis can be downloadedinant when speech is controlled by audi- effect of altered auditory feedback on from http://theses.lub.lu.se/postgrad/ (However,tory or somatosensory feedback. stuttering can be explained, for exam- the online version does not yet include all the re- search papers, because of copyright questions. In contrast, the medial system, consist- ple frequency altered feedback (FAF). For missing papers contact Per.Alm@psycholo-ing of the basal ganglia and the SMA, There are now several brain imaging gy.lu.se. Printed copies of the complete thesis canoperates based on automatized programs studies showing specific activation of be ordered from the Swedish Stutteringwithout external feedback. This system is Association, firstname.lastname@example.org, maybe about the lateral premotor system when lis- $20 including postage.)dominant during spontaneous speech, es- tening to speech sounds. Moreover, re- Referencespecially if the speech is propositional, i.e. cent brain imaging data (Watkins, Alm, PA (2004). Stuttering and the basal ganglia cir-that it conveys thoughts or emotions. cuits: a critical review of possible relations. Journal of Davis, & Howell, 2005) have shown Communication Disorders, 37, 325-69. The lateral system is also assumed to be increased activation of the auditory Alm, PA (2005). On the causal mechanisms of stutter-active when a movement is executed with cortex during speech with FAF. These ing. Doctoral thesis. Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Lund University, Sweden.increased attention and conscious control, findings point to increased control Caruso, AJ (1991). Neuromotor processes underlyingwhile the medial system dominates for au- from the lateral system during altered stuttering. In Peters et al. Speech motor control and stutter-tomatic responses. This is claimed to be the feedback, so that difficulties with the ing (101-16). Foundas, AL et al. (2001). Anomalous anatomy ofreason why it is difficult to get a natural medial system may be bypassed. This speech-language areas ... Neurology, 57, 207-15.smile when asked by a photographer — hypothesis is supported by reports that Goldberg, G (1985). Supplementary motor area ... some speech difficulties in Behavioral Brain Sci, 8, 567-616.voluntary and spontaneous smiles are cre- Goldberg, G (1991). Microgenetic theory and the dualated by two different systems in the brain. Parkinson’s disease, which is a basal premotor systems hypothesis. In Hanlon Cognitive micro-This distinction suggests that the lateral ganglia disorder, may be improved by genesis (32-52). either delayed or frequency altered au- Jancke, L et al. (2004). Morphological brain differ-system is in charge when speaking in a way ences ... BMC Neurology, 4.that is not automatic, like imitating an ac- ditory feedback. Ludlow, CL et al. (1987). Site of penetrating brain le-cent or playing a role. An important aspect of the dual pre- sions ... Ann Neurol, 22, 60-6. Molt LF (1999). The basal ganglias possible role in stut- This dual premotor systems model of motor model is that it emphasizes that tering. Proc. 2nd Internat. Stuttering Awareness Day,stuttering provides a novel explanation for the basal ganglia system is part of a Internet.most of the well-known fluency inducing larger medial system, including the Sommer, M et al. (2002). Disconnection of speech-rel- evant brain areas ... Lancet, 360, 380-3.conditions in stuttering. Stuttering is relat- complete loop from the cortex through Watkins, K, Davis, M, & Howell, P (2005). Brain ac-ed to a disturbance of the medial system, the basal ganglia and the thalamus, and tivity during altered auditory feedback. Paper at the Oxford back to the cortex (the SMA). For ex- Dysfluency Conference 2005, Oxford.but when the control is shifted from the Watkins, RV, Yairi, E, & Ambrose, NG (1999). Earlymedial to the lateral system the problem is ample, as suggested in Alm (2004), the childhood stuttering III. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 42,bypassed. As mentioned above, this could production of go-signals from the basal 1125-35. ❑ Newsbriefs and Books, usually found Workshops on this page, are at What’s New, www.stutteringhelp.org The Stuttering Foundation of America is a tax-ex- empt organization under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and is classified as a pri- Stuttering Therapy: Practical Ideas vate operating foundation as defined in section for the School Clinician 4942(j)(3). Charitable contributions and be- June 9-10, 2006 — Chicago quests to the Foundation are tax- With Kristin Chmela, M.A., E. Charles Healey, Ph.D., deductible, subject to limitations under the Code. Bill Murphy, M.A., Peter Ramig, Ph.D., Lisa A. Scott, Ph.D., and Patricia Zebrowski, Ph.D. THE The Mid-Atlantic Workshop: Treating STUTTERING Children and Adolescents Who Stutter Co-sponsored by the Children’s FOUNDATION Hospital of Philadelphia A Nonprofit Organization June 21-25, 2006 Since 1947 — Helping Those Who Stutter Our best wishes for a happy new year! With Joseph Donaher, M.A., Kristin Chmela, M.A., 3100 Walnut Grove Road, Suite 603 The SFA staff: (Front row, L to R) Lisa Scott, Jane and Lisa A. Scott, Ph.D . Fraser and Susie Hall; (Back row, L to R) Joan Warner, P.O. Box 11749 ● Memphis, TN 38111-0749 Applications are available online Roberta Brugge, Pat Hamm, Lisa Hinton and Anne 1-800-992-9392 ● 1-800-967-7700 at www.stutteringhelp.org Edwards. Not pictured are John Bell, Carol Ecke, Don www.stutteringhelp.org www.tartamudez.org or call 1-800-992-9392 Edwards, Joe Fulcher, Patty Reed and Scot Squires. email@example.com