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Tag Ontologies
 

Tag Ontologies

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I tried to explain what tag is, why we need ontologies for tagging, Newman's Tag Ontology, Gruber's Conceptual Model, MOAT, Common Tag, what folksonomy is, and SCOT.

I tried to explain what tag is, why we need ontologies for tagging, Newman's Tag Ontology, Gruber's Conceptual Model, MOAT, Common Tag, what folksonomy is, and SCOT.

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  • Hmm would there be an audio cast available somewhere? the slides of course are not self-explanatory
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  • Well done presentation on tagging.
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  • Very well done! I particularly like the usage of images to illustrate the main message of each single slide :-)
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    Tag Ontologies Tag Ontologies Presentation Transcript

    • Tag Ontologies Bridging the Semantic Web and the Social Web James G. Kim jgkim@jayg.org July, 2009
    • So, Let’s Talk about Tags! Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/somefool/3373796396/
    • Tag?
    • Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/celloc/3572696095/
    • Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/adulau/2124178869/
    • Tag |tag| noun a non-hierarchical keyword or term verb ( tagged |tøgd|, tagging |tøgɪŋ|) assign a tag to a piece of information or resources Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/abbyladybug/1253054966/
    • Personal information management (PIM) Information Social Architecture Software Organizing info so Computer-mediated others can find collaboration and sharing Tagging Social metadata Personal Information Management Organizing your information to get things done Figure 1.9 Much of Source:interestTagging: People-Powered Metadata for of Social Web the Gene Smith, in tagging is because the the way
    • Why Tagging Matters?
    • It’s Popular. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthewfield/2306001896/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • It’s Popular. “Today, practically anyone who uses a computer or the Internet is exposed to tagging in some way.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/matthewfield/2306001896/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • It’s Multifaceted. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/missizss/2418518837/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • It’s Multifaceted. “As tagging grows in popularity, the idea that the same thing can exist in multiple places will be the norm.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/missizss/2418518837/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • It’s Social. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pulguita/2868952310/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • It’s Social. “Through the most popular tags, we can see a kind of rough consensus on the subject of the resouce.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/pulguita/2868952310/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • It’s Flexible. Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/samuelr/3040787155/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • It’s Flexible. “Tagging offers organizations a way to learn, understand, and adopt the vocabulary of their communities.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/samuelr/3040787155/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • Basic Model
    • User Resource Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • User Resource “Taggers create the tags, and sometimes they add resources.” Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • User Resource “As long as we have a way to uniquely identify something, it can be tagged.” Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • User Resource “Because tagging is open-ended, tags can be just about any kind of term.” Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • User Resource Tags Tagging System Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • However
    • Source: David Simonds, The Economist
    • Let’s Share Tags!
    • Value by Sharing
    • Collaborative Sharing Across Multiple Applications Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/yourdon/3088582622/ Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges
    • Collaborative Filtering Based on Tagging Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/moosterbroek/2948816723/ Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges
    • Connecting People Based on Tagging Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jmcphers/117976932/ Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging
    • How Do We Do This?
    • Tag Ontologies
    • Ontology is NOT a Taxonomy Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thebusybrain/2492945625/ Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges
    • Ontology Makes Semantic Agreement Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mujitra/2933605871/ Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data
    • Semantic Agreement Enables Useful Composition Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ejpphoto/2314610838/ Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data
    • System A says a tag is a property of a document. System B says a tag is an assertion by an individual with an identity. Does it mean anything to combine the tag data from these two systems? Nah. If system A and B agree that a tagging is an assertion tagged(tag, resource, user), they share, exchange, and reuse tagging data across the systems. Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data
    • Richard Newman’s Tag Ontology
    • s w a g s ot ut e g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • s w a g s ot ut “Taggers are foaf:Agents.” e g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • s w a g s ot ut “Taggings reify the n-ary relationship e between a tagger, a tag, a resource, and a date.” g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • s w a g s ot ut “Tags are members of a Tag class. e Tags have names.” g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • s w a g s ot ut “We do not attempt to implement plurals or synonymity e at this stage, as these are subjective assessments of a tag.” g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • s w a g s ot ut e g Fig. 1. Tagging activity using Tag Ontology n Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/ r Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Tom Gruber’s Conceptual Model
    • Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) “Notably, Gruber defines the source as the scope of namespaces or universe of quantification for objects” Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Tagging(object, tag, tagger, source, + or -) Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/
    • Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B “Scope of Tagging assertion: universal or rel to source?” Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/
    • Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B “Scope of tag.name: universal or rel to source?” Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/
    • Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system A Tagging(Object, Tag, Tagger) // by system B “I suggest that tags are modeled through URIs.” Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges Reference: Richard Newman, http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/
    • Limits of Tagging
    • Ambiguity of Tags Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/202092577/ Reference: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging
    • Heterogeneity of Tags Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/seandreilinger/131086453/ Reference: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging
    • Flat Organization of Folksonomy Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimmediaart/582429985/ Reference: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging
    • Because of Independence
    • How Do We Overcome These?
    • vs. tagcommons
    • Use Common Tags
    • Source: Anja Jentzsch et al., http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-lod/2009Mar/0042.html
    • MOAT: Meaning of A Tag
    • Tagging(User, Resource, Tag, Meaning) Local Meaning Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data
    • tags:RestrictedTagging http://tags.moat- project.org/tag/paris rdf:type tags:associatedTag tags:name http://example.org/ tagging/1 paris moat:tagMeaning tags:taggedBy http://sws.geonames.org/ tags:taggedResource 2988507/ http://example.org/alex http://example.org/ post/1 Figure 2: Tagging and the local meaning of a tag Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data
    • Meaning(Tag) = {(Meaning, {User})} Global Meaning Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data
    • visiting online have France ? betting ? <htt del.icio.us query del.icio.us query 3. 3.1 paris tagged http://www.parissportifs.com/ Vario mant tagged tagged mode work http://paris.fr http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Hilton or lin focus a mo to re its fr Figure 1: User perception and tag search mode plian Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data m lar
    • http://tags.moat- Semantic We project.org/tag/paris [6] H. Halpin, V. tags:associatedTag and semantic http://example.org/ tags:name tagging/1 of the 1st Sem paris Workshop (SA moat:tagMeaning [7] S. Handschuh tags:taggedBy Semantic We tags:taggedResource http://sws.geonames.org/ Intelligence a 2988507/ 2003. http://example.org/alex [8] C. Hayes and sioc:topic identify topic geonames:parentFeature http://example.org/ post/1 International (ICWSM 07) http://sws.geonames.org/ [9] J. Kahan and http://example.org/julie 3017382/ RDF infrastru Proceedings o http://tags.moat- World Wide W moat:tagMeaning project.org/tag/france tags:taggedBy ACM Press. tags:associatedTag [10] H. Kim, J. Br Building a Ta tags:name http://example.org/ tagging/2 sioc:topic Ontology. In Symposium o france tags:taggedResource Stanford Univ [11] A. Mathes. F http://example.org/ and Commun post/2 http://www.a mediated-com Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data December 200
    • User creates content and tag it Client queries the MOAT server <http://sws.geonames.org/4402452/> Server returns the set for global meaning URIs User chooses local meaning URI <http://sws.geonames.org/2988507/> <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Paris_Hilton> tags:associatedTag User saves the content http://example.org/ http://tags.moat- tagging/1 project.org/tag/paris moat:tagMeaning Content enters tags:taggedResource http://sws.geonames.org/ the Semantic Web 2988507/ tags:taggedBy http://example.org/ post/1 http://example.org/alex Figure 3: Global architecture Source: Alexandre Passant et al., Meaning of A Tag: A Collaborative Approach to Bridge the Gap Between Tagging and Linked Data .3 Implementations
    • Source: Common Tag, http://commontag.org/
    • “Common Tags are defined using RDFa, a standard format for expressing structured data within HTML.” Source: Common Tag, http://commontag.org/
    • Make Tags Commons
    • Folksonomies
    • css ajax webdesign Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • css ajax webdesign “Folksonomy has become a popular term to describe the bottom-up classification systems that emerge from social tagging.” Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • HIV ccr5 cxcr4 Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • Harrison Ford Indiana Jones Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • Harrison Ford Indiana Jones “There are no formal relationships in a folksonomy, other than perhaps “degree of relatedness.” Source: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • “Tagging is done independently.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnjoh/2470964935/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • “Tags are aggregated.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ception/356449209/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • “Relationships are inferred.” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/albany_tim/3042619548/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • “Any inference method is valid (though some are better than others).” Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jannem/3312115991/ Reference: Gene Smith, Tagging: People-Powered Metadata for the Social Web
    • SCOT: Social Semantic Cloud of Tags
    • Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging
    • “The SCOT (Social Semantic Cloud of Tags) ontology is aimed to represent the structure and semantics of a set of tags and promotes their global sharing.” Reference: Haklae Kim et al., Social Semantic Cloud of Tag: Semantic Model for Social Tagging
    • Reference: Haklae Kim et al., SCOT Ontology Specification
    • Taxonomy vs. Folksonomy?
    • Web as a Platform Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tweng/2407653120/
    • Federated Ontology
    • ww.semanticdesktop.org/ontologies/nao/ontologies/2007/08/15/nrl# SIOC Tag Ontology MOAT Alice Bob Bob's SCOT bookmark (1) Create content Alice's bookmark Tag Tag sparql semantic web sw (2) Tag content Local meaning (4) Export tagcloud http://dbpedia.org/resource/ (3) Give meaning Semantic_Web sw Global Meaning Social bookmarking site Co-occurence http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Semantic_Web sparql Photo sharing site Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Bob and Alice's content + tags http://bobalice.com/ tagcloud scot:composed_of scot:composed_of SCOT http://bob.com/ SIOC SCOT + Tag Ontology tagcloud http://alice.net/ http://iswc2008.org tagcloud http://bob.com/ tags:taggedResource scot/semanticweb scot:contains scot:tagging_activity scot:tagging_activity scot:contains scot:aggregated_tag scot:has_usergroup http://alice.net/scot/sw http://alice.net/ Tag Ontology tags:taggedResource http://bobalice.com/ tagging/1 usergroup http://bob.com/ tagging/1 tags:associatedTag tags:associatedTag sioc:has_member sioc:has_member tags:taggedBy scot:aggregated_tag tags:name tags:taggedBy tags:name http://bob.com/tag/ http://alice.com/ semanticweb http://bob.com/ http://alice.net/ tag/sw sw semantic web user user moat:hasMeaning moat:hasMeaning http://bobalice.com/ meaning/1 moat:tagMeaning moat:meaningURI moat:tagMeaning http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Semantic_Web MOAT Fig. 5. Federation among RDF vocabularies Source: Haklae Kim et al., Review and Alignment of Tag Ontologies for Semantically-Linked Data in Collaborative Tagging Spaces
    • Challenges The First Step? Scope of Namespace Negative Tags “It’s not true that tagger1 tagged object2 with tag3.” Metatagging Tagging(Term, Term, Tagger)? Tagging(Tagger, Term, Tagger)? User Experience Reference: Tom Gruber, TagOntology: A Way to Agree on the Semantics of Tagging Data Reference: Tom Gruber, Ontology of Folksonomy: A Mash-Up of Apples and Oranges
    • Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ambersphoto/3484193590/