System on Chip design chapter 1 Naseeruddin Asst Prof. Dept of ECE,BITM,Bellary
History• 1958: First integrated circuit – Flip-flop using two transistors – Built by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments• 2003 – Intel Pentium 4 processor (55 million transistors) – 512 Mbit DRAM (> 0.5 billion transistors)• 53% compound annual growth rate over 45 years – No other technology has grown so fast so long• Driven by miniaturization of transistors – Smaller is cheaper, faster, lower in power! – Revolutionary effects on society
Motivation for SOC design• What is driving the industry to develop the SoC design methodology?– Higher productivity levels– Lower overall cost– Lower overall power– Smaller form factor– Higher integration levels– Rapid development of derivative designs
Moore’s Law• 1965: Gordon Moore plotted transistor on each chip – Fit straight line on semilog scale – Transistor counts have doubled every 26 months Integration Levels SSI: 10 gates MSI: 1000 gates LSI: 10,000 gates VLSI: > 10k gates
More----• Transistor counts have doubled every 26 months for the past three decades. 1,000,000,000 100,000,000 Pentium 4 Pentium III 10,000,000 Pentium II Pentium Pro Transistors Pentium Intel486 1,000,000 Intel386 80286 100,000 8086 10,000 8080 8008 4004 1,000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year
SOC• The VLSI manufacturing technology advances has made possible to put millions of transistors on a single die. It enables designers to put systems-on-a-chip that move everything from the board onto the chip eventually.• or• SoC is a high performance microprocessor, since we can program and give instruction to the uP to do whatever you want to do. or• SoC is the efforts to integrate heterogeneous or different types of silicon IPs on to the same chip, like memory, uP, random logics, and analog circuitry.• All of the above are partially right, but not very accurate!!!
Then, What is SOC ?• SoC not only chip, but more on “system”. SoC = Chip + Software + Integration• The SoC chip includes: Embedded processor ASIC Logics and analog circuitry Embedded memory• The SoC Software includes: OS, compiler, simulator, firmware, driver, protocol stackIntegrated development environment (debugger, linker, ICE)Application interface (C/C++, assembly)• The SoC Integration includes :• The whole system solution• Manufacture consultant• Technical Supporting
• “Highly integrated device.Also known as system on silicon, system- on-a-chip, system-LSI, system-ASIC” Our view of an SoC design is defined by extensive use ofreusable IP blocks, and mixed HW/SW design issues:– Programmable processor– Embedded memory– Digital signal processors– System bus + interfaces– Embedded programmable logic– Embedded software– Analog components
Scaling• Assignment : Ref: MOSFET Scaling and Small Geometry Effects, Sung Me Kung” CMOS Digital IC Analysis and Design pp:115-129
Comparison• SOC:Defined• SIP: It Is a Package that contains more than one integrated Circuit(IC).• SOB: System on Board
SOC is driven by cost reduction then by Miniaturization. Hence Lowest cost solutionSIP is primarily driven by miniaturization ; not the Lowest cost solution SOC SIP Power Low Medium to High Performance(Clk High Medium Speed) Design flexibility High Low to Medium System Design Low High Flexibility IP Availability Medium High Unit cost Low Medium-High Development High Low-Medium Cost/Time EDA tools Mature Limited Available Design High Limited services
Benefits• There are several benefits in integrating a large digital system into a single integrated circuit .• These include – Lower cost per gate . – Lower power consumption . – Faster circuit operation . – More reliable implementation . – Smaller physical size . – Greater design security .
The Drawbacks• The principle drawbacks of SoC design are associated with the design pressures imposed on today’s engineers , such as : – Time-to-market demands . – Exponential fabrication cost . – Increased system complexity . – Increased verification requirements
Design Productivity Gap issues
Solutions1.Elevation of the design process to ESL2. Design Re-use• Overcome complexity and verification issues by designing Intellectual Property (IP) to be re-usable .• Done on such a scale that a new industry has been developed.• Design activity is split into two groups: – IP Authors – producers . – IP Integrators – consumers .• IP Authors produce fully verified IP libraries – Thus making overall verification task more manageable• IP Integrators select, evaluate, integrate IP from multiple vendors – IP integrated onto Integration Platform designed with specific application in mind