These are the topics that this presentation will cover.
Start with ECDPM’s missionSupporting evidence-based policy design, implementation and evaluation Promoting a shared understanding of policies issues Partnerships involving national and regional public institutions, the private sector, the civil society, and donorsThen talk about the FS Programme Activities driven by the demand of African partners for support in the pursuit of the CAADP initiativeFinish with examples of other areas of focus Work on the coherence of the CAP with the agricultural development and food security initiatives of ACP countries Work on Economic Partnership Agreements to foster regional economic integration
Maputo Declaration: Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security in AfricaEn francais: Programmedetaille pour le developpement de l’agricultureafricaineNPCA or the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency is in charge of implementing the programmes started under NEPAD. NPCA is an agency of the AU.The CAADP Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) is a joint financing facility managed by the World Bank—a mechanism for channelling financial support for CAADP processes at the regional and country levels, but not for investment programmes.Involvement of donors: CAADP regional working groups; DPTT/CAADP Partnership donor group at the continental levelECDPM works with African and development partners to facilitate the CAADP process, particularly by supporting the RECs and other stakeholders such as regional farmers organizations. ECDPM also does analytical work to inform the formulation and implementation of regional policies and investment plans upon the requests of the RECs, in partnership with key stakeholders, including the REC Secretariats and the regional farmers organizations.
We’ve seen the process of CAADP. We’re now looking at the substance of CAADP.Food insecurity and malnutrition are multi-dimensional problems that generally have causes and consequences beyond national borders.Because of the topic of this meeting, which revolves around trade issues, I will focus on one aspect of CAADP, regional agricultural trade.Cross-border trade flows from surplus to deficit areasRole of cross-border trade in mitigating the effects of production shocks (food availability and prices) and ensuring stable food availability and access conditionsMarket opportunities for crop producers, herders, horticulture growers and food processors (agricultural diversification, scale economies, value-added agro-food industrial development)Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa and food securityMarket integration and cross-border investmentEconomic growth and poverty alleviationProductivity and production growthMarketing efficiency and value chain developmentLivelihoods development and poverty alleviation; women’s role in food production, marketing, income generation and childcareNutrition (food diet, quality of food, clean water access, childcare practices)
Example of trade facilitation interventions: one-stop border/customs posts, simplified and harmonized customs procedures (paperwork, inspections, etc.)Transport infrastructure and trade facilitation projects usually rely heavily on donors support
The Action Plan pre-dates the joint ministerial conference. It is attached to the declaration on the continental free trade area. At the joint ministerial conference, the Ministers said they will accelerate the process of the Action Plan to liberalize food trade.Example of bridge between the agricultural and trade sector: platform between the ministries of agriculture and tradeThis is a political declaration. It remains to be implemented.
The JAG for Regional Trade and Infrastructure is recent. It was born in the context of CAADP as the ministers at the joint ministerial conference call for a joint action group within CAADP. Actually, it is 3-sector group involving agriculture, trade and infrastructure. It is an informal group working at the continental level. Its role is to deepen the dialogue about the coordination between agriculture and trade, and supporting the countries and RECs in identifying and implementing synergies between these sectors.A way to link trade with agricultural development is to involve the AfT community, in particular, the EIF and STDF. The JAG will be a place where the AfT community can be involved. This will help coordinate CAADP funding with aid for trade funding.Currently, EIF funding is disbursed to LDC and there is no funding window for region.The July 2013 Global Aid for Trade Review is done by the WTO and OECD. It is going to be about how aid for trade is working and how it can be applied to develop value chains.Additional example of multi-sectorial coordination:Sahel and Horn of Africa: agriculture production increase and also: more sustainable river basin management, livestock value chains and herd migration (drought mitigation), civil security, etc.
ECOWAS: Regional compact (2009) and investment plan (2010) adopted + ECOWAP (2005), the common, regional agricultural policy of ECOWAS; stakeholders are working on specific agricultural investment programmesECCAS,Economic Community of Central African States (CommunautéÉconomique des États de l'AfriqueCentrale,CEEAC): Roadmap adopted in 2012; Regional compact and investment plan have not been adopted yetEAC, East African Community: Roadmap adopted in 2012; Compact and investment plan have not been adopted yet(Note: EAC has already created a customs union)IGAD, Inter-Governmental Authority for Development: Compact and investment plan have not been adopted yetSADC: The SADC Secretariat is preparing its regional agricultural policy that is intended to be “CAADP-compatible”COMESA: Roadmap for regional compact and development plan adopted in 2012; (Note: Tanzania is part of EAC and SADC but not of COMESA)
For example, in WA:Maize, rice,cassava and livestockIn WA, increasingregional trade is a priority. WA has the objective of establishing a customs union with a CET.Free trade area policy framework already in place but tariffs and NT barriers to trade remain (intra-regional trade is about 20% or less of total trade for WA countries)Road controls, formal and informal; time-consuming border crossing procedures and redundancy of border controls; corruptionHarmonized SPS regulations but lack of capacity to implement and enforce themAbout 1/3 of CAADP national investment is for tradeWA EPA Development Program: instrument to enhance regional economic integration that includes activities to raise agricultural production and AfT activities (to verify)
Facilitating cross-border tradeDeveloping a vision for PPPs and private investment in trade-supporting infrastructures and the agro-food sectorInvestment facilitation tools
Thank you for your attention. I will be glad to answer your questions.You can go to our website to find more information about the regional CAADP processes, the work done in the area of trade and agriculture, as well as other topics. There is also some documentation in the room.We remain available to explore opportunities to collaborate. You can reach me at this e-mail address.
Regional Agricultural Development and Food Security Initiatives in Africa
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets: Relationship with WTO Treatment Regional AgriculturalDevelopment and Food Security Initiatives in Africa Fabien Tondel ECDPMACP Brainstorming Meeting on Current WTO Agriculture Issues Geneva, March 19, 2013
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets Contents • About ECDPM • CAADP—Africa’s agricultural development and food security initiative • Regional agricultural trade and food security • Current status of regional policy processes • The international trading system and regional food security initiatives in Africa • Current policy analysis activitiesECDPM Page 2
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets About ECDPM • ECDPM “Think and do tank” Development cooperation EU-ACP Policy-oriented research Policy dialogue facilitation Partnership building around policy processes • ECDPM’s Food Security Programme Demand-driven activities EU-Africa relations (CAADP process) • Other focus areas concerning the ACP Group Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) Policy coherence for development (EU’s CAP)ECDPM Page 3
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) • 2003 Maputo Declaration Allocation of at least 10% of national budgets to agricultural and rural development (ARD), objective of 6% annual growth in agricultural production • CAADP Policy framework Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and Accra Agenda for Action Ownership, donors support alignment and harmonization, results orientation and M&E, mutual accountability, inclusive partnerships • National and regional compacts and investment plans • Continental-level coordination by AUC and NPCA • Donors groupECDPM Page 4
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets Regional agricultural trade and food security • Food insecurity and malnutrition • Cross-border agricultural trade, an essential element of food security and agricultural development • Regional economic integration • Multi-sectorial approaches • National and regional action • Policy coherence Linking agricultural initiatives with initiatives promoting regional trade and a favorable environment for private investment (agro-food industries, infrastructures)ECDPM Page 5
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets Regional agricultural trade issues • Significant barriers to cross-border trade remain (share of intra-Africa trade in agricultural products < 20%) Poor infrastructure and transportation systems (high transportation costs) Policy barriers to trade at the borders (tariffs, NTBs, red tape, and unstable trade policies) Behind-the-border barriers to trade, underdeveloped value chains for local food crops • Some progress Ongoing road, rail and waterways projects, trade facilitation projects and development of trade corridorsECDPM Page 6
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets 1st AU Joint Ministerial Conference on Trade and Agriculture in 2012 • Accelerating the Action Plan for boosting intra-Africa trade Early deal for the liberalization of staple food markets? • Identifying and implementing synergies between trade initiatives and ARD initiatives through CAADP • Strengthening the capacity of relevant institutions and agricultural producers to effectively participate in joint trade-ARD initiatives and monitor their impact • Mandating AU, NPCA and the RECs to institutionalize the policy dialogue aimed at realizing synergies between the agricultural and trade sectors • But concrete bridges across sectors are still neededECDPM Page 7
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets Joint Action Group for Regional Trade and Infrastructure • CAADP Joint Action Group for agriculture, regional trade and infrastructure Support countries and RECs in coordinating actions in ARD, trade and infrastructure • Bringing aid-for-trade into the CAADP process Enhanced Integrated Framework, Standards and Trade Development Facility • Providing more aid-for-trade support at the regional level • July 2013 Global Aid for Trade Review Aid for trade and value chain developmentECDPM Page 8
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets Current status of regional CAADP processes • West Africa (ECOWAS) (ECOWAP) • Central Africa (ECCAS) • East Africa (EAC) • Horn of Africa (IGAD) • Southern Africa (SADC) • Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)ECDPM Page 9
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets The Int’l trading system and regional food security initiatives in Africa • Rising food commodity prices and price volatility • Trade policy • Government stocks • Agricultural market informationECDPM Page 10
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets The Int’l trading system and regional food security initiatives in Africa • Investment in key food crop and livestock supply chains • Free trade areas, customs unions, and other initiatives for regional economic integration • Trade facilitation activities with a focus on agricultural products • Regional food reserves • Market information systemsECDPM Page 11
Food Security Systems in ACP Countries and International Markets Current policy analysis activities • Agricultural trade: linking crop producing areas to markets through trade corridors, promoting private investment in infrastructures supporting trade Trade corridors in Southern Africa (with FANRPAN) • Value chain development: connecting farmers to regional buyers and input suppliers, promoting private investments in the agro-food sector Agricultural information tool for East African farmers • CAADP process facilitation: Assessing achievements of ECOWAP, COMESA roadmap • Policy coherence for development: Coherence between the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy and African food security initiativesECDPM Page 12