Exploring the key
implementation challenges
for the post-2015 agenda
Informal CODEV Meeting

Jean Bossuyt –ECDPM Head of S...
Structure of the presentation
Section 1: SETTING THE SCENE

 What is likely to change in the post 2015 POLICY
framework?
...
1)

SETTING THE SCENE

WHAT IS LIKELY TO CHANGE?

WHAT DO WE MEAN BY
« TRANSFORMATION »?
Why is change necessary for the post-2015
framework?
Lessons from MDGs








Lack of participation in process –
po...
New elements in the emerging post-2015
agenda
Proposed new elements

Required policy developments

One overarching framewo...
Proposed new elements

Required policy developments

Guarantee basic living standards

Provide access to quality health an...
The concept(s) of transformation in
the post-2015 debate
Transformations at national level
Social transformation
• Greater...
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR
DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE?
POLITICS
POWER
RELATIONS AND
INCENTIVES

WHAT TYPE OF
EXTERNAL ACTION?

INTE...
Major change of “software” required
What “animal” are we talking about?

ECDPM

Page 11
Integrating politics into development:
an ongoing challenge
How much “leverage” the EU still has?

ECDPM

Page 13
What incentives for change?
Remaining relevant in the post 2015 era
2)

THREE CASE STUDIES
Tunisia
Ethiopia
Ukraine
Tunisia
1) 2000s: Tunisia excels in
terms of MDG performance
Strong health, education and
extreme poverty eradication
indi...
Tunisia
3) Ongoing transformation processes in Tunisia:
High degree of navel-gazing; root causes of uprising remain
largel...
Tunisia
5) Some implications for the EU
and development community
1.

Translating call for “dignity,
freedom, respect and ...
Ethiopia
1) Good student of the MDG
paradigm and longstanding donor
darling
Strong growth figures
MDG report 2013: “Ethiop...
Ethiopia
3) Ongoing transformation processes in Ethiopia
Development vision based on technocratic
modernization
Components...
Ethiopia
5) Some implications for the EU and
development community
1.Redirect cooperation to include a real and inclusive
...
Ukraine
1) Performance from an MDG perspective
Adapted MDGs (7 goals, 15 targets, 33 indicators)
Uneven performance (below...
Ukraine
3) Ongoing/Planned transformations in Ukraine
Modernization of the economy
Unclear political reform agenda
Joining...
Ukraine
5) Implementation challenges Post-2015
Combining geopolitical, economy and security interests with
promotion of va...
3)

EXPLORING KEY
IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES
OF THE POST-2015 AGENDA
So far, much discussion on
‘What?’ but little on the ‘How?’

ECDPM

Page 27
Key implementation issues &
challenges
• Challenge 1: Recognizing and working with
complexity, uncertainty and dynamics in...
Key implementation issues &
challenges
• Challenge 3: Multi-actor approaches likely to
be come the norm. This will imply s...
Key implementation issues &
challenges
• Challenge 6: Value of financial transfers will
diminish. Growing importance of ex...
Thank you
www.ecdpm.org
www.slideshare.net/ecdpm

Page 31
Exploring the key implementation challenges for the post 2015 agenda
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Exploring the key implementation challenges for the post 2015 agenda

601

Published on

Informal CODEV Meeting
Jean Bossuyt –ECDPM Head of Strategy
Vilnius, 3 October 2013

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
601
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • There is growing consensus that a post-2015 framework will have to look very different than the current MDG framework. This stems on the one hand from lessons learned from the MDGs as well as some of the weaknesses inherent in the current goals. On the other hand there is the realisation that the world has changed, new challenges have emerged and will While the MDGs have been associated with improvements in human welfare, they have also attracted criticism and have shown some weaknesses.Text to be added
  • The term ‘transformative agenda’ has become one of the buzzwords of the post-2015 debate, yet its concept is not clearly defined and various transformations are necessary to achieve the emerging new goals and element of the global agenda. The term is used quite broadly and delineates required shifts and changes in the objectives of a post-2015 framework (such as the HLP 5 ‘transformative shifts’ required, which include ‘Leave noone behind’ as well as global partnerships mentioned in the table). Others use the term for the required changes (the How?) in order to achieve certain goals (e.g. the aspects of economic transformation such as diversification in order to create decent jobs). At the national level, 3 types of transformations are important and are being discussed: economic, environmental and social. Economic transformation for inclusive and sustainable growth:-increase productivityDiversify economic activities and relationshipsTowards more sustained outputs to provide resources for individual and national level actions against povertyRequires:-investing to increase productivity in agriculture while at the same time diversifying out of primary products into manufacturing/services“Governments can provide the infrastructure, the incentives and the security to encourage private sector investments in more diverse and transformative economic activities.” (Melamed, 2013)‘Economic structural transformation is predominantly a task for policies at the national level. Yet, a global framework can set goals to create an enabling environment and support countries in transforming their economies (e.g. through supplying funding for infrastructure development and promoting private investment. It will also be necessary to build resilience for countries to help them avoid slipping back, including macroeconomic resilience as well as the capacity to cope with environmental shocks and other stressors. Social transformation Social transformation is needed to enhance the distribution of the opportunities and benefits from economic growth, particularly to the poorest and most excluded. A social transformation should lead to greater equity and for example include expansion of high-quality education and the provision of health care and social protection system for all. The improvement in people’s lifes through social transformation and the provision of stability is one of the elements that is part of the private sector incentives to create transformative growth (see Melamed, 2013). Environmental transformationReduce unsustainable use of natural resources that has characterised growth in the pastThe scale of transformation is large: e.g fossil fuels currently accounting for 80% of energy consumption.Sustainable use of planetary resourcesFiscal policies to ensure that benefits of natural resources are widely shared.Incentive framework to encourage investments in new, more sustainable technologies, including through strict sutainability requirements for public investment programmes. Underlying political and institutional transformations needed? Underlying the social, economic and environmental transformation is underlying a transformation of institutions towards open, transparent accountable and effective institutions. Forging a new global partnership, Towards an overarching change in international cooperation that provides the policy space for domestic transformations. The HLP notes that ‘A fifth, but perhaps most important, transformative shift for the post-2015 agenda is to bring a new sense of global partnership into national and international politics. This must provide a fresh vision and framework, based on our common humanity and the principles established at Rio. Included among those principles: universality, equity, sustainability, solidarity, human rights, the right to development and responsibilities shared in accordance with capabilities. The partnership should capture, and will depend on, a spirit of mutual respect and mutual benefit.’
  • Growth and Transformation Plan targeting 11-15% GDP growth from 2010-2015COMPONENTS OF GTP
  • Exploring the key implementation challenges for the post 2015 agenda

    1. 1. Exploring the key implementation challenges for the post-2015 agenda Informal CODEV Meeting Jean Bossuyt –ECDPM Head of Strategy Vilnius, 3 October 2013
    2. 2. Structure of the presentation Section 1: SETTING THE SCENE  What is likely to change in the post 2015 POLICY framework?  What do we mean by “transformation”? Section 2: THREE COUNTRY CASE STUDIES  to illustrate the shift from the MDG paradigm to the post-2015 agenda (including in terms of “transformation”)  to assess current donor (EU) responses and challenges for future external action Section 3: IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES POST-2015 ECDPM Page 2
    3. 3. 1) SETTING THE SCENE WHAT IS LIKELY TO CHANGE? WHAT DO WE MEAN BY « TRANSFORMATION »?
    4. 4. Why is change necessary for the post-2015 framework? Lessons from MDGs       Lack of participation in process – post-2015 process more inclusive Focus on social sector, reduced attention to factors important for structural transformation This led to rather technical and apolitical approach MDGs masked growing inequalities Lack of commitments by richer countries Omittance of important development issues Go beyond MDGs, to fulfill vision of promoting sustainable development for all – Business as usual not an option ECDPM A changing context    Changing global patterns of power – donor-recipient type relationship of past Changing in understanding of global poverty – focus on multiple dimensions Future challenges  Demographic challenges – (growing world population, ageing societies)  Environmental challenges – (climate change, unsustainable consumption, loss of land and biodiversity)  Economic Challenges (growing middle class, increasing trade and capital flows, increasing South-South economic relations) Page 4
    5. 5. New elements in the emerging post-2015 agenda Proposed new elements Required policy developments One overarching framework for poverty reduction and sustainable development. Integrated approach towards tackling social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability, creating synergies between the three dimensions Inclusiveness Structures that allow for active participation, accountability mechanisms and empowerment Transforming Economies Focus on profound structural economic transformation, decent job creation and inclusive growth while ensuring sustainable patterns of consumption and production ‘Leave no one behind’ and tackle inequality Ensuring that no-one is left behind and that inequality does not widen requires addressing structural power and socio-economic inequalities. The HLP proposes to track progress towards goals at all levels of income and disaggregated by various groups. ECDPM Page 5
    6. 6. Proposed new elements Required policy developments Guarantee basic living standards Provide access to quality health and education, access to water and sanitation, food security, establish social protection floors for all, … No development without Peace & Security Address the root causes of conflict and violence and build stable, honest, accountable and responsive institutions, build stable and resilient societies. A rights-based-approach Requires addressing justice, equality, equity, good governance and power imbalances impeding the delivery of rights. Empowerment women, youth and marginalized groups Accountability ‘Beyond Aid’ Policy Coherence for Development and Global Collective Action, New partnerships in the spirit of cooperation and mutual accountability, clear responsibilities for all parties and a broader set of means of implementation, such as new financial instruments or dialogue and knowledge sharing Universal Agenda Everyone shares responsibility towards achieving the goals and creating favourable environments for sustainable development ECDPM Page 6
    7. 7. The concept(s) of transformation in the post-2015 debate Transformations at national level Social transformation • Greater equity in access to services • Social protection • Stability as prerequisite for economic transformation Environmental transformation • Reduce unsustainable use of natural resources Economic transformation • Increase productivity • Diversify economic activities and relationships Global transformations to support national level transformation Transformation in institutions • Without sound institutions, no sustainable development (HLP report) • Transparency and Accountability, Openness • Inclusive political processes ECDPM Page 7
    8. 8. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE? POLITICS POWER RELATIONS AND INCENTIVES WHAT TYPE OF EXTERNAL ACTION? INTEGRATED APPROACHES (INTERNATIONAL) DRIVERS OF CHANGE COLLECTIVE ACTION CITIZEN ACTION NEGOTIATION
    9. 9. Major change of “software” required
    10. 10. What “animal” are we talking about? ECDPM Page 11
    11. 11. Integrating politics into development: an ongoing challenge
    12. 12. How much “leverage” the EU still has? ECDPM Page 13
    13. 13. What incentives for change?
    14. 14. Remaining relevant in the post 2015 era
    15. 15. 2) THREE CASE STUDIES Tunisia Ethiopia Ukraine
    16. 16. Tunisia 1) 2000s: Tunisia excels in terms of MDG performance Strong health, education and extreme poverty eradication indicators 2) 2010-11 reality check: increasing pressure on elitist and centralized development vision  system crumbles Missing dimensions: inequality, employment, human, political and civil rights, economic opportunity… ECDPM Page 17
    17. 17. Tunisia 3) Ongoing transformation processes in Tunisia: High degree of navel-gazing; root causes of uprising remain largely neglected: 1. Employment and social dialogue  decent jobs 2. Regional disparities and uneven economic opportunity  inclusive growth 4) Current donor responses: Support to democratization and political developments Blind scramble for Tunisia’s civil society (5 different mapping studies since 2011) ECDPM Page 18
    18. 18. Tunisia 5) Some implications for the EU and development community 1. Translating call for “dignity, freedom, respect and social justice” to cooperation priorities  Agenda setting 2. Act as a catalyst (EU and MS by far the biggest donor) for Member states and other DPs  Coordination 3. Invest in transfer of knowledge 4. Review relations with Tunisia across European external action  Testing ground for Policy Coherence for Development ECDPM Net ODA received in Tunisia Page 19
    19. 19. Ethiopia 1) Good student of the MDG paradigm and longstanding donor darling Strong growth figures MDG report 2013: “Ethiopia has made tremendous strides in eradicating extreme poverty, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality and empowering women and improving maternal health” Island of stability in the region! 2) Reality Check: Deeply rooted inequality Limited freedom of expression, consistent human rights violations Little respect for social and economic ECDPMrights (labour rights!) Very good on paper… Page 20
    20. 20. Ethiopia 3) Ongoing transformation processes in Ethiopia Development vision based on technocratic modernization Components: FDI, WTO integration and Massive industrial and infrastructure projects Omissions: governance, fundamental freedoms, socioeconomic indicators, labour rights… (=MDG omissions) 4) Current donor responses: Investments in infrastructure, rural development and macro-economic governance and regional integration EU: history of General Budget Support and preparation of GGDC ECDPM Page 21
    21. 21. Ethiopia 5) Some implications for the EU and development community 1.Redirect cooperation to include a real and inclusive transformative agenda  contextualization 2.Focus on the neglected dimensions of development: • Inclusive growth • Tackling inequality • Political, civil and human rights  Rights-based approach 3.Need to move towards a realistic use of leverage in cooperation with Ethiopia ECDPM Page 22
    22. 22. Ukraine 1) Performance from an MDG perspective Adapted MDGs (7 goals, 15 targets, 33 indicators) Uneven performance (below progress in region) 2) Reality check : key challenges for stability and development (beyond the MDG framework) Growing inequalities (not only economic but also along political, social, ethnic-cultural lines) Urban-rural divide Deteriorating standards of democracy and rule of law Addressing the challenge of climatic change? ECDPM Page 23
    23. 23. Ukraine 3) Ongoing/Planned transformations in Ukraine Modernization of the economy Unclear political reform agenda Joining the “European club” 4) Adequacy current EU responses to support transformation in Ukraine Association Agreement as an incentive for reform Use of leverage (conditionalities on democracy/rule of law) New deals based on common interests (e.g. Black Sea Cooperation) ECDPM Page 24
    24. 24. Ukraine 5) Implementation challenges Post-2015 Combining geopolitical, economy and security interests with promotion of values (democracy, HR) Effectively supporting institutional development and democratic governance, provision of high quality public services Inclusive dialogue to facilitate reduction of structural inequalities Technology and capacity transfer ECDPM Page 25
    25. 25. 3) EXPLORING KEY IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES OF THE POST-2015 AGENDA
    26. 26. So far, much discussion on ‘What?’ but little on the ‘How?’ ECDPM Page 27
    27. 27. Key implementation issues & challenges • Challenge 1: Recognizing and working with complexity, uncertainty and dynamics in socio-ecological, political and economic systems. Post-2015 may prioritize areas where less knowledge on how to make progress exists – more experimental approaches necessary? • Challenge 2: - Squaring the circle between global goals and national targets: Global goals are only effectively executed when resonating with national plans and targets. Each country to determine management of own transition(s). ECDPM Page 28
    28. 28. Key implementation issues & challenges • Challenge 3: Multi-actor approaches likely to be come the norm. This will imply systematic negotiations between actors with competing interests. Mediation and brokerage roles. • Challenge 4: Subsidiarity principle – implementation important at the least centralized scale in ways that are coherent with overall vision – Are local structures/ leaders prepared to implement new goals? How to support local activism to make change happen? • Challenge 5: Integrated approaches are needed. Improvements in one domain may be undermined by failures in others. Synergies need to be sought. In this framework also need for PCD. ECDPM Page 29
    29. 29. Key implementation issues & challenges • Challenge 6: Value of financial transfers will diminish. Growing importance of exchange of knowledge on how to carry out major transformations (potential added value of EU experiences) • Challenge 7: Crafting of the required implementation and accountability framework to monitor progress at national, regional and global level through an inclusive process will take time. • Challenge 8: Need for major overhaul institutional set-up, processes, approaches, skills and capacities of “donor agencies” ECDPM Page 30
    30. 30. Thank you www.ecdpm.org www.slideshare.net/ecdpm Page 31
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×