Oppositional Defiant Disorder<br />A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior<br />
Treatments<br />Psychotherapy- an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties<br /> Group therapy ( with other ODD peers) and <br /> Family therapy ( parent and child)<br />Parents learn behavioral techniques to properly control the child<br />Gradual shaping of the child’s behavior using a behavioral monitoring and reward program<br />
Symptoms<br />defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present: <br />often loses temper <br />often argues with adults <br />often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules <br />often deliberately annoys people <br />often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior <br />is often touchy or easily annoyed by others <br />is often angry and resentful <br />is often spiteful or vindictive <br />
Prevalence<br />usually begins between ages 1-3<br />more common in boys than girls before puberty<br />equally divided in both males and females after puberty<br />affects 20% of school-age children<br />behavior typically starts by age 8, but it may start as early as the preschool years<br />caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors<br />60% of patients with ODD will develop Conduct Disorder (CD)<br />
Research Studies<br />1.) Testing the efficacy of of atomoxetine in improving ADHD and ODD symptoms in paediatric patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)<br />Patients ( 6- 15 years)- unresponsive to 6- week parent training program<br />Randomized to atomoxetine or placebo for 8- week double blind experiment<br />Results: All 136 subjects ( except for 3, responded negatively ) improved after being given atomexetine<br />Dell'Agnello G, Maschietto D (2009)<br />
Research Studies<br />2.) Characteristics Associated with ODD, CD, ODD + CD<br />Aim: Determine if background pattern( psychological, social, and family) of a children with OCD, CD, ODD + Cd are similar<br />336 boys and girls ( 6-13 years)<br />123 children with ODD, 39 with CD "only", and 174 with ODD + CD<br />Results: CD children are characterized by antisocial parents and poor supervision, ODD children are characterized by deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and inconsistent discipline, presentations for ODD and CD characterize kids with ODD + CD<br />Lapalme M, Déry M (2008)<br />
Importance of Learning About ODD<br />Oftentimes, when a child is acting up, it may not be a much more complicated problem like Oppositional Defiant Disorder. The child may have turned the home into a battle ground . It can occur so often that the heavy stress and constant arguments have become a natural way of life. <br />Parents with ODD children tend to fuel the child’s satisfaction by returning the heated comments which in turn increases the negative behavior. This method is difficult to avoid and strains the family.<br />
Effects on the Family<br />Odd children play off parents against each other and creates a wedge between the two<br />Parents avoid social events ( parties, holidays) due to the child’s negative behavior<br />Parent s become harsher and more rigid in dealing with the child ( parenting skills for other children may not be applicable to those with ODD)<br />Siblings ( feel ignored and also begin to act out) and pets ( threatened by violence of ODD child) may be in harm’s way<br />
Seeking Help<br />Children with ODD find the anger of their parents to be the greatest thrill. They love the intensity and excitement.<br />For more information or support, please view the following links:<br />1.) http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx73t.htm<br />2.) http://myoutofcontrolteen.com/oddcriteria.html<br />3.) http://www.conductdisorders.com/forum/f6/o-d-d-support-groups-8490/<br />
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