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Catechesis, Dialogue and the Bangsamoro (Points for Reflection) by Fr. Albert Alejo, SJ

Catechesis, Dialogue and the Bangsamoro (Points for Reflection) by Fr. Albert Alejo, SJ



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  • GREETINGS/INTRODUCTION I am pleased to present to you today the M indanao 2020 Peace and Development Framework Plan. This is the result of a wide consultative process, crafted by Mindanawons, and done in partnership with CONFED, MLA, the regional development councils (RDCS) in mindanao, and the regional economic and development planning board (REDPB) of ARMM. This undertaking was also made possible with the assistance of a team of experts from Mindanao who helped us facilitate the process, led by no less than former neda director-general Dr. Cielito Habito. As a framework plan, it is not intended to be a detailed blueprint, but rather a guide that sets general directions.  As such, it should serve as basis for more detailed plans and budgets of shorter duration within its 20-year time frame.  It should also help guide more geographically specific (i.e., regional or local) and sector-level plans to ensure consistency and coherence within an overall and mindanao-wide perspective.  However,let me congratulate our resource speakers for coming to Davao and for committing themselves to this task of sharing their time and expertise (even in the midst of the yuletide season) as we try to achieve our goal of establishing Mindanao’s integrated multi-modal transport and logistics system.

Peace.mindanao.catechist.2013 Peace.mindanao.catechist.2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Paz Peace Kalinaw! Kapayapaan
  • How can theHow can the Mindanawon storyMindanawon story be beautifullybe beautifully woven into ourwoven into our Philippine historyPhilippine history ChristianChristian education?education?
  • “Tayo, ano ang koneksyon natin sa Mindanao? Sa mga Moro? Sa mga Lumad? Paano natin napag-uusapan ang hindi natin karehiyon o karelihiyon?”
  • PERSONAL NOTEPERSONAL NOTE • My Lolo is from Salimbalan, Imbatug, Baungon, Bukidnon. • My Tatay, from Obando met my Mama in Wao, Lanao. I was born in Cagayan de Oro. Grew up in Bulacan. • Two years regency in Davao during Martial Law. Five months parish priest in Camp Philips. !8 months in Mount Apo for my research. Ten years in Davao. Now in Zamboanga.
  • PUBLIC PEACE CONSULTATIONSPUBLIC PEACE CONSULTATIONS A project of the Bishop-Ulama ConferenceA project of the Bishop-Ulama Conference
  • OPAPP Communications PlanOPAPP Communications Plan Dialogue MindanawDialogue Mindanaw Reflective Dialogues on theReflective Dialogues on the GRP-MILF Peace NegotiationGRP-MILF Peace Negotiation
  • Work with Lumad SocialWork with Lumad Social MovementMovement
  • SEC. LUWALHATI R. ANTONINO Chairperson Mindanao Development Authority
  • through the years... A decade of celebration and challenges 2001-2003 to 2011-2013
  • TAYO-TAYO MUNA!TAYO-TAYO MUNA! Intrafaith Process among Catholics in the ServiceIntrafaith Process among Catholics in the Service of Interfaith Dialogue with Muslims and Lumadsof Interfaith Dialogue with Muslims and Lumads
  • SILENT COST OF WAR Albert E. Alejo, SJ Ateneo de Zamboanga University
  • PambansangPambansang DahonDahon AnahawAnahaw
  • PambansangPambansang BulaklakBulaklak SampaguitaSampaguita
  • PambansangPambansang Bungang-Bungang- KahoyKahoy ManggaMangga
  • NarraNarra PambansangPambansang Punong-KahoyPunong-Kahoy
  • PambansangPambansang TirahanTirahan KuboKubo
  • PambansangPambansang IbonIbon AgilaAgila
  • PambansangPambansang HayopHayop KalabawKalabaw
  • PambansangPambansang IsdaIsda BangusBangus
  • ANOANO angang PambansangPambansang PAGKAINPAGKAIN?? LitsonLitson
  • “2004 Teachers’ Choice” Also available: 2007, 2011 editions)
  • PambansangPambansang BayaniBayani Jose RizalJose Rizal
  • PambansangPambansang KamaoKamao http://angbagongfilipino.wordpress.com/2010/11/14/ang-http://angbagongfilipino.wordpress.com/2010/11/14/ang- pambansang-kamaopambansang-kamao// MannyManny PaquiaoPaquiao
  • ContentContent AnalysisAnalysis Source:Source: Cagayan deCagayan de Oro ClusterOro Cluster byby Gail de laGail de la RitaRita
  • Grade VI TextbookGrade VI Textbook (2007)(2007)
  • Grade SchoolGrade School TextsTexts “Ang Yakan naman ay taga- Basilan. Maliit lamang sila, singkit ang mga mata, at maitim ang buhok na parang taga-Borneo.” Grade 6. (2007)
  •  In most of the Sibika and Social Studies Textbooks that our basic education institution make use today, MINDANAO is either, underrepresented, misrepresented or not represented at all as shown in some of the sample slides.  The problem is: this attitude seems reflected in the economy of Mindanao.
  • Source: Beyond the Veil of Conflict: Moving Toward Economic Integration for Sustained Development and Peace in Mindanao (World Bank 2010) Note: Expressed in terms of gross regional domestic product (GRDP) per square km. Economic density in the Philippines (Mindanao)
  • 84 million Philippine population84 million Philippine population Catholic Church = 83%Catholic Church = 83% Other Christians = 9%Other Christians = 9% Muslims = 5 %Muslims = 5 % Indigenous and other Religious Traditions = 3%Indigenous and other Religious Traditions = 3% Source: www.nationmaster.comSource: www.nationmaster.com
  • Mindanao PopulationMindanao Population • 18 Indigenous groups 8.9% • 13 Islamized tribes 18.5% • “Kristiyanos”/“settlers” 72.5%
  • Public Land Law and Resettlement Hectarage Allowed Year Homesteader Non-Christian Corporation 1903 16 has. (no provision) 1,024 has. 1919 24 has. 10 has. 1,024 has. 1936 16 has. 4 has. 1,024 has.
  • Resettlement: Case of Cotabato 1918 census Population Range Towns w/ Moro Towns w/ Lumad Towns w/ Settler 50% up 20 5 0 25 - 49.9% 4 2 2 10 – 24.9% 4 7 2 9.9% & less 2 6 18
  • 1939 census Population Range Towns w/ Moro Towns w/ Lumad Towns w/ Settler 50% up 20 9 3 25 - 49.9% 5 2 2 10 – 24.9% 6 3 10 9.9% & less 2 8 13
  • 1970 census Population Range Towns w/ Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler 50% up 10 0 38 25 - 49.9% 8 1 4 10 – 24.9% 11 5 5 9.9% & less 21 31 2
  • COTABATO 1918 CENSUS Bayan ng Lumad - 5 Bayan ng Moro - 20
  • COTABATO 1939 CENSUS Bayan ng Moro - 20 Bayan ng Lumad - 9 Bayan ng Settler - 3
  • POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO 1918-1970 1918 1939 1970 Bayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler
  • Mindanao Population • 18 Indigenous groups 8.9% • 13 Islamized tribes 18.5% • “Kristiyanos”/“settlers” 72.5%
  • Challenging “Majority- Minority” Habit of Thinking 1. The majority now has not been the majority in the beginning. 2. Christians form the majority in the Philippines, but we are minority in the rest of Asia. 3. While Christians feel we are the majority in the country, actually, in some places like Basilan, Christians are a minority.
  • VENEER OF BENEVOLENCE? “A nationalistic educational policy formulated from within the cultural, religious and political worldviews of a Manila-centered elite…was widely experienced as a homogenisation of Filipino identity hostile to Muslim Filipino identities, regardless of that bureaucracy’s benevolent intentions. Pursued within the conceptual framework of civilisation-development, state educational policies gave integration a veneer of benevolence…”
  • EDUCATION’S POSSIBLE FAILURE OF INTEGRATION • “The Manila-centered educational elite continued to hold the power to define national identity in terms of colonial borders and their own historical experience… • “While 50 years of the policy of integration through education no doubt contributed to the social mobility of individual Muslims…it largely failed to achieve the goal of mitigating Muslim-Christian tensions in Mindanao” ---Milligan (2005),
  • Biases and Prejudices… “…the perceptions and understandings that Muslims and Christians have of each other lack objectivity and are coloured by strong biases and prejudices; but especially strong are the biases Christians have against Muslims.” Rosalita Tolibas-Nunez, 1997. Roots of conflict: Muslims, Christians, and the Mindanao struggle. Makati City: Asian Institute of Management. P. 84.
  • Biases and Prejudices… “A majority of Filipinos (still) think that Muslims are probably more prone to run amok (55 percent) although probably not oppressive to women (59 percent). A plurality believes that Muslims are probably terrorists or extremists (47 percent) and that they probably consider themselves as Filipinos (49 percent). There are equal percentages (44 percent) of those who believe that Muslims probably secretlyt hate all non-Muslims and those who do not.”---Appendix 1.1. “Measuring the bias against Muslims,” (Manila: Human Development Network, 2005).
  • The Role of Catholic Schools in Mindanao Peace Building “Schools, colleges and universities, acknowledged as neutral agents of change, can play a strategic and leadership role in helping craft a Mindanao peace roadmap, build broad support around it, and provide timely assessments and inputs as to its implementation. The conventional notion that education is the long- term solution to peacelessness “self-limits” the vast potentials of educational institutions as credible and effective platforms for peace-building and peace-making in the short and medium term.” --- (Atty. Beny Bacani)
  • “The Catholic Church in general and Catholic educational institutions in particular are weighed down by “baggages” as a repository of confessional and historical biases against Muslims and Lumads. The success of peace-building programs of Catholic educational institutions must be gauged among others on how they move Christians into admitting that they play a part in the historical marginalization of minority groups and that there can be no just resolution to the Mindanao conflicts without their support.” ---Benny Bacani
  • Is it possible that in opening many schools in Mindanao, we have not just shared faith and civilization, but have also extended the colonial project? To what extent can the story of Catholic schools and catechetical instructions in Mindanao be considered “good news” to the Mindanawons, especially the Moros and the Lumads? How can we become instruments of peace?
  • HIJABHIJAB A Challenge Case on InterfaithA Challenge Case on Interfaith and Intrafaith Dialogueand Intrafaith Dialogue
  • The Hijab MomentThe Hijab Moment The hijab issue in Pilar College in Zamboanga may be seen as a learning moment for all sectors, including school administrators, Muslim groups, government officials, academic researchers, media and law practitioners, and peace advocates, and individual Facebook and Twitter likers and sharers. But we need to handle this very carefully.
  • COMPLAINTCOMPLAINT • “The policy is a violation of our religious freedom. It even violates the very mission of Pilar College stated in its handbook that ‘it must respect and understand all Christians, Muslims and lumads.’ Many of us felt that this violation should not be taken lightly and needs to be acted upon immediately,” stresses Estino, a 1990 graduate of Pilar College.
  • AGAINST THE LAWAGAINST THE LAW • NCMF Secretary Atty. Sadain, on the other hand, defended the Muslim community and maintained that the wearing of the hijab is fully supported by law and state policies such as Section 28 (e) of the Magna Carta of Women; Department of Education Order No. 53, series of 2001 issued on Oct. 29, 2001; Commission on Higher Education Memorandum dated Aug. 26, 2008; and Department of Health Memorandum No. 2009-0107.
  • ACADEMIC FREEDOMACADEMIC FREEDOM • Our own Supreme Court decisions have hewed closely to this line of thought; to cite only one out of many rulings upholding academic freedom, the high court asserted in 2001, in University of the Philippines et al. vs Civil Service Commission: “We have held time and again that the University has the academic freedom to determine for itself on academic grounds who may teach, what may be taught, how it shall be taught, and who may be admitted to study.”--PDI
  • PILAR COLLEGE INITIALPILAR COLLEGE INITIAL POSITIONPOSITION “Such a policy does not intend to discriminate but rather to democratize or to equalize all students regardless of their religion. The way I look at it, it is even Pilar College now that is being discriminated against because it is being mandated to conform to something that will suit the Muslim enrollees despite the fact that the school has the Catholic identity.
  • From the consultationsFrom the consultations…… (a) Pilar faculty is almost unanimous in preferring “no hijab” policy; and this is something the RVM sisters are strongly considering in their decision. (b) Among the students, high school girls would prefer wearing hijab, because “they are not yet spiritually ready.” (c) Christian parents and alumni tend to be heavily in favour of retaining the present no-hijab policy; they do not like the “the other side to win”. But some Christian
  • Clarification:Clarification: POSITION AND VALUES Pilar College wants to avoid discrimination by removing difference. (No hijab makes everyone equal, meaning similar.) NCMF wants to avoid discrimination by accepting difference. (Wearing hijab makes Muslim feel accepted as they are.) Pilar and NCMF share the same value: avoiding discrimination.
  • RESULTING AGREEMENTRESULTING AGREEMENT 1. Pilar College will allow the wearing of hijab, not immediately as demanded by the NCMF; 2. But after a robust “social preparation”---a series of seminars on the meaning of hijab, individual freedom, academic freedom, etc. 3. This is the result of both a dialogue between Pilar College and NCMF, as well as internal processing among RVM schools, and statekeholders.
  • HEALING FORHEALING FOR SOLIDARITYSOLIDARITY Learning fromLearning from CBCP Reflecting on IndigenousCBCP Reflecting on Indigenous Peoples MinistryPeoples Ministry January 2010January 2010 Albert E. Alejo, SJ Episcopal Commission on Indigenous Peoples (ECIP) 6-9 September 2010
  • CONFESSION OF SINS COMMITTED IN ACTIONS AGAINST LOVE, PEACE, THE RIGHTS OF PEOPLES, AND RESPECT FOR CULTURES AND RELIGIONS (POPE JOHN PAUL II, DAY OF PARDON, MARCH 12, 2000 • “Lord of the world, Father of all, through your Son you asked us to love our enemies, to do good to those who hate us and to pray for those who persecute us. Yet Christians have often denied the Gospel; yielding to a mentalíty of power, they have violated the rights of ethnic groups and peoples, and shown contempt for their cultures and religious traditions: be patient and merciful towards us, and grant us your forgiveness! We ask this through Christ our Lord.”
  • WORKSHOP QUESTIONSWORKSHOP QUESTIONS 1. What do we reaffirm in the Church’s history, life and mission, especially to the IPs? 2. What do we regret in our history, attitude and practice in relationship with IPs in our region or country? 3. What are we ready to do now as bishops in the Philippines? (Choose at least two topics.) * Direction of evangelization with the IPs * Journey toward reconciliation * Changes in our formation program * Support for the advocacy of the IPs * Strengthening of the ECIP, IPAs, and related ministries * Drafting a Pastoral Statement on the IPs
  • RE-AFFIRMATIONRE-AFFIRMATION What do we reaffirm in the Church’s life and mission, especially to the IPs? 1. Work, witness, scholarship of missionaries 2. Pastoral work of the dioceses with the IPs 3. Humanitarian work responding to their needs 4. Overt preaching of Jesus, direct evangelization 5. Involvement in the education of IPs 6. Shared belief in God, extra-biblical revelation 7. Collaboration of the laity and NGOs 8. Cultural “preservation”
  • REGRETREGRET What do we regret in our history, attitude and practice in relationship with IPs in our region or country? 1. Lack of understanding; distance from them 2. Loss of writing and other cultural treasures 3. Discriminatory practices and attitudes 4. Failure to stress social teachings of the Church 5. Lack of coordination among Church ministries 6. Pressure on IPs, pushing them afar 7. Acquisition of lands, thru the datus 8. Paternalism and dole-outs 9. Cultural exploitation
  • READY TO DOREADY TO DO What are we ready to do now as bishops in the Philippines? 1. Revise our catechesis and evangelization ways 2. Establish IP desks, empowering IP pastoral workers 3. Institutional and financial support for IP ministry 4. Integral evangelization, mission ad gentes 5. Clarify links between ECIP, NASSA, Culture Com 6. Closer collaboration 7. Formation of seminarians on IPA 8. Overt preaching of Jesus, direct evangelization
  • CANADIAN OBLATES OF MARYCANADIAN OBLATES OF MARY IMMACULATE (1991)IMMACULATE (1991) • “We apologize for the part we played in the cultural, ethnic, linguistic, religious imperialism that was part of the mentality within which the peoples of Europe first met the aboriginal peoples and which consistently has lurked behind the way the Native peoples of Canada have been treated by civil governments and by the Churches. We were, naively, part of this mentality and were, in fact, often a key player in its implementation.”
  • Jesuits confession in GC 34: Intuition and alienation “Our intuition is that the Gospel resonates with what is good in each culture. At the same time, we acknowledge that we have not always followed this intuition. We have not always recognized that aggression and coercion have no place in the preaching of the Gospel of freedom, especially in cultures which are vulnerable to manipulation by more powerful forces. We have often contributed to the alienation of the very people we wanted to serve” (90-92)
  • RECONCILIATION WALK OF ABOUTRECONCILIATION WALK OF ABOUT 2,000 CHRISTIANS TRACING THE ROUTE2,000 CHRISTIANS TRACING THE ROUTE OF THE FIRST CRUSADE (1996)OF THE FIRST CRUSADE (1996) "The Reconciliation Walk is an interdenominational grassroots movement of Western Christians...retracing the route of the First Crusade, apologizing to Muslims, Jews and Eastern Christians for the atrocities of the Crusades -- foremost among them, the misuse of the name and message of Jesus."
  • FRANCISCAN PROVINCE OF SANFRANCISCAN PROVINCE OF SAN FELIPE DE JESUS TO THE MAYANFELIPE DE JESUS TO THE MAYAN PEOPLE (MANI, YUCATAN 2009)PEOPLE (MANI, YUCATAN 2009) We ask forgiveness of the Mayan people for not having understood your world view and your religion and for having denied your deities; for not having respected your culture and for having imposed upon you for many centuries a religion that you did not understand; for having demonized your religious practices and for having declared in word and writing that they were works of the devil and that your idols were Satan incarnate… We Friars Minor commit ourselves: To help ourselves and those brothers who will come after us to understand the culture from which we come forth, to promote it, and to incarnate the message of Jesus to the point of having a Mayan Christianity.
  • Anglican Church to the NativesAnglican Church to the Natives of Canada (1993)of Canada (1993) “I have felt shame and humiliation as I have heard of suffering inflicted by my people, and as I think of the part our church played in that suffering. I accept and I confess before God and you, our failures in the residential schools. We failed you. We failed ourselves. We failed God.” –Archbp. Michael Peers, Ontario
  • TAYO-TAYO MUNA!TAYO-TAYO MUNA! Intrafaith Conversation among Catholics in the Service ofIntrafaith Conversation among Catholics in the Service of Interfaith Dialogue with Muslims and LumadsInterfaith Dialogue with Muslims and Lumads Albert E. Alejo, SJAlbert E. Alejo, SJ
  • Trigger:Trigger: How do religionsHow do religions get into conflict?get into conflict? Islam is a religion of peace. Christianity is a religion of love. But why do we witness so much fighting among Muslims and Christians? Why the deep and persistent prejudices hurled against each other? And this despite the many interreligious and interfaith dialogues? Presuming that religion is not the main culprit, how is religion “recruited” as it were into this friction? And to what extent are we part of this?
  • Could it be theCould it be the link betweenlink between religion, culture,religion, culture, and history?and history? Faith-based peace activists must understand the dynamics of religion, culture and conflict. E.g. Religion initiates individuals into a community. Community building, however, builds not just identity but boundary. Identity markers both define who is in and who is out. Formation of identity involves oppositional identity. This distinction, when taken too sharply, or too exclusively, can lead to fundamentalism or chauvinism.
  • We need to engage inWe need to engage in Intra-FaithIntra-Faith DialogueDialogue Existing peace initiatives are closing the gap between “dialogue Christians” and “dialogue Muslims”. But it is not clear whether we are closing the gap between the “dialogue Christians” and the “prejudiced Christians”, or between the “dialogue Muslims” and the “armed Muslims.”
  • Bishops-Ulama Conference, 35th GeneralBishops-Ulama Conference, 35th General Assembly, Jolo, Sulu, November 18-21,Assembly, Jolo, Sulu, November 18-21, 20082008 • While we continue with interfaith activities, we shall also pursue authentic intrafaith dialogues among our own communities. We hope that through this open communication, we will find a way to face our own share in the prolonged problem in Mindanao as well as discover how we could go beyond our hurts and biases. Perhaps this holds a key to more creative solutions to the impasse in our peace process.
  • Consider ForgivenessConsider Forgiveness During a number of sessions on clan conflict and interfaith dialogue, forgiveness was mentioned both by Muslims and Christians. While nobody thought it was easy, nobody seems to claim that it was impossible. A few testimonies proved it was necessary.
  • Testimony of Datu TotoTestimony of Datu Toto PaglasPaglas As a young boy, he witnessed the murder of his father. He was old enough to remember, but too young to fight. When he grew up, his relatives told him to revenge. But Toto Paglas refused. Later, his younger brother was killed. Again, he decided not to be like his brother’s murderer. When another brother was killed, his relatives volunteered to take vengeange into their hands. Toto stopped them, saying that if he killed another person, the family of that person will take another life back, and the cycle will not stop.
  • From Arms to FarmsFrom Arms to Farms “I believe that real peace is in education and livelihood. If people are not educated, then the only pride they have is to own and use a gun. If the people are hungry, they can not think properly; they fight for their family. So I converted our land into a plantation. I hired the members of the family that killed my father and my brothers. Now I can walk even without a body guard. I am at peace.”—Toto Paglas
  • RECOMMENDATION: Teach in our catechesis and religious education the value and the process of dialogue, including both interfaith and intrafaith dialogue.
  • SIGN OF PEACESIGN OF PEACE “Blessed are the peacemakers, they shall be called the children of God!”
  • SIGN OF PEACESIGN OF PEACE Lord, Jesus Christ, you said to your apostles: I leave you peace, my peace I give you. Look not on our sins, but on the faith of your Church, and grant us the peace and unity of your kingdom where you live for ever and ever. Amen. The peace of the Lord be always with you. And also with you. Let’s give each other a sign of peace.
  • ““Be humble toward one another,Be humble toward one another, always considering others better thanalways considering others better than yourselves. And look out for oneyourselves. And look out for one another’s interests, not just your own.”another’s interests, not just your own.” ---Philippians 2:2-4---Philippians 2:2-4 www.konsultmindanaw.phwww.konsultmindanaw.ph Learning from ScripturesLearning from Scriptures