U16 social psych 2011
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U16 social psych 2011

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U16 social psych 2011 U16 social psych 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Social Psychu16
  • Unit 16 m55 – Social Thinking  How do we explain people’s behaviors? How do we explain attitudes? m56 – Social Influence  What are the invisible social threads that bind and pull us? m57 & 58 – Social Relations  What makes us harm or help or fall in love with others?
  • Social Thinkingm55
  • Social Norms Standards of behavior that a group has informally agreed upon. For example: you’re not supposed to lie ... 4
  • Attribution Theory Things to do on an elevator…  Swat at flies that don’t exist o d uland tell them to call you Greet everyone withat w ?  “Admiral” W h a handshake k… le t hin  p eop Meow occasionally  Say, “Ding!” at each floor.  Bring a camera and take pictures of everyone “for security purposes”  Yell, “GROUP HUG!” and then enforce it
  • Attribution Theory Fritz Heider (1950)  Dispositional Attribution Error ribution rare out- ntal Att o interp People act because that’s what they et like.   Funda e mdriving so crazy – what a jerk!” e.g. “He’s likely t ior We a re most s’ behav Situational Attribution ember   group m to disposi ion. People act in a certain waytbecause of the situation.  e.g. c ac “I rding owonder what is making him drive so dangerously?”
  • What are the cops thinking about the protesters?What are the protesters thinking about the cops?
  • Attribution Theory Philip Brickman’s (1982) Model of Helping  Who is responsible for the problem?  Who is responsible for the solution?  e.g. Poverty? Unemployment? Drug addiction? Rape?
  • Attribution of Control Locus of Control, review Illusion of Control  False belief that chance events subject to human control (Ellen Langer, 1975).  Sometimes a positive motivator  High self-efficacy  “I can do it!”  Mostly negative  Failure to adapt, improvise, and overcome
  • Attribution Theory (misc) Two ego defense mechanisms:  Self-serving Bias  “I failed the quiz because Castro sucks.”  Self-handicapping  “I’m stupid – I’m totally going to fail this quiz”
  •  Just World Theory  “Some day Castro’s going to get hit by a car!”  Less stress …  Does this account for faith-based longevity? 13
  • Attitudes and Actions An attitude is a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.  What are some beliefs and feelings that you have that control your behavior?  My beliefs & attitudes:  Chocolate tastes good  Lazy people deserve what they get
  • Attitude and Actions Attitudes will guide our actions, if –  Outside influences on what we say and do are minimal;  The attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior; and  We are keenly aware of our attitude.
  •  Attitudes follow behavior too.  Foot-in-the-door phenomenon  start small and build 16
  • Actions and Attitudes  Role  Set of expectations about a social position  Defines how those in the position ought to behave.  People made to play a role come to hold the attitudes that support the role.
  • When have you played a role that required you to do something you wouldn’t have done on your own?
  • Actions and Attitudes Philip Zimbardo’s (1971) Prison Experiment  24 students volunteered to be part of the prison experiment. Each was paid $15 to either be assigned the role of guard or prisoner.  Less than 36 hours into the experiment, one prisoner was released for psychological health reasons.  After six days (not the planned two weeks) the study was called off.  Conclusion: role-playing changes minds
  • Abu Ghraib
  • Do you remember a time when you realized that what you were saying did not align with what you were doing?
  • Actions and Attitudes When our actions, our cognition, and our behaviors are not aligned, we experience cognitive dissonance, or discomfort.  Something has to give; usually our attitudes change more easily than behaviors.  Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)
  • Social Influencem56
  • Conformity and Obedience To conform is to adjust your thoughts or actions to a norm. To obey is to do as an authority figure commands regardless of personal preference. To comply is to come to an agreement about a course of action.
  • When have you gone along with something that others have said, just because you didn’t want to stand out?
  • Conformity Solomon Asch (1955) studied conformity to see if people would conform to an obviously wrong opinion.  1/3 of participants went along with the obviously incorrect consensus.
  • Conformity Which person in Slide 2 is the same as in Slide 1?  75% conformed with “difficult judgments” as opposed to 37% for “easy judgments”
  • Conformity Participants on Asch’s experiment conformed because of the normative social influence.  They did not want to stand out from the group and face possible ridicule; they wanted to be part of the in-group. Informational social influence is when you alter your opinion based on the belief that your opinion is incorrect.
  • Think of a time when someone in a position of authority made you do something that you didn’t want to.
  • Obedience Stanley Milgram’s (1965) experiment on obedience shocked the world.  Milgram was interested in the unquestioning obedience that was apparent in the Nuremburg Trials.
  • Obedience What percent of people would go to the highest shock level (450 volts)?  65% of subjects went to the end, even those who protested.
  • Obedience Percentage 100 of subjects 90 who obeyed 80experimenter 70 60 50 40 The majority of 30 subjects continued 20 to obey to the end 10 0 Moderate Very Extreme XXX Slight (75-120) Strong strong Intense intensity Danger (435-450) (15-60) (135-180) (195-240) (255-300) (315-360) severe (375-420) Shock levels in volts
  • Obedience Explanations for the Milgram results:  Authority of Yale University  The value of Science  Experimenter self-assurance and acceptance of responsibility  Proximity of learner and experimenter  New situation and no model of proper behavior
  • Obedience  Original study  Different building  Teacher with learner  Put hand on shock  Orders by phone  Ordinary man orders  2 teachers rebel  Teacher chooses shock level 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percentage of subjects administering the maximum shock (450 volts)
  • Think of a time when a group was urging you to do something ...
  • Group Influence Social Facilitation  When it is an easy or well-learned task, or a task that one has been successful in previously, having an audience improves performance. Social Inhibition  When it is a difficult task or one without previous success, an audience decreases quality of performance.
  • Group Influence When working in a group for a common goal, social loafing is the rule, not the exception. When working in a group, members find themselves “going along” with the flow – that’s group think.  e.g. Bay of Pigs – nobody spoke up that it was a bad idea.
  • Group Influence Group polarization is when the group’s attitude and behavior is more extreme than any one of the individuals’ on their own.  e.g. A Republican is more conservative when around other conservatives.
  • Group Influence People are able to do things in a group that they ordinarily wouldn’t do because of deindividuation – they are anonymous and usually more aroused.  e.g. KKK and their hoods
  • Group Influence Minority Influence  Simply being an example of objection is sufficient to encourage others to do the same.  Gandhi objecting to British rule.  “12 Angry Men”  Asch’s experiment when group not unanimous.  Prison experiment ended after 1 (out of 50 outsiders) pointed out the inhumanity.  Milgram’s results when Teacher saw previous Teacher refuse.
  • What about the power of just one … bully?
  • Social Relationsm57 & 58
  •  Prejudice Aggression Affection 48
  • Everyone is a prisoner of his ownexperiences. No one can eliminateprejudices — just recognize them. – Edward R. Murrow, television broadcast, December 31, 1955 49
  • Prejudice An unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory actions.
  • Prejudice Jane Elliott (1968) divided her third-grade class into blue eyes and brown eyes.  Brown eyes were favored for three days.  Highlights in-group and out-group bias. Prejudice on a grand scale is ethnocentrism. Members of the in-group view all others with an out-group homogeneity bias.
  • Prejudice Results in scapegoating.  For example, unemployed middle-American workers blaming the “foreigners.” How does prejudice develop?
  • Prejudice Social Factors  Social inequalities encourage perceptions that justify discriminatory beliefs and treatment.  The in-group bias causes us to favor arbitrarily those we perceive to be like us.  Scapegoating suggests that our frustrations are reduced when we can blame someone else for our problems.
  • Prejudice Cognitive Factors  Categorization encourages us to simplify the world by making people and events as predictable as possible. Categorization sometimes produces stereotypes that offer the illusion of predictability.  Vivid cases determine those instances in which we are likely to overgeneralize from a few exceptional cases to a group expectation.
  • Culturally-influenced self-belief 55
  • Aggression “Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.” Aggression can come from biological impulses, neural influences, biochemical influences, or frustration and anger.  Frustration-aggression principle holds that frustration leads to anger which leads to aggression. e.g. increased crime rates during heat waves.
  • Game Theory 58
  • Think of your best friend. What qualities or characteristics make them your best friend?
  • • When you are sad - I will help you get drunk and plot revenge against the sorry bastard who made you that way.• When you are blue - I will try to dislodge whatever is choking you.• When you smile - I will know youve finally had sex.• When you are scared - I will tease the crap out of you about it every chance I get.• When you are worried - I will tell you horrible stories about how much worse it could be and to stop your bloody whining.• When you are confused - I will use only little words.• When you are sick - Stay the hell away from me until you are well again, I dont want whatever you have.• When you fall - I will point and laugh at your clumsiness. Remember: • A good friend will help you move. • A really good friend will help you move a body.
  • Attraction The two keys to attraction are similarity and proximity.  Opposites do not stay together.  Absence does not make the heart grow fonder.
  • 63
  • Law of Attraction Like attracts like. 64
  • Attraction Physical attraction is a neurologically powerful motivator; stimulates the pleasure centers of the hypothalamus Other findings:  Attractive papers are scored better  Attractive defendants are judged guilty less often than unattractive  Physical deformities are interpreted as reflecting an inner flaw (ie Captain Hook’s prosthetic, Cinderalla’s ugly step- sisters)
  • Attraction There mere exposure effect is based on the idea that we have more positive feelings about things we are frequently exposed to.  You like the music that your parents listened to in high school.  “Vote for Honorable Pulvapies” (1972)  Oregon State University and the “black bag kid”
  • Attraction Robert Sternberg’s (1986) Triangular Theory of Love argues that consummate love is made up of passion, intimacy, and commitment.
  • Altruism Altruism is the unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
  • Diffusion of Responsibility There were so many witnesses, each assumed the other would call for help = Bystander Effect.  Diffusion of responsibility.  e.g. Kitty Genovese Yes Interprets Yes Yes Notices Assumes Attempts incident asincident? responsibility? to help emergency? No No No No No No help help help