U09 Thinking

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U09 Thinking

  1. 1. Thinking m29
  2. 2. Thinking & Concepts <ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition : the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychologists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept formation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment formation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous to hierarchies and schemas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype : The best example, as defined by the individual. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Concepts and Categories <ul><li>Classical Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aka Aristotelian, all-or-none, rule-governed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grandmother = mother of a parent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even number = integer exactly divisible by 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Family Resemblance Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solves for an unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is an SUV a car or a truck? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is garlic a fruit or a vegetable? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did Bill and Monica have sex? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Problem Solving <ul><li>Three categories of problem solving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Algorithm <ul><li>Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow, but guaranteed results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cracking a safe: 0-0-0, 0-0-1, 0-0-2, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List every word in the English language that begins with the letter “Q” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Heuristic <ul><li>Rule-of-thumb strategy that allows for judgment and guesses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster, but more error prone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List all the words in the English language that starts with the letter “Q” – you know the second letter is a “U” and the third letter is also a vowel. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Insight <ul><li>A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a strategy-based solution! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wolfgang Kohler’s experiments (1925) on chimpanzee insight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sultan the chimpanzee. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Obstacles to Problem Solving <ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming that each card has a triangle on one side and a circle on the other, which card(s) need to be turned over to test this statement: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Every card that has a black triangle on one side has a red circle on the other.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Fixedness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Decisions and Judgments <ul><li>Misusing Heuristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Representativeness Heuristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Availability Heuristic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stocks – can only buy when someone sells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Framing Decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condoms are 98% effective … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doublespeak. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Belief Bias <ul><li>Beliefs are often stronger than logic. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief Perseverance </li></ul>
  11. 11. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use algorithmic problem solving. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use serial processing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot discern tone. </li></ul></ul></ul>

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