MEMORY IS THEPERSISTENCE OF LEARNING OVER TIME, THROUGH THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION.
Can you remember: CLEAR September 11, 2001? R IES - A LLY MEMO OTIONA F LAS HBULB F AN EM EVENT R ORY O OMENT O MEM ANT M Your ﬁrst kiss? C S IGNIFI A funeral you attended? An embarrassing moment in your life?
A list apart ...
ATKINSON-SHIFFRINTHREE-STAGE MODEL OF MEMORY
AmnesiaAnterograde Amnesia: inability to form newmemoriesRetrograde Amnesia: inability to recall eventsprior to brain damagePosthypnotic amnesiaLacunar Amnesia: inability to recall speciﬁc eventKorsakoff syndrome: alcoholism-induced amnesia
HijackingLeveling nondistinctive details are left outSharpening distinctive elements retained
Automatic Effortful ORProcessing Processing
Automatic ProcessingEncode for Time, Space, and FrequencyExample of parallel processingCannot willingly be turned on or off
Effortful Processing EBBINGHAUS: THE AMOUNT REMEMBERED DEPENDS ON THE TIME SPENTRehearsal LEARNINGNext-in-Line EffectSpacing Effect or “distributed learning” SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST? MEANING! WHAT ARE THE MOST MEANINGFUL THINGS IN LIFE?
Pop Quiz1. What was the ﬂight attendant’s name?2. Where was the ﬂight headed to originally?3. What was the pilot’s name?4. What airlines was it?5. Where did the hijacker want to go?
Mnemonic devicesAcronyms Chunking Roy G Biv 2024562461 HOMES Method of lociRhyme ... In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue
Method of loci
Sensory MemoryIconic memoryEchoic memory
Long-term MemoryIncreased serotoninsensitivity in cerebralcortex due to new receptorsites (created throughCREB stimulation)Long-term potentiation
Stronger emotional experiences make formore enduring memories ...... but prolonged stress degrades memories
IMPLICIT VS EXPLICIT MEMORIES
RECOGNITION VS RECALL
How many of each animal did Noah have on his Ark?Which is correct to say, “The egg yolk ARE white” or“The egg yolk IS white”?Priming: the activation of “nearby” or associatedmemories.
Context and Retrieval
Deja Vu ...
Encoding failuresHow many sides are on an average pencil?Which color is at the bottom of a stoplight?George Washington is on the front; what’s on theback of a $1 bill?Name Santa’s reindeer.
Decay TheoryTime, and time alone, will end all of your memoriesEffectively explains sensory and STM lossIneffectively explains forgetting from LTM
Disuse TheoryUse it or lose itNot recalling memories leads the brain to pair downthose synaptic connections
Interference/Inhibition TheoryInability to recall or difﬁculty in remembering causedby too many memories interferingProactive: PAST learning interferesRetroactive: PRESENT learning interferes
AmnesiaLoss of memories as a result of psychological orphysiological traumaAnterograde: no NEW memoriesRetrograde: loss of OLD memories
State DependentLearningNot in the same state as when the learningoccurred? Then difﬁculty in recall
Motivated ForgettingSome things, you WANT to forget . . .According to Freud, “repression”
Cue DependentForgettingRetrieval failure due to missing cues that werepresent during encoding misinformation effect source amnesia
SO WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE LOW ACCURACY OF POLICE SKETCHES?