U08 memory slides

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U08 memory slides

  1. 1. Memoryunit 8, modules 24-28
  2. 2. m24 Intro to Memory
  3. 3. MEMORY IS THEPERSISTENCE OF LEARNING OVER TIME, THROUGH THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION.
  4. 4. Can you remember: CLEAR September 11, 2001? R IES - A LLY MEMO OTIONA F LAS HBULB F AN EM EVENT R ORY O OMENT O MEM ANT M Your first kiss? C S IGNIFI A funeral you attended? An embarrassing moment in your life?
  5. 5. A list apart ...
  6. 6. ATKINSON-SHIFFRINTHREE-STAGE MODEL OF MEMORY
  7. 7. AmnesiaAnterograde Amnesia: inability to form newmemoriesRetrograde Amnesia: inability to recall eventsprior to brain damagePosthypnotic amnesiaLacunar Amnesia: inability to recall specific eventKorsakoff syndrome: alcoholism-induced amnesia
  8. 8. m25 Encoding
  9. 9. HijackingLeveling nondistinctive details are left outSharpening distinctive elements retained
  10. 10. Automatic Effortful ORProcessing Processing
  11. 11. Automatic ProcessingEncode for Time, Space, and FrequencyExample of parallel processingCannot willingly be turned on or off
  12. 12. Effortful Processing EBBINGHAUS: THE AMOUNT REMEMBERED DEPENDS ON THE TIME SPENTRehearsal LEARNINGNext-in-Line EffectSpacing Effect or “distributed learning” SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
  13. 13. WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST? MEANING! WHAT ARE THE MOST MEANINGFUL THINGS IN LIFE?
  14. 14. Pop Quiz1. What was the flight attendant’s name?2. Where was the flight headed to originally?3. What was the pilot’s name?4. What airlines was it?5. Where did the hijacker want to go?
  15. 15. Mnemonic devicesAcronyms Chunking Roy G Biv 2024562461 HOMES Method of lociRhyme ... In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue
  16. 16. Method of loci
  17. 17. m26 Storage
  18. 18. Sensory MemoryIconic memoryEchoic memory
  19. 19. short-term explicitmemories
  20. 20. Long-term MemoryIncreased serotoninsensitivity in cerebralcortex due to new receptorsites (created throughCREB stimulation)Long-term potentiation
  21. 21. Long-term memories
  22. 22. Stronger emotional experiences make formore enduring memories ...... but prolonged stress degrades memories
  23. 23. IMPLICIT VS EXPLICIT MEMORIES
  24. 24. m27 Retrieval
  25. 25. RECOGNITION VS RECALL
  26. 26. How many of each animal did Noah have on his Ark?Which is correct to say, “The egg yolk ARE white” or“The egg yolk IS white”?Priming: the activation of “nearby” or associatedmemories.
  27. 27. Context and Retrieval
  28. 28. MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORIES
  29. 29. Deja Vu ...
  30. 30. m28 Forgetting
  31. 31. Encoding failuresHow many sides are on an average pencil?Which color is at the bottom of a stoplight?George Washington is on the front; what’s on theback of a $1 bill?Name Santa’s reindeer.
  32. 32. Decay TheoryTime, and time alone, will end all of your memoriesEffectively explains sensory and STM lossIneffectively explains forgetting from LTM
  33. 33. Disuse TheoryUse it or lose itNot recalling memories leads the brain to pair downthose synaptic connections
  34. 34. Interference/Inhibition TheoryInability to recall or difficulty in remembering causedby too many memories interferingProactive: PAST learning interferesRetroactive: PRESENT learning interferes
  35. 35. AmnesiaLoss of memories as a result of psychological orphysiological traumaAnterograde: no NEW memoriesRetrograde: loss of OLD memories
  36. 36. State DependentLearningNot in the same state as when the learningoccurred? Then difficulty in recall
  37. 37. Motivated ForgettingSome things, you WANT to forget . . .According to Freud, “repression”
  38. 38. Cue DependentForgettingRetrieval failure due to missing cues that werepresent during encoding misinformation effect source amnesia
  39. 39. SO WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE LOW ACCURACY OF POLICE SKETCHES?

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