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Transcript

  • 1. Learning Unit u07
  • 2. Learning is a relatively permanent change to anorganism’s behavior due to experience.• Classical conditioning• Operant conditioning• Observational learning
  • 3. m21 ClassicalConditioning
  • 4. The Office
  • 5. Ivan Pavlov1849 - 19361904, Nobel Prize inMedicineOriginally tried tostudy digestion, butdogs becameconditioning
  • 6. Unconditional stimulusUnconditional responseneutral stimulus
  • 7. NS → Conditioned stimulus AcquisitionCS → Conditioned response
  • 8. Generalization vs Discrimination
  • 9. Spontaneous Recovery
  • 10. Modernizing PavlovBiological predisposition to certain associationsUniversal way to learn simple worms to humans . . . like Little Albert
  • 11. ReviewIdentify the UCS, UCR, NS — then the post-acquisition CS and CR
  • 12. Identify the UCS, UCR, NS — then the post-acquisition CS and CR
  • 13. Months prior to the season opening football game betweenMIT and Harvard, a psychology graduate student went to theHarvard stadium to feed seagulls. For weeks, wearing awhite-and-black-striped shirt he walked up and down thesidelines, blowing on a whistle, and throwing bird seed on tothe field.At the season opener, the football game was delayed for 45minutes as officials waited for hundreds of seagulls to leavethe field. Identify the UCS, UCR, NS — then the post-acquisition CS and CR
  • 14. m22 OperantConditioning
  • 15. Edward ThorndikeThe LAW OF EFFECT: rewarded behavior is likely to be be repeated.Corollary: punished behavior is not likely to be repeated
  • 16. BF Skinner1904-1990Built upon theLaw of EffectDevelopedSkinner Box totest conditioningin isolation
  • 17. Shaping through successive approximations
  • 18. Reinforcement Increases the likelihood of the preceding event being repeated. Positive reinforcers add something desirable Negative reinforcers remove something undesirable
  • 19. Primary reinforcers Secondary reinforcersare inherently are learneddesirable eg money, grades, food, water, air, praise and sex
  • 20. Positive reinforcement
  • 21. Negative Reinforcers• Taking aspirin to relieve a headache• Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold• Giving in to an argument or to dog’s begging to end it• Fanning oneself to escape the heat• Leaving a school play if the play is bad• Smoking to relieve anxiety• Faking a stomach ache in order to avoid school• Putting on a seatbelt to silence the warning buzzer• Using an umbrella to escape the rain• Saying “uncle” to stop being beaten
  • 22. Negative reinforcement
  • 23. Punishment Decreases the likelihood of the preceding event being repeated Positive punishment adds something undesirable Negative punishment removes something desirable
  • 24. Review
  • 25. Reinforcement
  • 26. Punishment
  • 27. ScenariosDoes the situation require: Punishment or Reinforcement? positive or negative? describe the response
  • 28. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement or intermittent reinforcement Fixed ratio Fixed intervalVariable ratio Variable interval
  • 29. fixed ratio
  • 30. variable ratio
  • 31. fixed interval
  • 32. variable interval
  • 33. What schedule is being used?1. Car salesman paid on commission?2. Airline frequent-flyer rewards program?3. Detention for eating in the halls?4. Checking Facebook for something interesting?5. Receiving acceptance letters from college?6. Feeling sick after eating McDonald’s?
  • 34. m23 Observational Learning
  • 35. Mirrorneurons fireboth when theanimal actsand when itobserves aconspecialanimal act.
  • 36. Albert Bandura1925 - presentPast president of theAPAProfessor at Stanford“Bobo Doll”experiment
  • 37. Components ofObservational Learning• Attention• Retention• Reproduction• Motivation or reinforcement Prosocial or behaviors Antisocial
  • 38. Agenda: Coloring Presentation Practice FRQOptional review session: today, 5*
  • 39. Illustrate a scene showing: US UR A. Classical Conditioning CS + US UR CS CR B. Operant Conditioning Behavior + response C. Observational Learning Experience & replication