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Motivation Slides
 

Motivation Slides

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Motivation Slides Motivation Slides Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Motivation m34
  • Objectives Students should be able to • define motivation and name four perspectives useful for studying motivated behavior • discuss instinct theory and its uses • explain how drive-reduction their views human motivation • discuss the contribution of arousal theory to the study of motivation • describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • Instincts & Evolution Motivation is a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior – Internal motivation • eg ? – External motivation • eg ?
  • Instincts & Evolution An instinct is a complex, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species. • Birds build nests by instinct • Ducks imprinting at hatching • Human instincts . . . ?
  • Drives & Incentives • Without clear human instincts, psychologists turned to drive-reduction theory: – The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state of tension (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. • The drive-reduction theory attempts to recreate homeostasis – a balanced internal state.
  • Drives push, but incentives pull. Hunger pushes us to eat, and yummy food pulls us to eat. Hull’s Drive Theory Performance = Habit x Drive
  • Drives push, but incentives pull. Hunger pushes us to eat, and yummy food pulls us to eat. Hull’s Drive Theory Performance = Habit x Drive
  • Optimum Arousal Rather than seeking some biologically based balance, the optimum arousal theory says that people are motivated to reach an optimal state of alertness or activation. – The Yerkes-Dodson theory predicts that people perform better at a moderate level of arousal
  • The optimal level of arousal is: – lower for more difficult or cognitive tasks (the learners need to concentrate on the material) – higher for tasks requiring endurance and persistence (the learners need more motivation).
  • Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Belongingness needs Safety needs Physiological needs