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Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
Middle East Year Review
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Middle East Year Review

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Review slides by Mr Maguire

Review slides by Mr Maguire

Published in: Spiritual
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  • 1. AMDG World History 1 Mr. Maguire
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Sumerian City-States (4000-23oo BCE)
      • 1 st advanced civilization of area, independent, constant war
    • Akkadian Empire (2330-21oo BCE)
      • Sargon creates 1 st empire, unites city-states thru conquest
    • Babylonian Empire (1800-1500 BCE)
      • Hammurabi (6 th king), Babylon important trade center
    • Assyrian Empire (1100-612 BCE)
      • Organized government and terror, leveled cities/enslaved
    • Chaldean Empire (612-539 BCE)
      • AKA Babylonia, King Nebuchadnezzar, enslaved Israelites
    • Persian Empire (550-333 BCE)
      • Cyrus the Great, tolerant rulers, provinces, road system
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • 1792 BC, Hammurabi 6 th king of Ammorite dynasty, king of Babylon
    • Ruled for 43 years N./S. Mesopotamia
    • Code of Hammurabi- 282 laws, 8 ft. stelae
    • Received laws from Shamash (Sun-God)
    • Property rights, trade, family, professional
    • Commit act = corresponding punishment
    • Local judges assigned to towns throughout Babylonian Empire
  • 8.
    • Litigants appear before judges, state case, call witnesses
    • Assembly- 1 st jury of ancient world
    • Laws reflect values of Babylonian society
    • “ Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth”
    • Different punishments for same crime (class, gender)
    • Individuals second to good of the state
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • Small nomadic tribe settled in Canaan
    • Israelites AKA Hebrews
    • Founders of Judaism (monotheism)
    • Believed their God to be all powerful
    • Hebrew Bible AKA Old Testament
    • Torah- 1 st five books of the Hebrew Bible
    • Fact or Fiction? Little proof exists, but some exists, EX: Ramses II of Egypt
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • The Bible, fact or fiction?
    • Foundation of Christianity/Islam
    • Abolitionist, anti-war, prison-reform, labor, civil rights, antiapartheid, free-speech, and democracy
    • Individuals w/ a personal relationship
    • Processive worldview- beginning and end, NOT cyclical
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • Jahilyyah- “Time of Ignorance” darkness of idolatry before Muhammad brings the light
    • Allah- “The God”
    • Early influence by Jews, shared beliefs, practices, and society (jobs, fashion, art)
    • Arabs considered themselves descendents of Abraham
    • Ishmael/Hajra banished from Abram’s tribe
    • Nomadic, polytheistic, tribal organization
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • Tribal ethic- everyone has a function, strong as its weakest member
    • Shaykh- figurehead of the tribe “1 st am. =‘s”
    • Muruwah- code of tribal conduct
    • Hakam- arbiter, settled disputes
    • Law of Retribution- “eye for an eye”
  • 18.
    • Ka’ba- roofless edifice, housed 360 idols
    • Mecca- important religious center
    • Pilgrim season- Last 2, 1 st months of year
    • Quraysh- Arabic clan “Keeper of the Keys”
    • Protect idols, caravans, trade for $$$
    • Monopoly on buy/sell of goods to pilgrims
    • Social inequalities exist, personal wealth
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Muhammad born the “Year of the Elephant” 570 CE to family Hashim of the Quraysh tribe
    • Father dies when M was born, mother @ 6, grandfather at 8
    • Uncle Abu Talib, adopts Muhammad
    • Works for uncle’s caravans, meets Khadija
    • Marries Khadija at 25 (she was 40)
    • 4 kids, 3 boys (pass) and Fatima
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • “ Recite- in the name of thy Lord! Who created man from blood coagulated Recite! Thy Lord is wondrous kind Who by the pen has taught mankind Things they knew not (being blind).
    • Ammer Ali, The Spirit of Islam , 52.
  • 23.  
  • 24.
    • Muhammad terrified, wants to kill himself
    • Khadija consols, Ali, Zayd, Abu Bakr join, form the Companions
    • Attacks the demise of tribal ethic in Mecca
    • There is no god but God, and Muhammad is God’s Messenger.
    • Verbally attacks Quraysh and Ka’ba
    • Quraysh boycotts Muhammad’s entire clan
  • 25.  
  • 26.
    • Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija
    • Quraysh offered HUGE bounty
    • Muhammad and Abu Bakr creep out in the middle of the night
    • Yathrib a loose group of villages, far from trading city of Mecca
    • Hijrah- Companions’ migration Mecca to Medina
  • 27.
    • Muhammad’s home- 1 st mosque
    • 622 CE = Year 1 AH in Islamic Calendar
    • Medina- model of Islamic perfection
    • Every member is equal
    • Medina = anti-Mecca
    • Bestows rights/privileges to women
    • Fundamentalists reform AFTER, Hadith
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • Jihad “a struggle” or an exertion against oppression and tyranny
    • The Quraysh are coming to end threat
    • Companion followers raid caravans
    • Battle of Badr 624 CE M-1 Q-0
    • Battle of Uhud 625 CE M-1 Q-1
    • Battle of the Trench 627 M-2 Q-1
    • 628 CE Muhammad announced his journey to Mecca to perform a pilgrimage
  • 31.
    • +1K followers, unarmed, dressed as pilgrims
    • Treaty of Hudaybiyyah 628 CE
      • Immediate withdrawl, stop caravan raids
      • Muhammad allowed to return following season
    • Muhammad accepts, shows non-threat
    • Returns w/ 10K men, city surrenders
    • Destroys idols in the Ka’ba
  • 32.
    • Koran- compiled revelations of God to Muhammad
    • Sunna- personal words of Muhammad
    • 5 Pillars of Faith
      • Profession of faith
      • Daily worship (5X daily)
      • Almsgiving
      • Fasting during Ramadan
      • Pilgrimage to Mecca
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • Muhammad dies 2 yrs. after
    • Abu Bakr- caliph, Companion, 2 problems (false prophets/tax refusal), expands Islam to Byzantine and Persian Empires
    • Umar- expands Islam, Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Africa, Jihad, tax system
    • Uthman- merchant, terrible caliph, compiled Koran, assassinated
    • Ali- Companion, 1 st Civil War, Mu’awiya vs. Ali, Umayyad vs. Hashim clan
  • 35.
    • Muslim leadership passes to caliphs elected from Muslim families
    • Support rule of 1 st 3 caliphs
    • Individual has direct relationship w/ Allah
    • Supporters of Mu’awiya and Yezid
    • Muslim leadership is limited to descendants of Muhammad
    • Reject rule of 1 st 3 caliphs
    • Only Islamic leaders can interpret Koran
    • Supporters of Ali and Hussain (martyr, Muhammad’s g.s.)
  • 36.  
  • 37.  

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