Middle East Year Review

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Review slides by Mr Maguire

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Middle East Year Review

  1. 1. AMDG World History 1 Mr. Maguire
  2. 3. <ul><li>Sumerian City-States (4000-23oo BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st advanced civilization of area, independent, constant war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Akkadian Empire (2330-21oo BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sargon creates 1 st empire, unites city-states thru conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babylonian Empire (1800-1500 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hammurabi (6 th king), Babylon important trade center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assyrian Empire (1100-612 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized government and terror, leveled cities/enslaved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chaldean Empire (612-539 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA Babylonia, King Nebuchadnezzar, enslaved Israelites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persian Empire (550-333 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyrus the Great, tolerant rulers, provinces, road system </li></ul></ul>
  3. 7. <ul><li>1792 BC, Hammurabi 6 th king of Ammorite dynasty, king of Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled for 43 years N./S. Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Hammurabi- 282 laws, 8 ft. stelae </li></ul><ul><li>Received laws from Shamash (Sun-God) </li></ul><ul><li>Property rights, trade, family, professional </li></ul><ul><li>Commit act = corresponding punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Local judges assigned to towns throughout Babylonian Empire </li></ul>
  4. 8. <ul><li>Litigants appear before judges, state case, call witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly- 1 st jury of ancient world </li></ul><ul><li>Laws reflect values of Babylonian society </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth” </li></ul><ul><li>Different punishments for same crime (class, gender) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals second to good of the state </li></ul>
  5. 11. <ul><li>Small nomadic tribe settled in Canaan </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites AKA Hebrews </li></ul><ul><li>Founders of Judaism (monotheism) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed their God to be all powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Hebrew Bible AKA Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Torah- 1 st five books of the Hebrew Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Fact or Fiction? Little proof exists, but some exists, EX: Ramses II of Egypt </li></ul>
  6. 13. <ul><li>The Bible, fact or fiction? </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of Christianity/Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionist, anti-war, prison-reform, labor, civil rights, antiapartheid, free-speech, and democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals w/ a personal relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Processive worldview- beginning and end, NOT cyclical </li></ul>
  7. 15. <ul><li>Jahilyyah- “Time of Ignorance” darkness of idolatry before Muhammad brings the light </li></ul><ul><li>Allah- “The God” </li></ul><ul><li>Early influence by Jews, shared beliefs, practices, and society (jobs, fashion, art) </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs considered themselves descendents of Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Ishmael/Hajra banished from Abram’s tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic, polytheistic, tribal organization </li></ul>
  8. 17. <ul><li>Tribal ethic- everyone has a function, strong as its weakest member </li></ul><ul><li>Shaykh- figurehead of the tribe “1 st am. =‘s” </li></ul><ul><li>Muruwah- code of tribal conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Hakam- arbiter, settled disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Retribution- “eye for an eye” </li></ul>
  9. 18. <ul><li>Ka’ba- roofless edifice, housed 360 idols </li></ul><ul><li>Mecca- important religious center </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrim season- Last 2, 1 st months of year </li></ul><ul><li>Quraysh- Arabic clan “Keeper of the Keys” </li></ul><ul><li>Protect idols, caravans, trade for $$$ </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly on buy/sell of goods to pilgrims </li></ul><ul><li>Social inequalities exist, personal wealth </li></ul>
  10. 20. <ul><li>Muhammad born the “Year of the Elephant” 570 CE to family Hashim of the Quraysh tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Father dies when M was born, mother @ 6, grandfather at 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Uncle Abu Talib, adopts Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Works for uncle’s caravans, meets Khadija </li></ul><ul><li>Marries Khadija at 25 (she was 40) </li></ul><ul><li>4 kids, 3 boys (pass) and Fatima </li></ul>
  11. 22. <ul><li>“ Recite- in the name of thy Lord! Who created man from blood coagulated Recite! Thy Lord is wondrous kind Who by the pen has taught mankind Things they knew not (being blind). </li></ul><ul><li>Ammer Ali, The Spirit of Islam , 52. </li></ul>
  12. 24. <ul><li>Muhammad terrified, wants to kill himself </li></ul><ul><li>Khadija consols, Ali, Zayd, Abu Bakr join, form the Companions </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks the demise of tribal ethic in Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>There is no god but God, and Muhammad is God’s Messenger. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbally attacks Quraysh and Ka’ba </li></ul><ul><li>Quraysh boycotts Muhammad’s entire clan </li></ul>
  13. 26. <ul><li>Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija </li></ul><ul><li>Quraysh offered HUGE bounty </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad and Abu Bakr creep out in the middle of the night </li></ul><ul><li>Yathrib a loose group of villages, far from trading city of Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Hijrah- Companions’ migration Mecca to Medina </li></ul>
  14. 27. <ul><li>Muhammad’s home- 1 st mosque </li></ul><ul><li>622 CE = Year 1 AH in Islamic Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Medina- model of Islamic perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Every member is equal </li></ul><ul><li>Medina = anti-Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Bestows rights/privileges to women </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalists reform AFTER, Hadith </li></ul>
  15. 30. <ul><li>Jihad “a struggle” or an exertion against oppression and tyranny </li></ul><ul><li>The Quraysh are coming to end threat </li></ul><ul><li>Companion followers raid caravans </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Badr 624 CE M-1 Q-0 </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Uhud 625 CE M-1 Q-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of the Trench 627 M-2 Q-1 </li></ul><ul><li>628 CE Muhammad announced his journey to Mecca to perform a pilgrimage </li></ul>
  16. 31. <ul><li>+1K followers, unarmed, dressed as pilgrims </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Hudaybiyyah 628 CE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate withdrawl, stop caravan raids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammad allowed to return following season </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muhammad accepts, shows non-threat </li></ul><ul><li>Returns w/ 10K men, city surrenders </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys idols in the Ka’ba </li></ul>
  17. 32. <ul><li>Koran- compiled revelations of God to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Sunna- personal words of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pillars of Faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profession of faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily worship (5X daily) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almsgiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting during Ramadan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul></ul>
  18. 34. <ul><li>Muhammad dies 2 yrs. after </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Bakr- caliph, Companion, 2 problems (false prophets/tax refusal), expands Islam to Byzantine and Persian Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Umar- expands Islam, Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Africa, Jihad, tax system </li></ul><ul><li>Uthman- merchant, terrible caliph, compiled Koran, assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Ali- Companion, 1 st Civil War, Mu’awiya vs. Ali, Umayyad vs. Hashim clan </li></ul>
  19. 35. <ul><li>Muslim leadership passes to caliphs elected from Muslim families </li></ul><ul><li>Support rule of 1 st 3 caliphs </li></ul><ul><li>Individual has direct relationship w/ Allah </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters of Mu’awiya and Yezid </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim leadership is limited to descendants of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Reject rule of 1 st 3 caliphs </li></ul><ul><li>Only Islamic leaders can interpret Koran </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters of Ali and Hussain (martyr, Muhammad’s g.s.) </li></ul>

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