Thinking   m29
What are they?How do you know?
What is the mostdog-like dog that you can imagine?
Concepts
Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects,events, ideas, or peoplePrototype: a best example of a concept
Analogous toschemas and hierarchies
Solving Problems
!?
Algorithm   0-0-0, 0-0-1, 0-0-2, etcHeuristic   21-0-0, 21-0-1, 21-0-2, etc Insight    I remember now!
try it . . .So, let’s         Find a partner for a bit of fun
Obstacles to Problem Solving                               Confirmation bias                               Fixation        ...
Confirmation BiasAfter committing to a college, students will  seek others who have made the same decision — rather than fi...
Fixation
Mental setAssume that you’re an engineer of apassenger train, and you like to countthings...
1. How many stations were there?2. How many passengers are left on the   train?3. How old is in the engineer?
Mental set  There are six eggs in a basket. Six peopletake one of the eggs each. How is it that one      egg can still be ...
Functional fixedness
Decisions &Judgments
Heuristic: a rule of thumb, based onexperience, that enables quicker problem solving        List all the English words tha...
Three dangers of heuristics:   Representativeness heuristic       Availability heuristic         Overconfidence        Fram...
Representativeness Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how           well they fit your prototypeMeeting people in...
Availability Judging the likelihood of things based on how           easily they come to mindAfter hearing about several c...
Overconfidence: tendency to overestimatethe accuracy of our own knowledge and judgments       Vacation time vs assignments ...
Overconfidence:Why you shouldn’t show off
Framing: the way an issue is posed cansignificantly affect decisions and judgments       Condoms are 98% effective         ...
Belief Bias
Belief bias: the tendency for our beliefsto distort our ability to reason clearly       Beliefs are stronger than logic
Belief perseverance: clinging toone’s initial beliefs despite contraryevidence
M29 thinking slides
M29 thinking slides
M29 thinking slides
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M29 thinking slides

  1. 1. Thinking m29
  2. 2. What are they?How do you know?
  3. 3. What is the mostdog-like dog that you can imagine?
  4. 4. Concepts
  5. 5. Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects,events, ideas, or peoplePrototype: a best example of a concept
  6. 6. Analogous toschemas and hierarchies
  7. 7. Solving Problems
  8. 8. !?
  9. 9. Algorithm 0-0-0, 0-0-1, 0-0-2, etcHeuristic 21-0-0, 21-0-1, 21-0-2, etc Insight I remember now!
  10. 10. try it . . .So, let’s Find a partner for a bit of fun
  11. 11. Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation bias Fixation Mental set Functional fixedness
  12. 12. Confirmation BiasAfter committing to a college, students will seek others who have made the same decision — rather than find others who chose not to attend that college
  13. 13. Fixation
  14. 14. Mental setAssume that you’re an engineer of apassenger train, and you like to countthings...
  15. 15. 1. How many stations were there?2. How many passengers are left on the train?3. How old is in the engineer?
  16. 16. Mental set There are six eggs in a basket. Six peopletake one of the eggs each. How is it that one egg can still be left in the basket?
  17. 17. Functional fixedness
  18. 18. Decisions &Judgments
  19. 19. Heuristic: a rule of thumb, based onexperience, that enables quicker problem solving List all the English words that start with the letter Q
  20. 20. Three dangers of heuristics: Representativeness heuristic Availability heuristic Overconfidence Framed decisions
  21. 21. Representativeness Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they fit your prototypeMeeting people in players fromyou might assume You meet three your dorm, the University’s that the laid-back, long-haired guy is fromQuidditch team, and they are all really nice; youCalifornia, whereas all Quidditch players are thatmight assume that the fast-talking, clean-cut guy is fromway. York New
  22. 22. Availability Judging the likelihood of things based on how easily they come to mindAfter hearing about several couples who haveAfter news of a school shooting in Omaha, you recently broken up because of infidelity, youmight think the possibility of a similar attack ismight be more suspicious of your own partner higher than it really is
  23. 23. Overconfidence: tendency to overestimatethe accuracy of our own knowledge and judgments Vacation time vs assignments to do
  24. 24. Overconfidence:Why you shouldn’t show off
  25. 25. Framing: the way an issue is posed cansignificantly affect decisions and judgments Condoms are 98% effective 85% lean ground beef vs Condoms have a 2% failure rate 15% fat ground beef
  26. 26. Belief Bias
  27. 27. Belief bias: the tendency for our beliefsto distort our ability to reason clearly Beliefs are stronger than logic
  28. 28. Belief perseverance: clinging toone’s initial beliefs despite contraryevidence
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