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Psychoactive Drugs       m20
Psychoactive Drugs   Drugs that affect the brain, changing    consciousness and other psychological    processes, are cal...
Psychopharmacology   To affect the brain, a substance must    cross the blood-brain barrier.   Then the substance’s effe...
Psychopharmacology   Agonist    molecules mimic    a    neurotransmitter   Antagonist    molecules just    block a recep...
Dependence   Substance abuse may lead to psychological or    physical dependence.    – Psychological dependence: person c...
Commonly Abused    Drugs                  6
   Cannabinoids    – e.g. hashish & marijuana    – Euphoria; slowed thinking and reaction time;      confusion; impaired ...
   Depressants    – e.g. Barbituates; benzodiazepines (eg      Valium); flunitrazepam (eg Rohypnol); GHB;      methaqualo...
   Dissociative Anesthetics    – e.g. Ketamine; PCP    – Increased heart rate & blood pressure;      impaired motor funct...
   Hallucinogens    – e.g. LSD; mescaline; psilocybin.    – Altered states of perception & feeling;      nausea; chronic ...
   Opinoids and Morphine derivatives    – e.g. codeine; fentanyl; heroin; morphine;      opium; OxyContin.    – Pain reli...
   Stimulants    – e.g. amphetamine; cocaine; MDMA;      methamphetamine; methylphenidate (Ritalin);      nicotine; caffe...
Spiders on DrugsA normal orb web           On chloral hydrateOn benzadrine              On caffeine
How do I know if I am abusing a              substance?   increased frequency of use   loss of control over frequency, d...
DSM IV: Addiction   Substance is often taken in larger amounts or over longer period than    intended   Persistent desir...
When substance abuse becomes              severe …   loss of friends (except perhaps other substance abusers)   negative...
How can psychological therapy                help?   help clarify your pattern of abuse   identify how your life has bee...
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M20 drugs

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module 20 drugs & consciousness

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  • Transcript of "M20 drugs"

    1. 1. Psychoactive Drugs m20
    2. 2. Psychoactive Drugs Drugs that affect the brain, changing consciousness and other psychological processes, are called psychoactive drugs. – 80-90% of adults in North America use some kind of drug on a daily basis. The study of psychoactive drugs is called psychopharmacology.
    3. 3. Psychopharmacology To affect the brain, a substance must cross the blood-brain barrier. Then the substance’s effect depends on a number of factors: – Which neurotransmitter is targeted? – How does the drug affect the neurotransmitter or its receptors? – What psychological functions are performed by the brain systems which use that neurotransmitter.
    4. 4. Psychopharmacology Agonist molecules mimic a neurotransmitter Antagonist molecules just block a receptor site.
    5. 5. Dependence Substance abuse may lead to psychological or physical dependence. – Psychological dependence: person continues use despite adverse effects, needs the substance for a sense of well-being, and becomes preoccupied. – Physical dependence: physiological state in which drug use is needed to prevent a withdrawal syndrome.  Tolerance is when a larger dose is required to produce a similar effect as before. – Habit-forming: a person continues substance use out of sheer habit.
    6. 6. Commonly Abused Drugs 6
    7. 7.  Cannabinoids – e.g. hashish & marijuana – Euphoria; slowed thinking and reaction time; confusion; impaired balance and coordination; coughing or respiratory problems; impaired memory or learning; increased heart rate or anxiety; panic attacks
    8. 8.  Depressants – e.g. Barbituates; benzodiazepines (eg Valium); flunitrazepam (eg Rohypnol); GHB; methaqualone; alcohol. – Reduced pain and anxiety; feeling of well- being; lowered inhibitions; slowed pulse & breathing; lowered blood-pressure; poor concentration/ confusion or fatigue; impaired coordination, memory or judgment; respiratory depression or arrest.
    9. 9.  Dissociative Anesthetics – e.g. Ketamine; PCP – Increased heart rate & blood pressure; impaired motor function; memory loss; numbness; nausea/ vomiting  For ketamine: delirium; respiratory depression & arrest  For PCP: panic; aggression/ violence; loss of appetite.
    10. 10.  Hallucinogens – e.g. LSD; mescaline; psilocybin. – Altered states of perception & feeling; nausea; chronic mental disorders (persisting perception disorder)  For LSD & mescaline: increased body temperature; insomnia; weakness; tremors.  For psilocybin: nervousness; paranoia.
    11. 11.  Opinoids and Morphine derivatives – e.g. codeine; fentanyl; heroin; morphine; opium; OxyContin. – Pain relief; euphoria; drowsiness; respiratory depression & arrest; nausea; confusion; constipation; sedation (unconsciousness, coma)  For heroin: staggering gait.
    12. 12.  Stimulants – e.g. amphetamine; cocaine; MDMA; methamphetamine; methylphenidate (Ritalin); nicotine; caffeine. – Increased heart rate, blood pressure & metabolism; feelings of exhilaration, increased mental alertness; rapid/irregular heart beat; reduced appetite; irritability/ anxiousness.
    13. 13. Spiders on DrugsA normal orb web On chloral hydrateOn benzadrine On caffeine
    14. 14. How do I know if I am abusing a substance? increased frequency of use loss of control over frequency, duration and/or amount of use drinking or using when you dont intend to substance use interferes with life activities (i.e. school, relationships with family and friends) increased spending money on substance of choice personality changes noted by self and others getting into risky/dangerous behaviors other people express concern about your use/ your behavior grades dropping missing classes and appointments legal trouble (i.e., DUI)
    15. 15. DSM IV: Addiction Substance is often taken in larger amounts or over longer period than intended Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance (e.g., visiting multiple doctors or driving long distances), use the substance (e.g., chain smoking), or recover from its effects Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of substance abuse Continued substance use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent psychological, or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by use of the substance Tolerance, as defined by either: – need for read amounts of the substance in order to achieve intoxication or desired effect; or – markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount Withdrawal, as manifested by either: – characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance; or – the same (or closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms
    16. 16. When substance abuse becomes severe … loss of friends (except perhaps other substance abusers) negative changes in appetite with possible weight loss possible reduction or loss of libido … and/or only able to perform when using extreme mood swings, including anger and depression obsessions about using or procuring substance when not under the influence lying about substance to use to friends and loved ones loss of memory for times when under the influence uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms when not using involvement in crime to support habit loss of energy and general health you are increasingly unable to believe your own denial and excuses
    17. 17. How can psychological therapy help? help clarify your pattern of abuse identify how your life has been affected help create strategies to decrease your use identify related issues that may contribute to your abuse if necessary, referral to more intensive treatment resource
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