• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
East Asia Review
 

East Asia Review

on

  • 3,866 views

Slides reviewing the history of East Asia prior to Industrialization

Slides reviewing the history of East Asia prior to Industrialization

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,866
Views on SlideShare
3,630
Embed Views
236

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
99
Comments
1

4 Embeds 236

http://www.siprep.org 209
http://soyoungkim.wikispaces.com 18
http://siprep.org 8
http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • The information on Qin Shi Huang is incorrect. He was a great leader and nation builder. For a full, researched and correct report on the first emperor, and the founding principles and practices of China go to The School of Sun Tzu: Winning Empires without War. http://tinyurl.com/auxtvdq
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    East Asia Review East Asia Review Presentation Transcript

    • East Asia Review
      • Spring Final, 2008
      • Mr Castro
    •  
    • China
    • Geography
      • Geography of China
        • Taklamakan to the west; Gobi to the north
        • Himalayas to the southwest
        • Huang He in the north; Yangtze to the south
          • 90% of arable land
          • Huang He deposits yellow silt ( loess )
      • Settlement
        • First immigrants 1.7 mya
        • First settlers around Beijing, 500,000 ya
    • Shang Dynasty
      • Settlements along Huang He, 2000 BCE
      • Shang Dynasty, 1532 to 1027 BCE
        • Left written records
        • Capital city of Anyang
          • located in a forest
          • Higher classes lived inside the walls; poor outside
        • Warrior-kings
        • Bronze technology for war, not agriculture
      • Family was emphasized; women as inferiors; arranged marriages of daughters
      • Ancestor worship began with the Shang
      • Oracle bones
        • could communicate with ancestors
        • bore the beginnings of Chinese ideographic writing
      • Shang were the first to make silk
    • Zhou Dynasty
      • 1027 BCE , Zhou overthrow the Shang
        • Justify overthrow with the Mandate of Heaven
          • The Mandate of Heaven forms the basis of the dynastic cycle .
        • Zhou control countryside with a system called feudalism .
          • Land owns to the King; grants right to use to lords in exchange for loyalty & military service.
      • Zhou tech: roads, canals, iron
      • 771 BCE nomads sack Hao; king moves capital; Zhou pretend to rule until 256 BCE .
        • Period of Warring States
    • Confucianism
      • Confucius , born around 551 BCE, lived during the Zhou Dynasty – and at the same time as Plato.
      • He believed in Five Basic Relationships
        • Ruler :: Subject
        • Father :: Son
        • Husband :: Wife
        • Older Brother :: Younger Brother
        • Friend :: Friend
      • The Five Basic Relationships were based on an ideal of filial piety , respect for parents and elders.
      • Confucius served as the Minister of Justice
      • His writings were collected by students into the Analects , and knowledge of these texts served as the basis for the civil service exam.
    • Daoism
      • Daoists seek the harmony of the natural order.
        • Daoism was founded by Laozi and written as the Dao De Ching ( The way of Virtue )
        • Daoists pursued scientific study of alchemy, astronomy, and medicine
    • Legalism
      • Li Si and Hanfeizi emphasized that the rule of law was the only thing that could restore order during the Period of the Warring States; this was the basis for Legalism .
        • They controlled behavior with rich rewards and harsh punishments
        • They controlled thoughts and beliefs by burning books and executing teachers.
    • Qin Dynasty
      • The Qin Dynasty was short lived (221 to 202 BCE) because Shi Huangdi’s son was just as cruel, but not as good a ruler.
        • Shi Huangdi followed Legalism
        • He doubled the size of China, burned books, forced the nobles to live inside the capital city, and completed to Great Wall .
      • Shi Huangdi’s son was overthrown by a Han peasant army in 202 BCE.
    • Han Dynasty (202 BCE -220 CE)
      • Liu Bang became the first Han Emperor in 202 BCE.
        • Liu Bang relaxed the Legalist policies and lowered taxes.
      • When Liu Bang died, his son was too young to rule, so Empress Wu took the throne.
      • Wudi , Liu Bang’s great-grandson, ruled from 141 to 87 BCE as a martial emperor .
      • Wang Mang overthrows the Han.
      • Sui Dynasty (589 – 618) lasted for only two emperors, but did manage to complete the great canal between the Huang He and the Yangtze.
    • Tang Dynasty (618 – 907)
      • Tang Taizong reconquered northern China.
        • Lowered taxes; took land from the rich and gave to the poor.
        • Scholar-officials gained more power than noblity.
      • Empress Wu Zhao ruled as China conquered Korea again.
      • In 751 the Tang lose to Arab soldiers in the Battle of Talas ; signifies the loss of the Mandate of Heaven.
    • Song Dynasty (960-1279)
      • Concentrated on defense of China, not reconquest of lost lands.
        • Try to bribe the Jurchen ; Jurchen invade northern China and Song family flees south.
    • Song & Tang inventions
      • Porcelain , Mechanical Clock , Printing , Gunpowder , Paper money , and Magnetic compass .
      • Song import a fast-growing rice from Vietnam.
      • China concentrates on sea-trade.
      • Rise of the gentry .
      • Foot-binding among Chinese women.
    • Yuan Dynasty
      • 1279-1368
      • Ogadai conquered northern China
      • Kublai Khan completed the invasion
        • First unification of China in 300 years
        • Opened China to greater foreign contact and trade
        • Respected Chinese customs and traditions; changed very little in China
      • Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan in 1279 and 1281
        • 2nd fleet was the largest seaborne invasion force until D-Day, but it was defeated by kamikaze .
      • Mongols gave highest gov’t jobs to Mongols and foreigners, like Marco Polo .
      • Hongwu led revolt against Mongols.
    • Ming Dynasty
      • 1368-1644
      • After Mongols, Hongwu returned to traditional Chinese administrative beliefs
        • Confucianism
        • administrative jobs based on merit
        • restored agricultural lands
      • Introduced fish farming and commercial crops such as cotton and sugar cane
      • Yonglo was more curious
      • 1405 , launched first of the seven voyages of Zheng He .
        • The last voyage ended in 1433
        • Chinese officials dismantled the shipyards, burned books, and forbade ocean-going voyages
        • Began the policy of isolation
      • Christian missionaries, such as the Jesuit Matteo Ricci , traveled to China
    • Qing Dynasty
      • 1644-1912
      • The Manchus invaded over the northeast edge of the Great Wall
        • brought Taiwan, Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet into China
      • Favored the Dutch in trade over the British
    • Japan
      • 4,000 island archipelago that stretches for 1,200 miles.
      • Only 15% is arable land.
      • Earliest religion is Shinto , a form of animism, referred to as the “way of the gods” that respected the kami of all things.
      • By 500 CE, the Yamato clan starts consolidating power.
    • Learning from China
      • Korean travelers brought Buddhism to Japan which blends with Shinto.
      • Japan sends missions to study the Tang; they bring back ideographic writing , painting style, and system of government.
        • Central government doesn’t work in Japan because of the fragmentation of the islands.
    • Heian Court
      • 794 – 1185, court is in Heian (modern Kyoto).
        • Etiquette, art, poetry
      • Fujiwara family controls the real power.
      • Large landowners begin funding private armies of samurai who follow Bushido , “the way of the warrior”.
    • Kamakura Shogunate
      • After a civil war, the Emperor gives the title of Shogun to the Minamoto family who rules from Kamakura.
        • Daimyo rule provinces as governors.
      • The Kamakura fend off the Mongol invasion attempts in 1274 and 1281.
    • Warring States Period
      • 1467-1568, Sengoku , “Warring States”
      • Emperor at Kyoto as figurehead only; daimyo become feudal lords
        • fortified castles; samurai on horseback; footsoldiers with muskets
      • Oda Nobunaga defeats rival daimyo and captures Kyoto in 1568, but cannot unite Japan
      • Toyotomi Hideyoshi continues the attempt
        • Invades Korea in 1592
    • Tokugawa Shogunate
      • 1600-1867
      • Tokugawa Ieyasu unites Japan, moves the capital to Edo (later renamed Tokyo)
      • Mid-1700s, rural japan was changing to an urban society
        • Farmers crushed under taxes, moved to cities for jobs
        • Commerce grows
      • Kabuki theater, haiku , and noh dramas entertain
      • 1543, shipwrecked Portuguese bring contact with Europe
      • Christian missionaries in 1549
      • 1637, peasant uprising leads to closed country policy in 1639.
      • Isolation lasts until 1853
    • Southeast Asia
    • SE Asia Geography
      • Mainland peninsula
        • Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
      • Islands
        • Sumatra, Borneo, and Java
        • Straits
          • Strait of Malacca between the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra
          • Sundra Strait between Sumatra and Java
      • India influences the Indian Ocean side of the mainland peninsula because of the monsoon trade .
        • Hinduism dominates
        • Khmer in Cambodia build Angkor Wat to Vishnu
      • Sailendra rule on Java and build the Borobodur as a Buddhist monument.
      • Srivijaya conquer the Salendra and gain control of the Strait of Malacca .
        • Grow wealthy charging fees to allow passage
        • Sumatra becomes a center of Buddhist learning in SE Asia.
    • Vietnam
      • The Vietnamese were under Chinese control for 1,000 years but broke away from the weakened Tang Dynasty is 900 CE.
        • Ly Dynasty (1009 – 1225) build their capital in Hanoi.
        • The Mongols try conquering Vietnam three times, but fail.
      • French colonization of Indochine , 1887-1954, under orders of Emperor Napoleon III
    • Dutch East India Company
      • Chartered in 1602
      • Attempts to control the global spice trade
        • Seized Melaka from the Portuguese and took Java away from the British
        • The Dutch expand control over Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, and Bali.
        • The company takes over Indonesia, then called Dutch East Indies
    • Korea
      • Much of Korea is barren mountain lands.
        • In 108 BC, the Han conquer Korea.
      • The Silla unite with other clans and defeat the Han in the mid-600s.
      • Koryu Dynasty (935 - 1392) defeat the Silla and set up a flawed examination system.
        • In 1231 Mongols invade
      • The Chosun Dynasty defeats the Mongols in 1392.
        • Re-carve 81,000 lost Buddhist texts.
      • 1636, Manchus invade
      • Korea becomes China’s “little brother” under the Manchus
      • The Manchu invasion, plus the Mongolian invasions, and then Japan’s invasion in the 1590s leads to an increase in Korean nationalism
    • Quiz
      • Which of the following best describes the basis of the ruler’s authority in Zhou China?
      • The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people
      • The ruler was believed to be a god himself, and so his authority could not be questioned
      • The ruler depended heavily on his staff, so real authority lay in the hands of the bureaucrats
      • The ruler was selected by a handful of elite aristocrats who also had the authority to remove him from office
      • The ruler was a military leader who held power as long as he was victorious on the battlefield
      • The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people
      • Which of the following most helps to explain why the collapse of political institutions was more devastating to the Roman civilization than to Han China or Gupta India?
      • Political institutions in Rome were weaker to begin with
      • The barbarian attacks destroyed more physical property and vital public works in Rome
      • Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/ philosophical traditions to provide continuity
      • Roman emperors had more power than did Han or Gupta emperors, so their downfall eviscerated the Roman Empire
      • The Romans were economically more self-sufficient than the Han or Gupta, so they had no long-distance trade to cushion their fall
      • Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/ philosophical traditions to provide continuity