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Central Asia Review

Central Asia Review



Review slides for Central Asia

Review slides for Central Asia



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    Central Asia Review Central Asia Review Presentation Transcript

    • Spring Final Exam Pop quiz Chapter test Unit test Midterm exam Final exam Degree of detail Q: When was the Battle of Agincourt? A: October 25, 1415 Q: What weapon enabled the English to win the Battle of Agincourt? A: The longbow Q: Which two kings was the Battle of Agincourt fought between? A: King Henry V of England and King Charles VI of France Q: In what way did the use of English bowmen at the Battle of Agincourt contradict the rules of chivalry? A: Common peasants were able to fight and kill knights and noblemen Q: Why was the Battle of Agincourt so significant? A: the use of English bowmen against French knights signaled the end of feudal armies and the beginning of English and French nationalism
    • Central Asia Review Spring Final Exam Review
    • Indus River
      • Geography
        • Himalayas to NE; Hindu Kush to NW, passable only via the Khyber Pass
        • Indus River flows SW to the Arabian Sea
        • Monsoons
          • Winter monsoons are dry
          • Summer monsoons are wet
      • Domestication
        • As early as 7000 BCE, sheep and goats
        • 3200 BCE, settled society
        • 2500 BCE, cities of the Harappan Civilization
      • Harappan planning
        • uniform bricks; grid system; indoor plumbing
        • Written language, untranslated
        • Mysterious end
    • Aryan invasions
      • 1700-1200 BCE, Indo-Europeans crossed the Caucasus, then Hindu Kush
      • Pushed indigenous people to south
        • Called them dasas
      • Vedas record the migration story in four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for rituals
    • Caste System
    • Hinduism
      • Upanishads , dialogue between teacher and student, 750-550 BCE
      • reincarnation based on karma
      • Jains
    • Buddhism
      • Siddartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) sought enlightenment
      • 4 Noble Truths
        • everything is suffering and sorrow
        • cause of suffering is desire
        • end suffering by ending desire
        • follow the Eightfold Path to end desire
    • Islam
      • Muhammad (570 CE) was born in Mecca and married Khadijah when he was 25.
      • At 40 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and revealed the Qur’an.
      • Hijrah : 622, forced to flee Mecca to Yathrib (renamed Medina )
        • In 630, the umma returned to Mecca
    • 5 Pillars and Laws
      • Faith (Shahada)
        • “ There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.”
      • Prayer (Salat)
        • 5 times a day, toward Mecca
      • Alms
      • Fasting
      • Pilgrimage
        • hajj
      • Qur’an
      • Revealed word of Allah
      • Sunna
      • The example of Muhammad’s life
      • Shari’a
      • Islamic legal system formed on the basis of the Qur’an and the Sunna
    • Initial Spread
      • 632, Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (or “successor”)
        • The “rightly guided” caliphs were able to establish Muslim control over the Arabian peninsula
        • By 750 the Islamic state stretched 6,000 miles, from the Atlantic ocean to the Indus valley.
      • Berber armies invade Spain and are stopped only 100 miles from Paris at the Battle of Tours in 732 .
    • Sunni-Shi’a split
      • In 655 the caliph Uthman was murdered; his successor, Ali (cousin & son-in-law to Muhammad) was also murdered.
      • The Umayyads came to power, moved the capital to Damascus, and began living more extravagantly
        • Shi’ites believe the caliph should be descended from Muhammad
        • Sunni believe in following Muhammad’s example
        • Sufi believe Islam should be more religious and less secular
    • Crusades
      • 1096-1204
      • Urban II called for European Christians to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslim caliphate.
      • Effects:
        • Byzantine Empire weakened; Papal power declines; Kings’ power increases; increased religious intolerance; Italian cities expand trade and grow rich; trade increases between Europe and the Muslim world; European technology improves
    • Mongols
      • Steppes
        • wind-swept, dry grass lands across central Asia
      • Unification
        • 1206, Temujin becomes Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler”
        • 1221 Central Asia is under Mongol control
      • Pax Mongolica
        • Period of relative peace during the 13th and 14th centuries
      • Khanates
        • Steppes divided into 4 khanates for governance
          • Khanate of the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, Chagatai Khanate, and Khanate of the Great Khan
      • China
        • Ghenghis Khan begun invasion; Ogadai continued; Kublai Khan completed the invasion in 1279
        • Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368
        • Attempted invasions of Vietnam and Japan
        • Marco Polo and other foreigners
    • Ottoman Empire
    • The Ottomans
      • 1299 - 1922
      • Ghazi united under Osman who unites Anatolia under his rule
        • Timur the Lame comes out of Central Asia, conquers Russia and Persia, and crushed the Ottomans
      • Mehmet II reunites the Ottomans and conquers Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul
      • Selim the Grim expands Ottoman rule into the Holy Land
      • Suleiman the First, the Lawgiver expands the empire to its greatest size
      • The empire is governed under the devshirme system, which used Christian slaves ( janissaries ) as bureaucrats.
        • Ethnic enclaves are organized as millets , each with their own governance
      • The empire is weakened by a tradition of the new sultan killing his brothers and preventing new sons from gaining education or experience
    • Local governors, generals, tax officials Religious & ethnic millets Sultan Imperial Council Divan (drawn from devshirme ) Social & Military Administration Religious & Judicial Administration
    • Safavid Empire
    • Safavid Empire
      • Aligned with the Shi’a
      • The “redheads” were led by Isma’il in 1499 conquered modern-day Iran; he assumed the title of “shah”
        • He was a religious tyrant and ordered the murder of every Sunni in Baghdad – in response, Selim the Grim murdered 40,000 Shi’a in the Ottoman Empire
      • The "Golden Age of the Safavids came under Shah Abbas in 1587.
        • He blended the cultures of the Safavid, Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds.
        • Reorganized the military to be loyal to the Shah
        • Established political & economic relations with Europe (Europe wanted Persian carpets)
        • Brought Chinese artisans to decorate Isfahan
      • Cultural Blending : when two or more cultures interact.
        • Occurs as a result of one or more of the following:
          • Migration
          • Trade
          • Conquest
          • Religious conversion
      • Decline
        • Killed or blinded his most able sons
        • Incompetent grandson came to power
        • Afghani tribes attacked from the east, Ottomans attacked from the west, and the empire shrank
          • 1736, Nadir Shah Afshar took command and conquered land into India. He was so brutal in his conquests that his own soldiers assassinated him to stop the carnage
    • Mughal Empire
      • Gupta Empire had fallen in 550 CE to invading Hunas from the northwest.
        • The empire fragmented and was ruled by rajputs , “sons of kings”
      • Turkish armies invaded in 1000 and a series of sultans ruled from Delhi.
      • 1526, Babur (great-grandson of Timur the Lame) led 12,000 troops from Kabul and defeated 100,000 troops, conquering Delhi.
        • These lands were lost by Babur’s son, Humayan
      • Akbar , Babur’s grandson , ruled from 1556 – 1605.
        • Defended religious tolerance; abolished the jizya ; sponsored fair and affordable tax program; gave temporary land-grants to bureaucrats.
        • United the rajputs by inviting some to be his generals.
        • Arts & culture flowered under Akbar’s rule.
      • Jahangir , Akbar’s son, left much of the rule to his wife, Nur Jahan .
        • Khusrau , their son, tried to rebel and sought help from the Sikhs , a religious group that combined the beliefs of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sufism.
        • Jahangir and Nur Jahan ended the tradition of religious tolerance, hunted Sikhs down, and attempted to enforce Islam as the state religion.
      • Shah Jahan loved buildings and his wife Mumtaz Mahal , so when she died, he had her tomb, the Taj Mahal , constructed.
      • Aurangzeb captured the throne in a four-way civil war after his father Shah Jahan died.
        • He ruled from 1658 to 1707 and was an aggressive conqueror and a violent ruler.
        • He brought back the jizya , and attempted to crush the Hindus.
        • He drained the treasury fighting the Hindus and the Sikhs.
      • Weakened from so much in-fighting, when the Portuguese arrived in 1661 , Aurangzeb handed them control of Bombay, the important port city.