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23 French Revolution Slides
 

23 French Revolution Slides

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Slides to accompany Ch 23, French Revolution

Slides to accompany Ch 23, French Revolution

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23 French Revolution Slides 23 French Revolution Slides Presentation Transcript

  • The French Revolution 1789 - 1815
  • Background Three major political revolutions in the Age of Enlightenment: the “Glorious Revolution” in England, 1688 the American Revolution, 1776 the French Revolution, 1789
  • All three revolutions: • rejected the divine right of kings, • encouraged the creation of bureaucracies, • emphasized individual merit, • increased political participation, • encouraged the growth of business & industry for private profit, • encouraged revolutionary leaders, and • spread conflict and war.
  • The study of the French Revolution remains the pre-eminent subject of French historiography, producing a seemingly endless variety of interpretations. Three approaches have, however, dominated the field . . .
  • The first emphasizes the importance of IDEAS, stressing the philosophes as the precursors of this revolution. This interpretation tends to focus on the first three months of the revolution and the significance of the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”
  • A second interpretation stresses the significance of CLASS interests in the revolution, and tends to highlight the next chronological stage, as urban workers and rural peasantry escalated their protests and demonstrations.
  • A more recent interpretation (influenced by literary theory) speaks of the revolution as “DISCOURSE,” an interplay of ideas and interest groups that constantly shifts, or “skids,” as events unfold. As the direction of the revolution changed irrevocably with each new event - for example, the execution of Louis XVI - ideas were reassessed and classes reshuffled themselves into new alignments.
  • There is a broader issue, too. Historians sometimes envision events as part of a long sweep of related trends. Sometimes they see them as contingencies, occurring because of circumstances that are unique and unpredictable. The French Revolution presents both aspects.
  • On the one hand, the French Revolution was an outgrowth of larger trends, the ideals of the pholosophes and the legacies of the British and American revolutions.
  • On the other hand, specific events unfolded day- by-day in quite unpredictable ways; had they turned out differently - for example, had the one vote to guillotine the king been reversed - the outcome of the revolution might have been quite different.
  • Questions 1. In your own understanding of historical change up to this point in the course, which do you think counts for more, the ideas or class interests? Why? 2. In your own understanding of historical change, which do you think counts for more, the grand sweep or the contingency? Give an example from another period of great change in the course that illustrates your point of view.
  • Revolution Threatens the French King
  • 1. Identify the three estates of the Old Regime
  • 1. Identify the three estates of the Old Regime
  • 1st 2nd 3rd % of Population % of Taxes Paid
  • 1st 2nd 3rd 1%% 2 97% % of Population % of Taxes Paid
  • 1st 2nd 3rd 1%% 2 2% 48% 50% 97% % of Population % of Taxes Paid
  • 2. Summarize factors that led up to the French Revolution Enlightenment ideas Economic woes Weak leadership
  • 1. In general, how do the paintings differ in their portrayal? 2. Why would the first painting fuel sentiments against the queen? 3. Why didn’t the second painting calm that anger? 4. Would the French Revolution have happened if there was no Marie Antoinette?
  • “The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly. Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
  • “The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of public order, and to maintain the dical it true principles of monarchy; that nothing can ra for prevent l from continuing its deliberations ath cal in whatever place it may tO urand finally, that wheresoever is Co be forced to establish itself; nn Teassembled, there is the National ost its members eh are oes t the m e of 1. D Assembly. ? ch on eredthis Assemblyn tion e Fre shall c that all members of a onsid ents of th s it ca solemn oath not to separate, and to Decrees hy i taket docum 2. W rtan immediately impo tion? reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the evolu constitution of the kingdom is established and R consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
  • 3. Describe the creation of the National Assembly and the storming of the Bastille
  • 4. Explain the importance of the Great Fear and the women’s march on Versailles.
  • Revolution Brings Reform & Terror
  • Why do people obey Government?
  • Why do people obey Government? Respect
  • Why do people obey Government? Respect Self-interest
  • Why do people obey Government? Fear Respect Self-interest
  • 1. Explain how the National Assembly changed France’s government Rights of Man & Citizen Olympe de Gouges’ Declaration of the Rights of Women State-controlled church Louis XVI . . .
  • 2. Summarize the positions of the three factions that tried to govern France in the Legislative Assembly: Radicals Moderates Conservatives and where did they sit? Who were the Emigres and the sans-culottes?
  • 3. Explain how war and the king’s execution affected the Revolution September Massacres Legislative Assembly → National Convention the Jacobins Who did France fight?
  • 4. Describe the events and the aftermath of the Reign of Terror Maximilien Robespierre “Committee for Public Safety” Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Napoleon Forges an Empire
  • 1. Explain how Napoleon Bonaparte came to power Hero of the National Convention Coup d’Etat Napoleon as First Consul
  • @ The Great Mall
  • 2. Summarize how Napoleon restored order in France 1800, plebiscite Fixes economy Ends corruption Restores the Church Creates the Napoleonic Code Crowns self Emperor Napoleon, 1801
  • Provision One: A father can veto his son’s marriage until age 26 and that of his daughter until age 21. Provision Two: There can be no worker organizations (ie unions). An employer’s word was to be taken over that of his employee. Provision Three: Adoption is not permitted except to those above the age of fifty and who at the period of adoption have no children. Provision Four: A married couple jointly owns all the wealth the two accumulate during their marriage, and in case of divorce, they must divide it equally. Provision Five: Landowner’s children had to share equally in the inheritance. Provision Six: If a child has not commenced his 16th year, the father may imprison his child for up to six months.
  • • The Napoleonic Code was the first modern legal system that applied to everyone. • Enacted on March 21, 1804 the Civil Code of France marked the first major revision and reorganization of laws since the Roman era. • Before the Napoleonic Code, a confusion of customary, feudal, royal, revolutionary, church and Roman laws existed. • The Civil Code eliminated feudal and royal privileges in favor of all citizens’ equality before the law. • The Code mainly addressed issues relating to property and families. • It also included some rights such as freedom of speech and worship along with public trial by jury. • The code preserved most social aims of the revolution and helped France turn away from the past. • The Code made the wife inferior to her husband. “The husband owes protection to his wife, and the wife owes obedience to her husband.” • Countries of modern Europe with the exception of Great Britain, Ireland, Russia and Scandinavia base their civil law systems on the Napoleonic Code • What state in the USA bases their legal system on the Napoleonic Code?
  • 3. Describe the extent and weaknesses of Napoleon’s empire Revolt in Haiti Sale of Louisiana Territory Expands in Europe Battle of Trafalgar
  • Napoleon’s Empire Collapses
  • 1. Explain Napoleon’s tactical and political mistakes Continental System & blockade The Peninsular War & guerillas 1812 invasion of Russia
  • 2. Summarize Napoleon’s defeat, comeback, and final downfall April 1814, surrender Louis XVII became king Napoleon escapes Elba, raises an army Defeated at Waterloo by Duke Wellington exiled to St Helena