Exploration and Colonization by Carol Setzer Information about explorers obtained through enchantedlearning.com, text book and web sites
Review - Land Bridge Theory Bering Strait When glaciers formed causing the land under the Bering Strait to be exposed, Asians migrated as they followed food supplies such as the woolly mammoth over the Bering Strait from Asia during the Ice Age. As Earth warmed the strait was again covered with water. click
Other Links http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/croads
Did you know that Christopher Columbus was not the first European to discover the New World! Many people do not know that Leif Eriksson arrived in 1001 AD. 500 years prior to Columbus reaching the New World in 1492. Vikings
Leif Eriksson was the first European to set foot in the New World, opening a new land rich with resources for the Vikings to explore. Leif gave this land a name, Vinland, which either means Wineland or Pastureland. Surprisingly, few people ever returned to Vinland, only Leif's sister and a small group of settlers who were killed by Indians. Because of this, Europe was totally unaware of the discovery of a new world.
The only references to the discovery are in the Norse sagas where most of the information concerning Leif Eriksson is recorded. But for some unknown reason, the Vikings only made a few voyages to the New World after Leif. Unfortunately, this caused his discovery to remain unknown to nearly all of Europe. At this time European countries were preoccupied with fighting the crusades in Northern Africa.
Viking Long Ships The combination of a sail, oars (15 on each side), and the adjustable side rudder made the Viking ships swift and maneuverable.
Marco Polo set out from Italy for China in 1271. After traveling by ship, foot, horseback, and wagon, he reached China in 1274. He journeyed over rough terrain including along the boundary of the Gobi Desert. He observed people using paper money, coal, and gun powder. Soft, beautiful silks were being woven. Tea and spices were staples of the Chinese.
When he brought samples of silk, spices and tea back to Europe, traders began to travel the silk road in search of these products. Ideas, skills, and customs were also exchanged. People became aware that the world was larger than their community. Europeans in search of a better way to travel to China began to explore water routes.
Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal Prince Henry of Portugal was born in 1394. He gathered sea captains, mapmakers, ship designers, and other experts together and is credited for building the caravel ship with its lateen sail. His goal was to discover a complete water route to Asia in order to obtain riches and avoid the “middle men.”
He is most famous for the voyages of discovery that he organized and financed, which eventually led to the rounding of Africa and the establishment of sea routes to the Indies. Although he actually did not sail, his sailors engaged in trading for gold and slaves.
Caravel Ships with Lateen Sails Triangular shaped lateen sails, helped sailors steer against the wind.
New Sailing Instruments Prior to the invention of the astrolabe, magnetic compass, cross staff, and other navigational instruments, sailors depended on the north star and crudely constructed maps for direction and sailing. http:// www.britannica.com/clockworks/astrolabe.html http://www.mariner.org/educationalad/ageofex/navmethods.php
A magnetic compass works because the Earth is like a giant magnet, surrounded by a huge magnetic field. The Earth has two magnetic poles which lie near the North and South poles. The magnetic field of the Earth causes a magnetized 'needle' of iron or steel to swing into a north-south position if it is hung from a thread, or if it is stuck through a straw or piece of wood floating in a bowl of water. This instrument helped sailors navigate without using the North Star.
Mariners at this time also used the cross-staff and the astrolabe to measure the angle above the horizon of the sun and stars to determine latitude. The astrolabe was used to measure the altitude of the sun or a star. When new land was discovered and the astrolabe taken ashore, it was valuable in fixing the approximate latitude of the new discovery. These navigational instruments used the position of the sun and stars. They helped with map-making
Bartolomeu Dias (1457-1500) was a great Portuguese navigator and explorer who explored Africa's coast. In 1488, Dias led the first European expedition to sail around Africa's Cape of Good Hope, leaving Tagus, Portugal in 1487. This breakthrough of circumnavigating the Cape of Good Hope opened up lucrative trading routes from Europe to Asia.
Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) was a Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East. Da Gama sailed from Lisbon, Portugal, around Africa's Cape of Good Hope, to India (and back) in 1497-1499. At that time, many people thought that this was impossible to do because it was assumed that the Indian Ocean was not connected to any other seas.
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was an Italian explorer who sailed for Spain across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, hoping to find a route to India (in order to trade for goods). He made a total of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the years 1492-1504, sailing for King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella of Spain. On his first trip, Columbus led an expedition with three ships, the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria.
Columbian Exchange New World Europe Received Received Wheat Rice Coffee Horses Pigs Cows Chickens Deadly Diseases Diphtheria Measles Smallpox Malaria Corn Potatoes Peanuts Squash
New World received Old World received Diseases Customs Ideas Columbian Exchange
exploring the area, and brutally attacking native societies, including the Cherokees, Seminoles, Creeks, Appalachians, and Choctaws. De Soto died during the explorations and was buried on the banks of the Mississippi River in late June 1542. Hernando De Soto arrived on the west coast of Florida on May 30, 1539 with 10 ships carrying over 600 soldiers, priests, and explorers. They spent four years searching for gold and silver,
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was a Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition that sailed around the Earth (1519-1522). Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean (the name means that it is a calm, peaceful ocean.)
Purpose of Spanish Exploration God – Missionaries wanted to spread Catholicism to the Native Americans Gold – Greed for personal and national wealth Glory – defeat of powerful Native American tribes, claiming land for mother country, adventure
René-Robert La Salle (1643-1687) was a French explorer. He was sent by King Louis XIV to travel south from Canada and sail down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. He was the first European to travel the length of the Mississippi River (1682). His mission was to explore and establish fur-trade routes along the river. La Salle named the entire Mississippi basin Louisiana, in honor of the King, and claimed it for France on April 9, 1682. He also explored Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.
http://www.mce.k12tn.net/explorers/frenchexplorers.htm French Exploration
Discovery of the Northwest Passage, fur trading, and claiming land for France Purpose of French Exploration Help! The French are coming. Save our hides!
John Cabot (about 1450-1499) was an Italian-born English explorer and navigator. Cabot was born in Italy but moved to England in 1495. At the request of King Henry VII of England, Cabot sailed to Canada in 1497. Cabot landed near Labrador, Newfoundland, or Cape Breton Island (the exact spot is uncertain) on June 24, 1497. Cabot claimed the land for England.
Jamestown Explorers had been landing in America for some time before English settlers arrived in what is now Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. But it was in that spot on the James River that English colonization began and with it, the history of America . http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/jamestown.htm
The terrible winter of 1609 convinced most of the settlers to abandon their new life, however. Only 60 of the 214 settlers survived this harsh winter, which was also hard on Powhatan's tribe and other neighboring Native Americans. One of the main crops grown by the English settlers was tobacco, which they sold to Native Americans and to people back in England, beginning in 1612. Tobacco became a very popular crop because it was easy to grow and because it brought in so much money.
English Puritans who fled England to escape religious persecution. After a 65-day journey from Southampton, England, they landed in Plymouth Harbor on the western side of Cape Cod Bay on December 21, 1620. There, under the leadership of William Bradford, they signed the Mayflower Compact, which created their own government. Pilgrims http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/wwww/us/pilgrimsdef.htm
Purpose of English Exploration and Settlement Claim land for England and and Religious Freedom We want freedom to worship as we please. Don’t tell us where to go to church.
Henry Hudson (1565-1611) was an English explorer and navigator who explored parts of the Arctic Ocean and northeastern North America. The Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay are named for Hudson Hudson was hired by a Dutch company in 1607, to find a waterway from Europe to Asia. Hudson made two trips (in 1607 and 1608), but failed to find a route to China. He could not find the Northwest Passage because there isn’t one.
Purpose of Dutch Exploration Discovery of Northwest Passage, claim land for the Netherlands Do you know why I couldn’t find the Northwest Passage to Asia? THERE ISN’T ONE!!!!
<ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch </li></ul>D A A C A D B Early Exploration and Settlements Henry Hudson 1607-1608 E E C A A
Native Americans (First Americans) <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorded through oral history? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does this signify? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barter economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing was respectful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare this to Europeans… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For all to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT TO BE OWNED!!!!! </li></ul></ul>
In the Americas… <ul><li>Exploring for Wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why did Columbus and others sail? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, Spices, riches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explorers find little riches! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to make money, so start farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farms need workers, right? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Workers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians had been killed during exploration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND, had been wiped out by DISEASE!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now where do you look for forced labor? </li></ul></ul>
Over in Africa… <ul><li>Power in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not based on $$ or land, but people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note how different than Europe – land, gold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavery in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It existed! (Gasp!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different than later American slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slave Traders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans exchanged technology for slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African thought, “Sell my enemies away, gain more power???” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new market for forced labor is created in the New World </li></ul></ul>http://mariner.org/captivepassage/
Interaction in the Americas <ul><li>Areas of Settlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canada, Mississippi River </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Canada (Hudson Bay) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Coast of North America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Florida and Western North America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caribbean & South America (Not Brazil) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul></ul></ul>
Interaction in the Americas <ul><li>English & Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of exploration and immigration to these places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caribbean Islands, who could say no!? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans killed for land claims and lose land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISEASES kill off many Native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No large-scale immigration from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trapping and trading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relations with Native Americans often was cooperative, NOT violent. </li></ul></ul>
Impact of Columbus and Other Explorers <ul><li>Columbian Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade of items across the Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Native Americans Decimated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European diseases kill countless NAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans kill NAs to get their land. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans Get Wealthy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits are made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans send more folks to explore/exploit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Africans are Enslaved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers are needed on plantations, mines, etc </li></ul></ul>
Click on these links for more information about explorers . http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/Know.html http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/home.htm http:// www.teacheroz.com/colonies.htm#Exploration http:// www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/home.htm http://www.mariner.org/educationalad/ageofex/ http://ibiblio.org/expo/1492.exhibit/Intro.html http://www.columbusnavigation.com http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com