‘I structure my classesaround the coursebook,but there may be wholelessons where we dont even open it.’
‘Nowadays learners expect schools to have state-of-the-art resources and they also expect that teachers will use them. Not to do so might be considered unprofessional.’
‘I coul te ach d anywhe re , solong as I had a bl ackb oard .’
A lot of the boring stuff associated with language learning can now bedone by the learners working on their own, using computers, for example. This frees up the classroom for the really interesting stuff.
EFL Teaching Materials and Resources Eliane Carolina de Oliveira
• Resources are tools every ESL, EFL or TESOL teacher uses daily in order to enhance the language learning environment, motivate students or assist in student comprehension. (HINES, 2010)• They are tools to help teachers in whatever approaches and techniques they have chosen to use and offer students an amazing variety of routes for learning and discovery. (HARMER, 2007)
• What teaching resources and materials have you / your teachers used?
Where do you look for resources? • They are available at the place where I work. • I adapt and expand on the available resources. • I borrow resources from a professional resource centre. • I buy my own resources. • I create my own resources. • I find resources on the internet. • I bring authentic materials to the classroom. • I involve students in the preparation of resources. • Other _______________________________
dictionary coursebook The board EXAMPLESCD/cassete/DVD The overhead player projector Pictures, handouts/ flashcards worksheets and word cards
maps/charts Authentic The photocopier printed materials EXAMPLES The learningcomputer environment Video/songs realia
• TASK• Imagine you are going off to teach English to adults in a remote part of the world. There are absolutely no teaching resources available and no electricity. Weight restrictions limit what you can take with you.• Choose three items from this list that you would take.• six copies of a students reference grammar plus exercises• a years subscription to an English language weekly newspaper• a set of Cuisenaire rods• the collected works of William Shakespeare• a dozen copies of a current coursebook• a teachers resource book of classroom games and warmers• a selection of graded readers at different levels• a battery-operated digital audio recorder, plus speakers• four copies of an advanced learners dictionary• a phonemic chart• an encyclopedia• a set of 100 magazine pictures mounted on card• a guitar
• TASK• Imagine that you are to be given a grant of enough money to buy a package of supplementary materials for your institution out of the list below. The question is: in what order will you buy them, and how will you decide? Work out an order of priority together with a colleague.• PACKAGES OF SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS• Package 1: A set of computers for learners use, with accompaning language learning programs on a DVD.• Package 2: A set of reference books for the teachers including grammars, dictionaries, various specialized textbooks, handbooks of activities and a subscription of a teachers journal of your choice.
• Package 3: A number of overhead projectors and slide projectors with all necessary film, slides and markers.• Package 4: Video equipment with assorted cassettes including language-learning material and films in the target language.• Package 5: Computers and printers for teachers use; each computer has a hard disk with the latest word processor and various programs that enable you to compose your own computer tasks for learners.• Package 6: Several cassette recorders with accompaning ear phones (so that several learners can listen quietly to one machine) a selection of accompanying cassettes for language learning.• Package 7: A wide variety of posters and sets of coloured pictures plus board and card games for language learning,• Package 8: A library of simplified readers in the target language ranging from very simple to advanced. There would be enough books in this library to enable all students to borrow freely.
The board• The most versatile piece of classroom teaching equipment is the board – whether the more traditional chalkboard, a greenboard or a whiteboard or an interactive whiteboard. They provide a motivating focal point during whole-class grouping.
• DO • DON’T• maintain eye contact with the • write with your back to the classroom; class in silence. They can• stand sideways without take this as a chance to hiding what you are writing; chatter;• write as legibly, neatly and • spend a long time at the clearly as you can; board because it can cause boredom and disruption;• while writing, keep the students’ attention by • hide what your are writing reading key words and with your body; phrases aloud; • write in capital letters as• whenever possible, find learners need to know when opportunities to write things they are necessary or not; up on the board while • start writing with no students are working on instruction to the class or something else; they will try to copy and not• get learners to write up listen to you; answers and ideas, draw • forget to erase it at the end of pictures and timelines etc. the class.
OHP (overhead projector)• An OHP is used to display information to a class.•• Reasons• The whole class can see the projected image.• No need to darken the room.• You can prepare OHTs (Overhead Transparencies) in advance and use them again and again.• It saves time in the classroom.• Using an OHP you can face the class.• What you write in front of you is projected behind you.
OHP (over head projector)• Reasons (cont.)• You can use it for drawings and illustrations that might be difficult as well as time-consuming to do freehand on the board.• Text and pictures can be modified in front of the class: – adding a transparency or taking one away. – writing on the transparency or wiping lines off. – obscuring or revealing parts of the transparency.• OHTs can be made by photocopying or printing.• Ss can write on OHTs and the results can be shown to the class.• Using erasable or washable pens makes it possible to re-use the OHT.
Visuals Pictures and Images• Flashcards – smallish cards which we can hold up for our students to see.• Wall pictures – big enough for everyone to see details.• Cue cards – small cards which students use in pair or groupwork.• Photographs or illustrations – typically in a textbook.
Visuals Pictures and Images• Take pictures from magazines;• Draw them;• Buy them; – Stick them on card – Transparent covering – Make sure they are big enough, appropriate to the Ss’ age, level and culture; – Copyright – Storing
Realia• Which of the following definition best describes “realia”? ( ) real objects ( ) examples of the world outside brought into the classroom ( ) things made out of natural materials ( ) everyday objects that most of us recognize ( ) all of the above
• Reasons why adding real life materials makes class even better!• Kinesthetics ... its always better to have something to hold, touch, smell or feel.• It makes the learning experience more enjoyable.• Real-life connection.• It generates excitement.• Breaking out of the worksheet monotony is always beneficial.• There is no limit to the things you can create.
• Ideas• A lesson on food? – snacks, fruits, or canned goods.• Teaching about shopping/prices? – fliers or coupons.• Teaching about nutrition? – real food labels.• Teaching about finding a job? – real job applications.• Practicing making an appointment or leaving a message? – real telephones• Teaching about cultures? – have a cultural day where the students must bring an item from a specific culture.
TV, DVD and Video• What have the TV, DVD and Video got that the classroom / board / textbook / CD player / other visuals haven’t got? – Sound – Moving pictures – A ‘reward’ button – A ‘pause’ button – A volume control – Subtitles – Background context, eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, physical relationship
• Below is a list of 6 video techniques. What are the possible pedagogical implications and objectives of each technique?• Videos can generally be presented in 6 forms:• 1. With sound only (sound on / vision off: only listening with the screen covered with a cloth, a newspaper or turned away from the Ss’ vision).• 2. Without sound (sound off / vision on: silent viewing).• 3. Right through from beginning to end (complete viewing: sound and vision on).• 4. In parts (jumbling sequences).• 5. Freeze-frame (motionless pictures: pause control).• 6. Split viewing (jigsaw-viewing: some of the class listen without watching while the others watch without listening).
• Viewing should not be introduced for its own sake;• It should be an active viewing;• tasks and activities - help learners understand, and guide their viewing and comprehension.• To foster active viewing: – three types of activities • pre-viewing activities; • (while) viewing activities; • post-viewing activities.• ELT materials vs. Non-ELT materials
Pre-Viewing Viewing Post-Viewing activities activities activitiesdiscussion of the video title information gathering setting the scenediscussion/debate film summary reading matching exercisesfilm interruptions a list of characters prediction/guessingfilm summary writing note-taking alternative endingssetting a task for viewing true/false jigsaw viewing/listeningblank-filling dictionary/vocabulary work pre-viewing questionsdirected listening/viewing using notes for writing practicebrain-storming activities role-plays/simulation gamesfreeze-frame paragraph organisationcompleting cloze dialogues comprehension checkputting the scenes in chronological order comparison with native culture
• Teaching without technology• Imagine you are teaching in a place where resources are limited. How could you manage without coursebooks, audio or video equipment, or photocopying facilities? Suggest ways to do the following: – grammar presentation – grammar practice – listening activities – reading activities – testing
• TASK 1: Discuss• a) some reasons of heavy reliance on the textbook.• b) the effect of heavy reliance on the textbook.• TASK 2:• Read the following statements and decide which ones you agree with.• The textbook: – 1. Indicates to teachers and students where they are going, where they are and where they have been.
• 2. Provides both teachers and students with a sense of security and self-confidence.• 3. Predicts the content to be learned.• 4. Saves teachers money and frees them from the time consuming task of preparing teaching materials.• 5. Saves learners from our deficiencies as teachers.• 6. Specifies teachers and students needs.• 7. Standardizes the teaching practices regardless of the teachers various training backgrounds.• 8. Specifies in advance what is to be taught and what is to be learned.
References• HARMER, J. The practice of English language teaching. London: Longman, 2008.• HINES, M. Evaluating ESL, TEFL, TESOL Resources For Use in the Classroom Available at <http://EzineArticles.com/81446> Access on May, 2010.• GOWER, R. et al. Teaching Practice Handbook. Heinemann. 1995.• SCRIVENER, J. Learning Teaching: a guidebook for English language teachers, 2nd Edition, Oxford: Macmillan, 2005.