Presenting And Practising Language


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Presenting And Practising Language

  2. 2. THE SUBJECT MATTER OF ELTLanguage Language Systems Skills Lexis Speaking Writing Grammar Productive skills Function Reading Listening Phonology Receptive Skills
  3. 3. • Mainly skills or mainly systems?• a. T writes a grammar exercise on the board which learners copy and then do.• b. Learners read a newspaper article and then discuss the story with each other.• c. Learners underline all past simple verb forms in a newspaper article.• d. Learners chat with their teacher about the weekend.• e. Learners write an imaginary postcard to a friend, which the T then corrects.• f. Learners write a postcard to a friend, which is posted uncorrected.• g. T says What tenses do these people use? Learners then listen to a recorded conversation.• h. T says Where are these people? Learners then listen to a recorded conversation.• i. T uses pictures to teach ten words connected with TV.
  4. 4. Demonstration Lesson
  5. 5. Presentation Mini-phases – Set the scene using one of the techniques (real objects or pictures, drawings, situations, mimes, stories, texts, listening passages, dialogues etc.) – Model the new language, saying it two or three times. – Ask students to practice the new language several times, first the whole class, then in groups, then in pairs.] – Ask questions to check that students understand the meaning of the new words, structure or function. – Write the new language item on the board, marking in the stress and checking the spelling with the students. – If necessary, explain the grammar of the new language item. – Ask students to copy the information from the board into their notebooks.
  6. 6. Features of Presentation• Purpose – To give Ss the opportunity to realize the usefullness and relevance of a new language item; – To present meaning and form; – To check understanding.• Important features – Clear, motivating, natural and relevant context; – Model sentence(s); – Concept checking.
  7. 7. Features of Presentation• Typical activities – Build-up of appropriate situational and linguistic context for the new language; – Listening and initial repetition of model sentence.• Role of the T – informant• Type of interaction – T-Ss (group) - T-Std (individual)
  8. 8. Features of Presentation• Degree of control – Highly controlled – T provides model(s)• Correction – Important in order to ensure that Ss have correct grasp of forms• Length and pace in the lesson – Short, usually at the beginning
  9. 9. Presenting new language• Two underlying approaches for the differing techniques we can use – deductive and inductive
  10. 10. Checking understanding • Do you understand?‘• ‘OK? ´Any question?• Conveying meaning and checking understanding – Realia and visuals – Mime and gesture – Give examples – Explanation or definition – Translation – Concept questions – Time lines
  11. 11. Checking understanding• Visuals• Pictures to distinguish between similarobjects e.g. cup / mug, lane / road / highway
  12. 12. Checking understanding• Visuals• Which sentence goes with each picture? – A) They started the meeting when she arrived. – B) They’d started the meeting when she arrived.
  13. 13. Checking understanding "I am sorry, I dont understanding temporary repeated action, and why you have said Present consequence of a completed event in the past at an unspecified time or a state which commenced at a point of time in the past and continues until the present time and in all likelihood will continue into the future time? I havent understood. Please help me!" • Time Lines
  14. 14. Checking understanding • Time Lines
  15. 15. Concept checking• Concept checking is checking the understanding of difficult aspects of the target structure in terms of function and meaning.
  16. 16. Concept questions
  17. 17. Concept questions
  18. 18. Concept questions
  19. 19. Concept questions • Apart from their classroom value, thinking of good questions also helps inexperienced teachers to understand the complexities of form, function and meaning, and to practise grading their language. • Some basic tips for good concept questions are: – Make sure the questions are simple and that no difficult language is required to answer the question. Yes/no questions, either/or questions and simple wh questions are particularly effective; – Dont use the new (target) grammar in your questions; – Dont use unfamiliar vocabulary; – Bring out basic concepts such as time and tense in your questions; – Use as many questions as possible to check various aspects of the language and to cover as many learners as possible.
  20. 20. Concept questions
  21. 21. Concept questions
  22. 22. Concept checking • Target sentence: • If I won the lottery, Id buy a new car • Checking questions • • Have I won the lottery? • No. • Am I going to win the lottery? • Probably not. • Am I going to buy a new car? • Probably not. • Have I got a lottery ticket? • Maybe. • Is this real, or imaginary? • Imaginary.
  23. 23. Concept checking• Target item:• bedsit• Checking questions – Is a bedsit a room? – Are there other rooms in the house? – Can you sleep in it? – Is it a room or a building? – Is it cheap or expensive? – Do you buy it or pay money every week or month? – Who lives in it? – How many people live in it? – Do you only sleep in it? – Can you cook a meal in it? – Is it the same as a flat? – Is there a bedsit in this building? – Have you ever lived in a bedsit? – Are there bedsits in Goiania/Brazil?
  24. 24. Concept checking • Questions may be of different types: • Yes/no questions. • 50/50 chance questions. • Information questions. • Discrimination questions. • Shared experience questions. • Life experience/culture questions. • Remember that the answers sometimes, it depends and I dont know can tell you as much as yes or no.
  25. 25. Checking understanding• Write up concept questions to check the understanding of the following: – I remembered to post the letter./ I remembered posting the letter. – Wellington boots (wellies) – I wish you wouldn’t smoke in here! – Expressing preferences (like, hate, adore, can’t stand etc.) – A calf – Book Concept Questions (p.47, 52)
  26. 26. Practice• Practice may be defined as any kind of engaging with the language on the part of the learner, usually under the teacher supervision, whose primary objective is to consolidate learning” (UR, 1988, p.11)• In order to give students intensive oral or written practice on specific language points, we can use activities designed to restrict the language needed and that require the use of the target items.• Practice usually begins with what is termed ‘mechanical practice’ - open and closed pairwork. Students gradually move into more ‘communicative practice’ involving procedures such as information gap activities, dialogue creation and controlled roleplays.
  27. 27. Practice• Controlled or Guided Practice• It can be teacher-driven, peer-driven or from a tape/CD/video.• It can be done individually, in open pairs, closed pairs, groups, or as a mingle.)
  28. 28. Practice – Transformation drills – Repetition drills – Substitution drills – Question-Answer Drills – Chain Drills – Information gap e.g. Find Someone Who – Shadow reading/listening – Flowcharts – Stds have cards/ a list with ½ the dialogue/responses each and then use them to respond to each other
  29. 29. PracticeT: ‘He’s going to drive the car. - T: He’s going to eat the cake. everybody! Ss: He’s going to eat the cake.Stds chorally: ‘He’s going to drive T: coffee. the car. Ss: He’s going to drink the coffee.T: Bus. He’s going to drive the bus. - everybody! T: Eliane.Stds chorally: He’s going to drive Ss: ... the bus. T: Make.T: Taxi. Ss: ...Stds chorally: ‘He’s going to drive the taxi.T: Lorry.Stds: ...
  30. 30. PracticeT: You are a stranger. Ask about T: You want to see a film. places in the town. Stds: Is there a cinema near here?T: A hotel. Is there a hotel near T: You are hungry. here? Stds: ...Stds : Is there a hotel near here? T: You want to buy a newspaper.T: a grocer’s shop T: You want to spend the nightStds: ... here.T: a petrol stationStds: ...T: a jubjubT: a gimbleT: an outgrabe
  31. 31. Features of Practice• Purpose – To provide maximum practice within controlled but realistic and contextualized frameworks; – To build confidence in using new language.• Important features – Framework provides guidance for utterances, reduces scope of errors; – Clear and realistic prompts; – Students’ talking time maximized.
  32. 32. Features of Practice• Typical activities – Drills; – Line dialogues/picture boards – Information and opinion gap activities• Role of the T – Conductor – Corrector Type of interaction – T-Ss - Std-Std (pair work)
  33. 33. Features of Practice• Degree of control – Very controlled – Students have limited choice• Correction – Teacher, other students or self correction• Length and pace in the lesson – Depends on students’ needs and ability – Follows presentation, or at beginning for revision
  34. 34. Drills • Repetition drills• What drilling is • Guessing games• What drills can be useful for • Disappearing text• What we should drill • Dialogue building• When we should drill • Mingle activities • Information gaps • Drilling 1 • Songs, rhymes and chants • Drilling 2
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  40. 40. Production• Freer Practice or Production• Fluency-based Speaking – Roleplays – Debates – Discussions e.g. questions to discuss before a text which is used to confirm, to follow on from a topic – Games – Describing activities with pictures/photos etc. e.g. describe and draw, find differences, story dominoes – Problem solving activities
  41. 41. Production– Brainstorming – whole class, group, (also chain e.g. pass along and then compare/classify)– Mini presentations – job-based, std talks etc.– Decision making activities e.g. court, committee, election– Setting up/designing a project e.g. new laws, space colony, robot, product, advertsing campaign– “Simulations” - carried out over a period of time Could be preparation for real life e.g. job interview.
  42. 42. Features of Production• Purpose – To provide the opportunity for students to use new language in freer, more creative ways; – To check how much has really been learnt; – To integrate new language with old; – To practice dealing with the unpredictable; – To motivate the students and give them confidence; – Can be used for revision or diagnostic purposes.• Important features – Purposeful tasks; – Students work together at their own pace; – Clear instructions; – Allowance of possibility of making mistakes
  43. 43. Features of Production• Typical activities – Games – Role plays – Discourse chains – Discussions – Information and opinion gaps etc.• Role of the T – Monitor – Adviser/consultant – Encourager
  44. 44. Features of Production Type of interaction – Std-Std (pairs, groups, mingles)• Degree of control – Greater element of freedom• Correction – Generally no interference from the teacher
  45. 45. References• EVANS, D. A review of PPP. University of Birmingham, working paper. 1999.• GRAHAM W. Concept Questions and Time Lines. Chadburn Publishing, 2006.• HARMER, J. The practice of English language teaching. Essex: Longman Group Limited, 1983.• ________. How to teach English. Harlow: Longman, 1998.• OLIVEIRA, E. C. Reflexões sobre oportunidades de aprendizagem em aulas de línguas estrangeiras. In: FIGUEIREDO, F. J. Q. (Org.) Formação de professores de línguas estrangeiras: princípios e práticas. Goiânia: Editora da UFG, 2012.• SCRIVENER, J. Learning teaching: a guidebook for English language teachers. 2nd Edition. Oxford: Heinemann, 2005.