Micro organism from thailand inventors...=)


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got it by inventor from thai...
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arigatou ..

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Micro organism from thailand inventors...=)

  1. 1. Soil & Plant Health Welcome to organics way
  2. 2. Fundamentals of Soil • basic principles of tropical soils • Soil composition Soil Minerals • Soil Organic Matter • Soil Water • Soil Air
  3. 3. Soil • Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids and a myriad of organisms that can support plant life. It is a natural body that exists as part of the exosphere and it performs four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of the atmosphere; and it is a habitat for organisms that take part in decomposition and creation of a habitat for other organisms.
  4. 4. Critical Nutrient Levels • There are 12 essential elements which plants obtain from the soil that are commonly managed by growers. In addition, plants require carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen to grow. • What makes an element essential to plant growth? • An element is essential if the plant cannot complete its life cycle without the element. • It is essential if the element is directly or indirectly involved in the metabolic processes of the plant (i.e. photosynthesis or respiration). • A deficiency in an essential nutrient will result in the development of a characteristic, visual symptom.
  5. 5. The essential elements for plant growth Element Abbreviation Source Carbon C Air Hydrogen H Air/Water Oxygen O Air/water Nitrogen N Air/Soil Phosphorus P Soil/Water Potassium K Soil/Water
  6. 6. Element Abbreviation Source Sulfur S Soil/Water Calcium Ca Soil/Water Magnesium Mg Soil/Water Iron Fe Soil/Water Zinc Zn Soil/Water Manganese Mn Soil/Water Molybdenum Mo Soil/Water Boron B Soil/Water Copper Cu Soil/Water
  7. 7. What Your Plants Need N = Nitrogen, P = Phosphorous, K = Potassium (potash) • Nitrogen is essential for vigorous leaf growth and tends to increase fruit set. Sources of Nitrogen are: Bloodmeal, Bone Meal, Cottonseed Meal, Manure, and Activated Sludge. Phosphorous is essential for strong root systems and bright flowers. It can increase fruit development and seed yield. Sources of Phosphorous are Activated Sludge, Bloodmeal, Bone Meal, Cottonseed Meal, and Rock Phosphate. Potassium is essential for cell division and strong stems. It helps fight diseases, improves quality of fruit, and decreases water requirement of plants. Sources of Potassium are: Greensand, Manure, Compost, and Wood Ashes. Trace Elements need for strong, healthy plants are: Boron, Calcium, Cobalt, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Magnesium, Molybenum, Sulfur, Tin, Zinc. Sources are: Oyster Shell Flour, Leaf Mold, Seaweed, Phosphate Rock, and Compost.
  8. 8. Micro organism In agriculture
  9. 9. Micro organism kind • Fungus • Bacteria • Virus • Single cell algae
  10. 10. Soil Bacteria • Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and have been used for crop production for decades. Plant–bacterial interactions in the rhizosphere are the determinants of plant health and soil fertility. Free-living soil bacteria beneficial to plant growth, usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), are capable of promoting plant growth by colonizing the plant root. PGPR are also termed plant health promoting rhizobacteria (PHPR) or nodule promoting rhizobacteria (NPR). These are associated with the rhizosphere, which is an important soil ecological environment for plantmicrobe interactions.
  11. 11. Soil Bacteria - cont • Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria or associative nitrogen fixers, for example bacteria belonging to the species Azospirillum, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas, have been shown to attach to the root and efficiently colonize root surfaces. PGPR have the potential to contribute to sustainable plant growth promotion. Generally, PGPR function in three different ways: synthesizing particular compounds for the plants, facilitating the uptake of certain nutrients from the soil, and lessening or preventing the plants from diseases.
  12. 12. Soil Bacteria - cont • PGPR also help in solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients, enhance resistance to stress, stabilize soil aggregates, and improve soil structure and organic matter content. PGPR retain more soil organic N, and other nutrients in the plant– soil system, thus reducing the need for fertilizer N and P and enhancing release of the nutrients
  13. 13. Group of microorganism • NitroGen fixed ex: Azotobacter spp. • Phosphate dissolve ex: Burkholderia spp. , Pseudomonas spp. • Potassium dissolve ex: Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus circulant, Pseudomonas sp.,Aspergillus sp. • Plant disease control ex: Bacillus subtilis , Tricoderma hazianum • Insecticide ex: Metarizeam anyzopel ,Paecilomyces lilacinus ,Buvaria bassiana Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus turinggensys
  14. 14. How microorganism do NitroGen fixed Capable of nitrogen fixation from the air. And converted to nitrates so that plants use.
  15. 15. Why do plants need nitrates? • Plants need nitrogen for the synthesis of the protein's peptide bonds as well as for the nitrogen found in seven of the twenty possible amino acid R- group side-chains which are needed for making proteins, and proteins are needed for Cell growth. When a plant does not get enough nitrogen it will suffer from stunted growth. Plants obtain nitrogen through their roots in either the form of nitrate or ammonium. Atmospheric nitrogen - N2 - cannot be utilized by the Plant. Amino acids are used to create vital structural proteins and functional enzymes which allow the plant to grow and develop.
  16. 16. Why do plants need nitrates? - cont • nitrogen is important macro nutrient for all organism. Nitrogen is essential for growth and reproduction of all plants. It is a basic constituent of proteins. Under normal growing conditions plants use nitrogen to form plant proteins. When normal growth is altered, protein formation may be slowed. the plant can not absorbs the free nitrogen present in air. It absorbs the nitrogen present only in nitrate forms present in soil. so for normal growth of plant nitrates are very essential • Plants need nitrates to grow, develop and produce seed. Nitrates are turned into amino acids, which are, in turn, formed into protein molecules. Its deficiency is characterised by poor growth and yellow leaves.
  17. 17. How microorganism do Phosphate dissolve In general, natural phosphates, usually in the form insoluble. Or is held with other substances. Microorganisms will digest and release phosphate into a form that Plant which can be use. And phosphate buffer, also have as well. Make the soil pH constant not acidic or too alkaline.
  18. 18. Phosphorus Forms and Functions • Forms of Phosphorus available for Plant Uptake • The orthophosphates, H2PO4 - and HPO4 2-, are the primary forms of phosphorus taken up by plants. • When the soil pH is less than 7.0, H2PO4 - is the predominate form in the soil. • Although less common, certain organic phosphorus forms can also be directly taken up by plants.
  19. 19. Functions of Phosphorus in Plants • Phosphorus is involved in many plant processes, including: • Energy transfer reactions • Development of reproductive structures • Crop maturity • Root growth • Protein synthesis
  20. 20. Why do plants need phosphates? • Phosphorus is an element which is absorbed by plants through the soil. It is a part of the photosynthesis cycle, which allows plants to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. • Plants need phosphate to stimulate root development and flowering and to help in the prevention of disease and stress. Phosphate is used in making soft drinks, detergents & pharmaceuticals • Phosphorus encourages plant growth, including flowers, fruits and seeds. • A plant needs phosphorus and calcium to keep its inner skeletal structures strong; plants lacking in these minerals will look weak and spindly.
  21. 21. • In general, roots absorb phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of organic phosphorus. Phosphorus moves to the root surface through diffusion. However, the presence of mycorrhizal fungi, which develop a symbiotic relationship with plant roots and extend threadlike hyphae into the soil, can enhance the uptake of phosphorus, as well especially in acidic soils that are low in phosphorus.
  22. 22. How microorganism do Potassium dissolve Most potassium in the soil will be pinned to the soil particles. Plants cannot used microorganisms are separated by potassium out of soil particles and plant can used
  23. 23. Why do plants need potassium? • potassium enters in the formation of chlorophyll. it mostly affects the growth of plants since it activates certain enzymes essential for photosynthesis and respiration. • potassium helps prevent plants from drought and help them use water it also makes the fruits and vegetable • K+ ions are needed for protein synthesis. Also, they control the opening and closing of the stomata
  24. 24. How microorganism do • Plant disease control Many types of microorganisms can destroy pathogens on plants, such as some species of Bacillus subtilis & Trichoderma harzianum can destroy the bacteria Colletotrichum musarum bordered cause of Anthracnose disease in fruit • Insecticide microorganisms some species can destroy pests remarkably Bacillus thuringiensis can destroy caterpillars , A fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus useful in controlling Eggs of insects effectively.
  25. 25. Why we reduce chemicals used • 73% of farmers in Thailand are toxins in the body overthan standard of World Health Organization • Every year, farmers in Thailand cases and deaths is a lot due to the use chemicals • Agricultural produce from the use of chemicals not safe for consumption. • High production cost • Ecology and soil structure damage. Disease and insect are resistant symptoms Thus the need for more concentrated chemical control. Which are harmful to farmers
  26. 26. Why we need to use bio-organics agriculture • Lower production costs • Agricultural products safe for consumption. • Safety and good for health of farmers • Produce are good taste than using chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. • Not destroy Ecology
  27. 27. Management of soil acidity • Land managers can manage soil acidity by raising the pH to a desired value through several methods: • Flooding: In lowlands systems, flooding may be an effective technique in raising the pH of the soil. However, this effect is only good for the time for which the soil is flooded. Flooded or paddy mineral soils are ‘self-liming’. When they are flooded and become anaerobic (lack of oxygen in the soil atmosphere) for a period of time, the pH rises toward neutrality even when the soil pH was originally acidic. If the soil is subsequently drained and becomes more aerobic (more oxygen in the soil atmosphere), the pH will return to an acidic state • However, care must be taken if the soil contains manganese-oxide minerals, since flooding conditions may lead to manganese toxicity. • Crop consideration is also required. Flooding conditions reduces the oxygen within the soil, which is needed for plant life. As a result, crops that do not tolerate high amounts of water and low oxygen levels are not be suited for flooded conditions. Taro and rice are examples of crops that grow well in flooded lowlands.
  28. 28. • Additions of organic matter: Additions of organic matter is a viable option to manage problems associated with soil acidity. Organic matter increases the cation exchange capacity of the soil. As the base saturation increases, the relative amount of “acid cations” decreases. • In addition, organic matter forms strong bonds, known as “chelates,” with aluminum. Chelation reduces the solubility of aluminum and soil acidity. Again, if your soil is prone to manganese toxicity, it is not suggested that you add organic matter.
  29. 29. •Conventional Liming: Various liming materials may be added to the soil that neutralize, or counteract, soil acidity. Liming materials are bases that react with hydrogen ions in the soil solution to form water? •Examples of common liming materials are limestone (calcium carbonate), dolomite (calcium/magnesium carbonate), hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide), and quicklime (calcium oxide). Calcium and magnesium silicates are also used as liming agents. •Additions of wood ash: Like organic mater, wood ash increases base saturation and forms chelates with aluminum.
  33. 33. THANK YOU