Healing in the countries of the ancient east


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Healing in the countries of the ancient east

  1. 1. The valley of the river Nile which fertile earths reached 5-10km on both parties of the river was the most ancient centreof the Egyptian civilization. According to the archaeologicaldata, in VI millennium BC there were the pioneersettlements which have turned subsequently to the cities-states. The real border of the country passed there wherethe fertile black earth came to an end and the red began.From here there was also a country self-name — "Kemet"that means «Black (earth)».During the long period in a valley of Nile there were twocountries: Southern (Upper) Egypt (from last fifth thresholdto the first sleeve of delta of Nile) and Northern (Lower)Egypt (actually delta of Nile).They have been united in the end of IV millennium BC.
  2. 2. Scientific knowledge of ancient Egyptians grew first ofall from their practical experience.During an epoch of the Early kingdom Egyptians learntto use natural floods of Nile for seasonal agriculturalworks, developed system of the hieroglyphic letter andmastered manufacture of a material for the letter — thepapyrus which was used by mankind throughout fourmillennia. During this period characteristic features ofEgyptian culture were generated (religiousrepresentations, a cult dead, the characteristic art style)which basically remained throughout all history ofancient Egypt, including Greek-Roman period.During an epoch of the Ancient kingdom theconstruction of pyramids began. The first of them — astep pyramid of Pharaoh Dzhosera — was built inSakkara under the project of the dignitary of thePharaoh — the architect, medic and a wise manImhotep, who was subsequently idolised.The glory and memory of Imhotep remained till thetimes of intrusion of Persians and Greeks whichidentified him with Asclepius.
  3. 3. During an epoch of the Middle Kingdom most ancient of theEgyptian scientific compositions — mathematical and medicalpapyruses have been written down.Necessity to calculate the periods of lifting and recession of waterin Nile caused development of the Egyptian astronomy. The starcharts which have remained on ceilings of tombs of Pharaohs XIX-XX of dynasties testify to it (XIV-XII centuries BC). Proceeding frompractical needs of agriculture, Egyptians divided for the first timedays at 24 oclock (12 oclock in the afternoon and 12 oclock inthe morning) and created the most perfect calendar of time. Onthe Egyptian calendar year consisted of 365 days (12 months for30 days and 5 additional days in the end of the year). The Egyptiancalendar has been accepted in Roman empire (from 45 d.C.), keptthe value in medieval Europe and has been used by Kopernik in itslunar and planetary tables.The majority of the papyruses which have reached us of themedical maintenance concerns an epoch of the New Kingdom also.
  4. 4. Now it is known more than ten papyri which are partially or completelydevoted to healing. All of them were written down during the periods ofMiddle and New Kingdoms (II millennium BC). However it does notexclude possibility of their existence during an epoch of the Ancientkingdom: earlier copies of these papyruses could not remain up to now.So, George Ebers (1837—1898) considered that the papyrus named afterhim originally has been written between 3730 and 3710 BC, andEgyptologists suppose that Edwin Smiths papyrus could be a copy ofearlier text made in the beginning of III millennium BC (supposedly byImhotep). Imhotep was not the only known medic the Ancient Kingdom.So, the inscription in a tomb Nomarch Mechen — the dignitary of thePharaoh of IV dynasty of Snofru (XXVIII century to and. э.) – testifies thathe was renown «healer of people of his nom».The Egyptian priest Manefon had written that the second Pharaoh of Idynasty Atotis (XXVIII century BC) was skilful medic and made the text ona papyrian roll about a structure of a body of the person.
  5. 5. The first representations about a structure of a human body Egyptians received frompractice of embalming which also testified their achievements in the field of chemistry(scientists believe that the modern word "chemistry" occurred from the ancient name ofEgypt — "Kemet", or "Khemet").Knowledge of ancient Egyptians in the field of a body structure were high enough for thetime. Already in the middle of II millennium BC ancient Egyptians described largeorgans: brain, heart, vessels, kidneys, intestines, and etc. However they did not subject amuscle to their special studying that was connected, most probably, with influence ofdoctrines of religion.Egyptians possess the first of reached to us the brain description. It is resulted in Smithspapyrus in which brain movement in an open wound is compared to «boiling copper».Ancient Egyptians noticed that brain damage causes a disease state of other parts of abody (for example, a paralysis of extremities), and, thus, began scientificrepresentations about a brain.They described a special role to heart and vessels in human life : «the beginning ofsecrets of the doctor — knowledge of a course of heart from which there are vessels toall members, for everyone doctor, any priest of goddess Sohmet, any exorcist, concerninga head, a nape, hands, a palm, feet, — everywhere concerns hearts: from it vessels toeach member are directed...» — it is told in the papyrus of Ebers. Thus, ancientEgyptians in the middle of II millennium BC owned art of definition of illnesses on apulsation of vessels, i.e. pulse which they observed in various points of a body.
  6. 6. Ancient Egyptians connected the reasons of illnesses as with the naturalphenomena (unhealthy food, intestinal parasites, weather changes), andwith supernatural representations (for example, installation of an evilghost of the diseased who has died in a body). Under the certificate ofHerodotus, they have been convinced that «all human illnesses occurfrom food». That is why «they clear the stomach every month three dayson end, accepting purgatives, and keep health by emetic and enema » (theenema invention attribute to Egyptians).The most extensive information on internal illnesses and medicinaldoctoring in ancient Egypt is contained in the big medical papyrus ofEbers (XVI century BC), which was found out in 1872 in Thebes andnamed by name the scientist studying him. Stuck together of 108sheets, it reaches of 20,5 m length and quite justifies the name «Book ofpreparation of medicines for all parts of a body». The papyrus containsabout 900 recipes of medicines for treatment of digestiveorgans, respiratory tracts, an ear, a throat and a nose, burns andbleedings, eye illnesses, skin, parasitic and many other diseases.
  7. 7. Various plants (an onion, a poppy, dates, a lotus, a pomegranate, by analoe, grapes, the papyrus), mineral substances(antimony, sulphur, iron, lead, soda, alabaster, clay, saltpeter) and parts ofa body of many animals were widely used in that recipes. Thus, themedicine for exile of helminths («killing of worms») contained amongother components: stones of dates, sweet beer — 25 parts. The recipecame to an end with words: «To weld, mix, drink — it leavesimmediately». The bull liver and honey were included in a recipe of amedicine for blindness. Some recipes were extremely difficult andincluded up to 37 components. Milk, honey, beer were a basis forpreparation of medicines. Many components are not identified till nowthat considerably complicates their studying.The majority of recipes in the papyrus of Ebers is accompanied byreferences to magic spells and plots which as Egyptiansbelieved, frightened off evil ghosts. In the same purposes in structure ofmedicines often included unpleasant substances on taste: parts of a tailof the mouse, allocation from ears of a pig, excrement and urine ofanimals etc. Reception of similar medicines was accompanied byfrightening plots and spells.
  8. 8. The separate section of the papyrus of Ebers is devoted to cosmetics.Recipes of medicines for smoothing of wrinkles, removals ofbirthmarks, discolorations of a skin, hair-dyeing andeyebrows, strengthening of growth of hair and even for squint correctionwere summed up in it. For protection of eyes against the scorching sunand some infectious illnesses Egyptians (both women, and men) coveredeyelids with green paste containing salts of antimony and a powder ofmalachite, thus the amygdaloid form was given to eyes. Egyptians worewigs which were put on over close-cut hair (that promoted thepediculosis prevention). The wig consisted of set of tightly bound plaitsand replaced a headdress protecting from the scorching sun. Theprescription of these traditions gives the grounds to consider ancientEgypt the cosmetics native land.In ancient Egypt some have been extended heavy infectious (a smallpox, amalaria, a plague) and parasitic diseases. Descriptions of historianstestify to it: variolous pustules on a face skin of Ramses II, the bacillae ofplague which have been found out at inspection of mummies, and otherindisputable proofs.
  9. 9. Most ancient of the texts which have reached us about a structure of ahuman body and operative treatment (surgery) — Edvin Smiths surgicalpapyrus dated on XVI century BC – has been made in ancient EgyptIn 1930 the American Egyptologist J.Н.Breasted for the first timepublished this Hieratic text, its transliteration in hieroglyphs andtranslation into English with extensive comments in the form of separatevolume.The treatise text is located on a papyri tape in length of 4,68 m and in thewidth about 33 cm. It consists of 17 columns in which 48 cases oftraumatic damages of bones of a skull, a brain, cervicalvertebras, clavicles, a forearm, a thorax and a spine column, and alsoways of their treatment are described at total absence of elements ofmagic and mysticism.Medical ethics of Egypt of that time demanded, that healer, examining thepatient, openly informed it on a prospective outcome of treatment in oneof three phrases: 1) «it is illness which I can cure»; 2) «it is illness whichI, maybe, can cure»; 3) «it is illness which I cannot cure».
  10. 10. When treatment was represented possible, the author of thepapyrus makes accurate recommendations to healer as heshould operate.At the same time apparently hopeless cases of traumaticdamages which have only theoretical value for the doctorwere described in Smiths papyrus . Among them the mostancient description of a paralysis of top and bottomextremities with an alalia and hearing which the author ofthe papyrus explains by brain damage: as a result of tragicalfall of the person from the big height the head entered intoshoulders, the backbone is broken in three places, vertebrasare pressed one into another.At treatment of crises ancient Egyptians applied woodensplints and hard bandaging of the defective extremity by thelinen fabric impregnated with pitch.
  11. 11. The great value was given to observance of traditionallyestablished hygienic requirements and the prevention ofillnesses intimately connected with them. Traditions andcustoms ordered neatness in a life and moderation in food:«Egyptians... Drink only from copper vessels which cleandaily... The Dress they carry linen, always fresh-washed, andit makes for them a subject of the big care. Cut offthemselves for the sake of cleanliness, preferring to be tidyrather than beautiful. Priests every other day cut hair on alltheir body for not to have on itself neither the louse, nor anyanother nasty insects during service to gods. Clothes ofpriests are only linen, and footwear is from the papyrus...They wash twice a day and two times at night» (Herodotus).Not casually Greeks considered Egyptians as "inventors" ofmedicine, and in particular precautionary medicine.
  12. 12. The civilization of India began to develop in III millennium BC within Hindustansubcontinent. It was long before the Hindu-Iranian (Aryan) tribes migrated to thecountry.In the history of doctoring of ancient India three stages divided both in time, and inspace are accurately traced:1) the period of Harrappan civilization (III-II millennium BC, a valley of the river Indus)when in territory of the modern Pakistan the slaveholding cities-states first in thehistory of ancient India were generated; 2) ведийский the period (the end of II - the middle of I millennium BC, a valley of theriver Ganges) when with arrival ариев the civilisation centre moved to east part ofsubcontinent and drawing up of “sacred texts” (a Sanskrit — Vedas), transferred during,the long period in oral tradition began;3) the classical period (second half of I millennia BC — the beginning of I millennium AD,Hindustan subcontinent) — time of the highest blossoming of traditional culture ofancient India. It is characterized by high development of agriculture, crafts and trade,lifting of original culture, the statement and Buddhism distribution — the first of threeworld religions, successes in various fields of knowledge, the literature and art, widedevelopment trading and a cultural contact of India with the countries of the ancientworld that brought to it glory of “Country of wise men».
  13. 13. The basic sources are: ancient literary monuments(religious-philosophical compositions — Vedas, I milleniumBC); «Instructions of Manu», II century BC; samhitas of themedics Charaka («Čaraka-samhita») and Sushruta(«Sušhruta-samhita»), the first centuries of our era), thearcheology and ethnography data, real monuments, thenational epos.About ancient India known historians, philosophers andtravelers of an antiquity wrote: the Greek historians ofHerodotus, Strabo and Diodorus, participants of campaignsof Alexander the Great, ambassador of Selevkids at court ofking Chandragupta — Megasfen, the Chinese historian SymaTsjan, pilgrim Fa Sjan and others.
  14. 14. Data on doctoring of Vedic period are rather limited. Instructions on medical knowledge remained in"Rigveda“ and "Atharvaveda" which were written down only in the middle of I millennium BC (apprx.500 BC).Three illnesses are mentioned in "Rigveda" : the leprosy, a consumption, a bleeding, and is told onceabout doctor in following words: «Our desires are various, the moving man thirsts fire wood, doctor -illnesses, and a priest — sacrificial libations». Some sections of "Rigveda" contain texts aboutceremonies of magic doctoring — in Vedic period medical knowledge was intimately intertwined withreligious beliefs and magic representations.The main medical deities of Vedic period were: twins of Ashvins — gods-keepers, Rudra — the lord ofmedicinal grasses and the patron of hunters, and also the higher deities: Agni — god of fire andreviving life, Indra — a symbol of a celestial thunder and the bearer of a rain and Surja — god of thesun.At the end of Vedic period the Indian society was definitively subdivided into four basic estates(Varnas): brahmen (knowing sacred doctrines, i.e. a priest), ksatriya (allocated with power, i.e. themilitary nobility and members of imperial sorts), vaisya (mainly farmers and cattlemen) and sudra(poor men deprived of civil rights). Each of Varnas consisted of set of castes (Portug. casto — pure; ona Sanskrit jati — group of people of one origin). Besides, out of Varnas and as though out of the lawthere was a fifth, lowest estate — pariahs (untouchable), used on the most unpleasant andhumiliating works.This social structure of ancient India based mainly on division of functions, was considered as theinitial, firm, established divine will of Brahma — greatest of ancient gods. Sudras and pariahspractically had no rights. They were not authorized to listen and repeat Vedas. Representatives ofthree higher Varnas were engaged in doctoring and studying of Vedas only.
  15. 15. Doctoring art (in Sanskrit - Ayurveda — the doctrine of long life) washighly appreciated in ancient India. Buddhist legends and texts kept gloryabout wonderful healers of Civaka (VI-V centuries BC), Charaka andSushruta (the first centuries of our era).The basic directions of traditional Old Indian medicine of the classicalperiod are reflected in two outstanding monuments ancient ayrvedicwritings: "Charaka-samhita" (it is dated I-II centuries AD) and "Sushruta-samhita" (is dated IV century AD).Earlier "Charaka-samhita" is devoted to treatment of internal illnessesand contains data of more than 600 medical products of avegetative, animal and mineral origin. On their application it is informedin eight sections: treatment of wounds; treatment of illnesses of area of ahead; treatment of illnesses of all organism; treatment of mentaldiseases; treatment of childrens illnesses; antidotes; elixirs againstsenile ageing; the means raising sexual activity."Sushruta-samhita" basically is devoted to operative treatment; in it isdescribed more than 300 operations, over 120 surgical tools and not lessthan 650 medical recipes.
  16. 16. Knowledge of Indian medics about a structure of a body ofthe person was the fullest in the ancient world. Despiteimperfection of a research technique which was based on amaceration of a dead body in running water, ancient Indiansdistinguished: 7 membranes, 500 muscles, 900 sheaves, 90sinews, 300 bones (teeth and cartilages here enter) whichare subdivided into flat, round and long, 107 joints, 40 mainvessels and 700 their branchings (for blood, slime andair), 24 nerves, 9 sense organs and 3 substances (aprana, slime and bile). Some zones of a body (apalm, soles, testicles, inguinal areas and etc.) were allocatedas "especially important" (Sanskrit — marman). Theirdamage was considered life-threatening. Knowledge of theIndian doctors in the field of a structure of a body of theperson were a major landmark in the history of anatomyand played an essential role in formation of Indian surgery.
  17. 17. Organism ability to live was considered through interaction of three substances: air, fireand water (which carriers in an organism the prana, bile and slime were considered).Health was understood as result of the balance parity of three substances, the correctfulfillment of vital departures of a body, a normal state of sense organs and clearness ofmind, and illness — as infringement of these proper correlations and the negativeinfluence on the person of five elements (influence of seasons, a climate, indigestiblefood, unhealthy water and etc.). Sushruta divided all illnesses on natural, connected withthe nature, and supernatural, sent by gods (for example, a leprosy, venereal and otherinfectious illnesses to understand which reasons at that time it was still impossible).Diagnostics of illnesses was based on the detailed poll of the patient and research ofwarmth of a body, skin color and language, selections, noise in lungs, voices and it is etc. Itis interesting that neither Sushruta, nor Charaka inform nothing on pulse research. At thesame time Sushruta describes not known even to ancient Greeks sugar diabetes which itdefined to taste of urine.In the treatise of Sushruta three stages of the inflammation are described: in the firstperiod — insignificant pains; in the second — shooting pains, a swelling, feeling of aprelum, local heat, a redness and function infringement; in the third — reduction of aswelling and pus formation. For treatment of an inflammation of Sushruta offered localmedical products and surgical methods.Treatment tactics in ancient India as well as in other countries of the ancient world, it wasdefined first of all by a curability or incurability of disease. At the favorable forecast doctorconsidered features of illness, a season, age, temperament, forces and mind of the patient.Treatment went on an equilibration of the broken parity of liquids (substances) that wasreached, first, a diet, secondly — medicinal therapy (emetic, laxative, sudorific andetc.), and thirdly — surgical methods of treatment in what ancient Indians reached highperfection.
  18. 18. Known words of Sushruta testify many-sided nature of skills and knowledge of Indianhealer : «Medic who is familiar with curative properties roots and grasses — theperson; familiar with properties of a knife and fire – a demon; knowing force of prayers— the prophet; familiar with properties of mercury — god!»The best simples were delivered from the Himalayas. In preparation ofmedicines, poisons and antidotes (from snake stings) were engaged only doctors:«There are no healing for bitten if he did not address the Indian doctor, — Indians curedthose who has been bitten» - wrote Herodotus.curative properties of the Indian plants were glorified widely outside of ancient India;by sea and overland trading ways they were delivered to Parfia, the countries of theMediterranean and Central Asia, pools of the Caspian and Black seas, SouthernSiberia, China. The basic subjects of export were spikenard, musk, a sandal-woodtree, cinnamon, aloe and other plants and aromas. In the Middle Ages experience of theIndian medicine has been borrowed by the Tibetan doctors to what the known treatiseof the Hindo-Tibetan medicine of "Chzhud-shi" (VIII—IX AD).Obstetric aid in ancient India was considered as independent area of doctoring. In thetreatise of Sushruty councils explicitly are stated pregnant women about observance ofcleanliness and the correct way of life, deviations from a normal current ofsorts, ugliness of a foetus, Cesarean section (applied after death of the woman for rescueof the baby).
  19. 19. Art of operative treatment (surgery) in ancient India was thehighest in the ancient world. Sushruta considered surgery «as thefirst and best of all medical sciences, precious product of the sky(according to a legend twins Ashvins were the first surgeons) aglory reliable source». Without having the knowledge aboutantiseptics and an aseptic, Indian doctors, following customs ofthe country maintained state of cleanliness during operations.Surgical tools were produced by skilled smiths from a steel whichcould easily cut hair. They were stored in special wooden boxes.Surgeons of ancient India made amputations of extremities, alaparotomy, a lithotomy, a herniotomy, plastic operations. They«were able to restore noses, ears and lips lost or crippled in fightor on a court sentence. The Indian surgery advanced in this areaEuropean up to XVIII century when surgeons of the East Indiancompany did not consider for humiliating to study from Indians arhinoplasty art», wrote A.Bashem.
  20. 20. At the times of Ashoka (268-231 BC) — the most outstandinggovernor of ancient India – at Buddhist temples built almshousesand premises for patients, which in India appeared for somecenturies earlier, than in Europe. Ashoka encouraged alsocultivation of simples, a construction of wells, gardening of roads.A bit later, in Guptas empire (IV—VI centuries AD) — the GoldenAge of the Indian history — in the country began construct specialhouses for cripples, widows, orphans.The medicine of ancient India has been intimately bound withreligious-philosophical doctrines, among which the special placeis occupied with yoga. It united in herself religious philosophy, themorally-ethical doctrine and system of exercises-poses (asana).The Great attention in yoga is given to cleanliness of a body and anoriginal way of life. The yoga doctrine consists of two levels:hatha-yoga (physical yoga) and the rajah-yoga (mastering byspirit). In the modern India scientific research institutes continuethe studying of this ancient empirical system.
  21. 21. The basic theoretical positions of ancient Chinese medicine passed test by time and inthe basic lines remain within three millennia.Knowledge of a structure of a human body started to collect in China in an extremeantiquity, long before an interdiction for opening of bodies died (about II century BC)which is connected with the statement of Confucianism as official religion. This istestified by the remained anatomic tables of later period (VI-VII centuries).Representations about illnesses and their treatment in ancient China had aphysiophilosophical basis. Health was understood as result of balance there began theyin and yang and five elements Wu Xing, and illness — as infringement of their correctinteraction. Various parities of these infringements united in some syndromes whichwere subdivided on two groups: a surplus syndrome — yang and a lack syndrome — yin.The variety of diseases spoke in width of interaction of an organism with world aroundand the nature, features of the organism (in the treatise «Nej a jing» are described fivetemperaments; it coincides chronologically with the period of formation of similarrepresentations in ancient Greece), the long stay in one of emotional conditions(anger, pleasure, grief, reflexion, affliction, fear and fear) and other natural reasons.Diagnostics art in ancient China was based on following methods of inspection of thepatient: survey of a skin, an eye, mucous and language; definition of the generalcondition and mood of the patient; auscultation of the sounds arising in a body of theperson, definition of its smells; the detailed poll of the patient; pulse research; pressureupon active sites. According to the legend, these methods have been entered legendaryврачевателем, living in XI century BC and known Vjan Tsjue under a pseudonym (Smallmagpie); its original name — Tsin Juezhen. Historical chronicles of the Hansky dynastynarrate about wonderful healings which were carried out by Bjan Tsjue and itspupils, skillfully applying acupuncture and cauterization, massage and local medicalproducts.
  22. 22. One of the greatest achievements of philosophical thought of ancientChina is representation about the blood circular motion, stated already inthe most ancient medical treatise of China — «Nej jing»: «Vessels arecommunicated among themselves in a circle. In it there is no beginningand there is no end... Blood in vessels circulates continuously... And heartmanages over blood». «Without pulse blood distribution in the big andsmall vessels is impossible... Pulse causes circulation of blood and«pneuma»... You will look forward, you will look back — all goes frompulse. Pulse is the internal essence of hundred parts of a body, the mostthin expression of internal spirit...»Medics of ancient China came to these conclusions by empirical way (inEurope scientifically well-founded theory of blood circulation has beenformulated in 1628 by William Harvey).Surveying the patient, they studied pulse not less than in nine points anddistinguished to 28 kinds of pulse; from them ten were considered as thecores:superficial, deep, rare, frequent, thin, excessive, free, viscous, strained, gradual.
  23. 23. The ancient method of pulse diagnostics was constantly improvedby many generations of Chinese medics and in due course turnedto the harmonious doctrine about pulse which was diagnostics topin ancient China. In the fullest it is formulated in work of the well-known Chinese doctor of III century Van Shuhe — «Mo jing» («TheTreatise about pulse», 280).Outside of ancient China the doctrine about pulse extended ratherlate. Ancient Indian treatises of Charaka (I-II centuries) andSushruta (IV century) did not mention pulse. This fact revealsrather late establishment of the mutual contacts between Chinaand India (trading — from II century BC, Buddhism distribution toChina — from I century AD). The method of pulse diagnostics gotat the Middle Ages to territory of Central Asia: the theoreticalsubstantiation of research of pulse in «Canon» of outstandingdoctor of medieval East Avicenna (980-1037) was in manyrespects similar to positions of ancient Chinese medicine.
  24. 24. Prominent feature of traditional Chinese medicine is acupuncture. Empirical roots ofthis method are in an extreme antiquity when it has been noticed that pricks, cuts orwounds in certain points of a body lead to healing of some illnesses. Forexample, compression of a central pole of an upper lip allows to deduce the patient froma faint condition, and introduction of needles at the basis of the first and second fingersfrom the back party of a hand cures of a sleeplessness. So, on the basis of the longsupervision philosophers of ancient China came to a conclusion about existence of "vitalpoints» which irritation promotes regulation of vital processes. They believed thatthrough the apertures done in «vital points», the broken balance the Yin-Yang isrestored, therefore illness disappears. Historical chronicles inform on separate cases ofsuccessful application of acupuncture by doctors Bjang Tsjue (XI century BC), Foo Ven (I-II centuries BC), Hua Tuo (II century AD) and others.The first detailed statement of the theory and practice of this method is resulted in thetreatise «Nej jing», especially in its second part «Lin Shu», where «vital points», channelsalong which they are located, collaterals, needles and methods of their introduction, theindication and contra-indication for acupuncture and cauterisation application aredescribed.In III century AD doctor Huanfu Mi (215-282) regularly generalized achievements inacupuncture of previous 4-5 centuries and made extensive compilative work «Classicalcanon on acupuncture and cauterisation» (265) which remained the main source ofknowledge in this area up to XI century and was known outside of China, since V century.
  25. 25. The first needles for an acupuncture were stone. They had the most thin aperture (like a syringeneedle) on which as believed Yang flows. Subsequently needles began to produce not only from siliconor a jasper, but also from a bone, a bamboo, and later and from metals: bronze, silver, gold, platinumand stainless steel. With development of this method specialization of needles I their division intokinds was outlined.In the treatise «Nej jing» is described nine versions of needles: a needle with a tip for superficialpuncture, the rounded off needle for massage, a stupid needle for a percussion and pressure, a sharptrihedral needle for a venous puncture, saber-shaped needle for pus removal, a sharp round needlefor fast introduction, a threadlike needle (used most often), the long needle for piercing of thickmuscles, the big needle for treatment of joints.A rich variety of needles speaks about width of a method of acupuncture in the ancient time: it wasused for treatment and the prevention of illnesses, for anesthesia during operations, and also in acombination to massage and a cauterization method, i.e. thermal influence on «vital points» by meansof the lighted cigarettes filled with dry leaves of simples.Most often for these purposes the plant moxa (wormwood, Artemisia vulgaris) was used. It wasconsidered that efficiency of a moxa increases in the course of time storages. So, for treatment bycauterization of illness which arose seven years ago, it was recommended моксa, collected three yearsago.In ancient China there were some methods of cauterization. Direct cauterization was spent at directaffinity of a burning cigarette from a body. At a method of indirect cauterization the cigarette was onsome distance from an influence point, and between a cigarette and a body medicinal substancescould be located. Cauterization by warm needles combined both acupuncture, and cauterization: thecigarette twisted round a needle and was lighted, when the needle was in fabrics; thus the combinedeffect (action of a needle and a decaying simple) was reached.