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Research Design

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Research Design Research Design Presentation Transcript

  • Research Design
  • What do we want to study?
  • Our Aim is Efficacy
    So we are concerning about the extent to which an intervention does more good than harm when provided under ideal conditions.
    Explanatory Trials
  • Our Aim is Effectiveness
    So, we are speaking about the assessment of the adequacy of that intervention to do more good than harm in regular clinical practic.
    Pragmatic Trials
  • Our Aim is the Efficiency
    So we are interested in the measurement of the effect of the intervention in relation to the resources it consumes.
    Cost Benefit Studies
  • Analytical Studies
  • Experimental Trials
  • Experimental Trials
    The Investigator have a Control over who is exposed and who is not exposed to a particular risk factor / intervention.
    The study Design is essential criteria to provide valid conclusions.
    The use of control group should be Ethical specially if there is a placebo will be tried.
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
    Prospective
    Outcome
    Outcome
  • Group Comparative RCT
    Prospective
    Each subject is receiving one treatment modality only subject/independent Statistical methods are used to compare the groups
  • Cross Over Studies of RCT
    Prospective
    Each subject in the interest and the control group Receives all the Interventions, so subjects act as their own control.
  • Problems of the Cross-Over Design
    It is a controversial design as it is rarely informative.
    Time Consuming as there must be sufficient time elapsed between treatment A and treatment B.
    Possibility of confounding bias between the effect of the drug A and drug B as the effect of drug A may be still present when drug B started.
  • Non-Randomized Controlled Trials
    Prospective
    The Investigator distribute the subjects between both groups Without Randomization
  • Uncontrolled Clinical Trial
    Prospective
    This design is suitable almost only in estimation of drug side effects and toxicity levels
  • Observational Trials
  • Cohort Studies
    Prospective
    The exposed group is followed up for pre determined period of time
  • Example
    Follow Up for Next 5 years
  • Cohort Studies (contd.)
    Follow up for predetermined Period
  • Example
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
    Cross Section
    Time
    Prospective
    Retrospective
  • Example
    Lung Cancer in 2005 between Smokers and Non Smokers
    Year 2000
    Year 2010
  • Example of Cross Sectional Studies(contd.)
  • Case Control Studies
    Retrospective Follow Up for predetermined Period
  • Example
    Follow Up in the last 5 Years