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Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort
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Guerrilla IA - content analysis when you can't do a card sort

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  • Photo credit: Crosathorian on Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/facing-my-life/) – Used under Creative Commons licence
  • Photo credit: David Goehring (carbonnyc) on Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc) – Used under Creative Commons licence
  • Photo credit: William Warby (http://www.flickr.com/photos/wwarby/) – Used under Creative Commons licence
  • Photo credit Gerd Altman on Pixabay: http://pixabay.com/en/users/geralt/ – Used under Creative Commons licence
  • Photo credit smlp.co.uk on Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/biscuitsmlp/) – Used under Creative Commons licence
  • Photo credit: Elizabeth Buie (setting: US National Gallery of Art, East Wing)
  • Photo credit: Wilson Alfonso on Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/wafonso/)
  • [notes about the purpose of the paper]
  • I harvested comments from the selected videos, aiming for a rich sample rather than a representative one.
  • I did a word cloud of the 1000 most frequent words in the comments, after spell checking the set. I’m not sure this cloud shows all 1000, but you can see there are a lot.
  • These are the top 150 words.
  • Here are the steps in inductive content analysis. I’m going to show you what I did with the viewer comments and then explain how I think the technique can apply to IA projects.
  • Here is a tiny sample of comments. It’s not a random sample, but shows some comments that have related keywords.
  • Here is the sample, with keywords underlined.
    (I also flagged whether each was positive, negative or neutral/ambiguous, but that doesn’t apply to IA.)
  • Grouping the keywords allowed me to identify themes in the comments.
  • I presented the paper at the 2013 Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces conference, held in Newcastle upon Tyne last September. (This conference really needs a new name. :-)
    Buddha statue photograph by Daniela Hartmann, retrieved from Flickr and used by permission under Creative Commons licence
    Laptop photograph by Elizabeth Buie
    Video image on laptop from “Buddhist Chant - Shingon”
  • Here are some thoughts about how this technique might be useful to an IA effort.
  • This is a partial content inventory of the bristol.gov.uk website, taken from the site map.
  • After you’ve prepared the sanitised spreadsheet, try sorting it alphabetically by page name. This will reduce the chances that the current site structure will unduly influence your tagging.
  • One beauty of the Web is that content can sit in more than one place. Unlike most card sort methods I’ve seen, this technique allows for that.
    When you give each entry a single tag, you can treat the tags independently and group and sort them in ways that make sense.
    Tag image by Nemo, obtained from Pixabay, public domain - http://pixabay.com/en/blue-sticker-tag-tags-cloths-36821/
  • As IAs, we already know how to do this part. We can use spreadsheets, sticky notes, card-sorting software — whatever works for us.
    Photo credit: Elizabeth Buie. Setting: Washington DC.
  • You’re probably thinking that this sounds essentially like a one-person card sort.
    Tagging is what makes it different.
    Photo credit: Mike Pennington, http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1011825. Used under Creative Commons.
  • This method involves unpicking the content quite a bit more than we usually do. We see more of the details and become less influenced by the existing structure.
    Photo credit: Elizabeth Buie. Setting: Washington DC.
  • Get some input if you can.
    Ideally, a colleague would use the technique independently, and then you’d consolidate results. of Two Friends. From Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jacopo_Pontormo_-_Portrait_of_Two_Friends_-_WGA18109.jpg
  • Maybe you can get someone to review your tagging, grouping and naming.
    Artwork: Jacopo Pontormo, Portrait of Two Friends. From Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jacopo_Pontormo_-_Portrait_of_Two_Friends_-_WGA18109.jpg
  • Failing even that, see if you can have someone do independent tagging, and add their keywords to your list before you start grouping.
    Artwork: Jacopo Pontormo, Portrait of Two Friends. From Wikimedia Commons: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jacopo_Pontormo_-_Portrait_of_Two_Friends_-_WGA18109.jpg
  • Now you have a draft IA that you can try out. It may not be as good as what you could have obtained with a user study, but it’s a start.
    I’d like to see someone try card sorting with tags rather than larger bits of content, and see what happens.
  • Photo credit: Elizabeth Buie. Setting: Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • Transcript

    • 1. Guerrilla IA Techniques Content Analysis When You Can’t Do a Card Sort Elizabeth Buie Northumbria University Newcastle upon Tyne #wiad @ebuie
    • 2. New project screams out 
 for some IA love Send IA Love!!
    • 3. Card sort — not in the cards
    • 4. No budget
    • 5. NO AC TO C US ESS ER S
    • 6. Management doesn’t believe in it
    • 7. It’s just you (and the content…)
    • 8. Inductive content analysis to the rescue!
    • 9. Background ❖ Research paper: analysis of viewer comments on YouTube meditation videos ❖ Goal: Explore 
 how people experience these videos ❖ Objective: Identify themes in sample of comments 9
    • 10. Background: 87 meditation videos ❖ Started with 100 most viewed 10
    • 11. Background: Video themes Religious (20) New Age (15) Secular (52)
    • 12. Background: 1354 comments (~14 each) ❖ Reading for my exams, and your videos are perfect as background noise, keeps me from getting too distracted. Thank you. ❖ I happen to find clear skies and bright sunshine depressing, and I have felt this way since early childhood. The sound of rainfall lifts my spirit considerably when the weather is hopelessly stuck in sun mode. [username], you're a humanitarian. ❖ Everything has a vibration. The Earth, Sun, Moon, Your Physical Body. Thoughts are electrical current at which is a wave form or "vibration". It is proven that a specific stages of thought or relaxation your mind produces a specific frequency. Rather then open your mouth with thoughtless speech to text, open your mind to educate yourself to something that has been in existence since before time itself. ❖ His voice just doesn't work for me a good message though ❖ I'm trying to finish my French assignment to this .. I don't think it's going so well ..... ❖ shit, I'm trying to awake from my lucid dream ❖ This helped me a lot when i was heavily depressed, it still does. ❖ Atheism was never a religion, not even in the Soviet Union. The belief in God was not permitted in the soviet union because the totalitarian state wanted the people to put their faith in them, and not a God. Atheism is not a static movement with a specific ideology and set of laws. It only means one does not believe in God. It's like saying "I like pie”. ❖ WHOOOAAA ! ! ! THAT WAS INSANELY AWESOME ! ! !
    • 13. 1000 top words in comments
    • 14. Background: Analysis goals ❖ Identify themes in comments ❖ Organise and categorise themes
    • 15. Sounds like IA, doesn’t it?
    • 16. Inductive Content Analysis ❖ Tag 
 …each item with its major keyword(s) ❖ Group 
 …related keywords ❖ Name 
 …groups (themes) It is IA. (Just without the user studies.)
    • 17. Tag with keywords ❖ Damn this one made my eyes twitch so much… ❖ … I felt the top of my head tingling … ❖ … my body was in sleep paralysis mode, then my whole body started vibrating… ❖ .. sent shivers down my spine ❖ got me goosebumps ❖ Felt my spine tingle during it! Amazing ♥ ❖ Beautiful music my soul and body started dancing by the rhythm of this music, excellent ❖ So very beautiful I felt so much energy thank you blessings ❖ Oneness blessing , thank you ❖ Amazing sound. Feels like a brain massage. ❖ WHOOOAAA ! ! ! THAT WAS INSANELY AWESOME ! ! !
    • 18. Tag with keywords ❖ Damn this one made my eyes twitch so much… ❖ … I felt the top of my head tingling … ❖ … my body was in sleep paralysis mode, then my whole body started vibrating… ❖ .. sent shivers down my spine ❖ got me goosebumps ❖ Felt my spine tingle during it! Amazing ♥ ❖ Beautiful music my soul and body started dancing by the rhythm of this music, excellent ❖ So very beautiful I felt so much energy thank you blessings ❖ Oneness blessing , thank you ❖ Amazing sound. Feels like a brain massage. ❖ WHOOOAAA ! ! ! THAT WAS INSANELY AWESOME ! ! !
    • 19. Group related keywords twitch thank you amazing music tingle/tingling blessing beautiful sound sleep paralysis blessings excellent vibrating shivers goosebumps dancing energy brain massage body spine head eyes awesome
    • 20. Name the themes Thanks Overall Features twitch thank you amazing music tingle/tingling blessing beautiful sound sleep paralysis blessings excellent Physical vibrating shivers goosebumps dancing energy brain massage body spine head eyes awesome
    • 21. Final comment structure ❖ The Video or its Creator ❖ Subjective Experience ✦ Impressions ✦ Relaxation/sleep ✦ Thanks/ blessings ✦ Health/wellbeing ✦ Specific features ✦ ✦ Question Physical effects and sensations ✦ Focus/activities 
 ✦ 
 Being “elsewhere” ✦ Drugs/alcohol/ herbs ✦ Anger/fear Humour
 ✦ 
 
 ❖ Response Others to ✦ Advice, explanation and support ✦ Reflection
    • 22. The paper Meditations on YouTube Elizabeth Buie and Mark Blythe @ebuie @markblythe Northumbria University Department of Media and Communication Design
    • 23. Thoughts: 
 Applying this technique to information architecture
    • 24. Start with the content inventory* *Assumes redoing an existing site, but the technique should work for a new site as well.
    • 25. Prepare the data ❖ Duplicate the content inventory spreadsheet ❖ Eliminate “menu” pages that have no real content ❖ Un-indent; move all descriptors to Column A ❖ Sort the list alphabetically (not shown)
    • 26. Tag the entries (pages) ❖ Tag every entry with its page’s major keyword(s) ❖ If a page needs more than one tag, duplicate its entry ❖ Ensure that each entry has a single tag
    • 27. Build the categories ❖ Identify and group related tags ❖ Experiment with the groupings ❖ Name the categories s IA n k w o h w o th w is s. rk o
    • 28. How is this different? Tagging!
    • 29. Details!
    • 30. Sanity Check ❖ Analyse in parallel, consolidate Could you run this method in parallel? Sorry, mate, no time.
    • 31. Sanity Check ❖ Analyse in parallel, consolidate OR ❖ Review your analysis & discuss How about looking over my work? Sorry, mate, no time.
    • 32. Sanity Check ❖ Analyse in parallel, consolidate OR ❖ Review your analysis & discuss OR ❖ Tag separately, add to your list Could you at least help with tagging? Sure, 
 I could do that.
    • 33. Try it!
    • 34. References ❖ P. Mayring, “Qualitative Content Analysis”: 
 www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/ 1089/2386 ❖ S. Elo & H. Kyngäs, “The Qualitative Content Analysis Process”: 
 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18352969 ❖ E. Buie & M. Blythe, “Meditations on YouTube”: ✦ ✦ Paper: leisurelyseekingdoctorate.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/ p41-buie.pdf Slides: www.slideshare.net/ebuie/meditations-on-you-tube
    • 35. Thank you!

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