Gray Literature Matters:Locating Elusive andNon-Traditional Research                Elizabeth Bucciarelli           Easter...
What is Gray Literature Also called , ephemera, fringe, grey, or fugitive literature “that which is produced on all leve...
What is Gray Literature “literature which is not readily available through  normal book selling channels, and therefore d...
Characteristics ofGray Literature Generally recognized as a way to distribute scientific and  technical information Publ...
Characteristics ofGray Literature Open and primary source of information Missing from subject bibliographies & indexes ...
Key Documents in GrayLiterature Conference proceedings Reports Doctoral dissertations & master‟s theses Other – legal ...
Other Formats of Gray   Literature                            Booklets         Working Papers        Timelines            ...
Importance of Gray Literature Provide extremely current data, up to 12-18 months  before an official publication Primary...
Importance of Gray Literature Researchers build upon others‟ research, and therefore  have a great need for rapid access ...
Problems with Gray Literature Lack of controlled vocabulary No single name or organization authority file   (ResearcherI...
Selective Access Pointsfor Gray Literature AcademyHealth - http://www.academyhealth.org/ Agricola      - http://agricola...
Selective Access Pointsfor Gray Literature *Internet Archive Wayback Machine -  http://www.archive.org/ Italian Grey Lit...
Selective Access Pointsfor Gray Literature STINET - http://www.stinet.org/links.htm Traditional  databases, e.g., WoS, D...
Bibliography   Anderson, Byron. (2001): “Grey literature and electronic publishing.” Behavioral & Social Sciences     Lib...
Gray Literature Matters
Gray Literature Matters
Gray Literature Matters
Gray Literature Matters
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Gray Literature Matters

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Gray Literature Matters

  1. 1. Gray Literature Matters:Locating Elusive andNon-Traditional Research Elizabeth Bucciarelli Eastern Michigan University Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters Annual Conference Alma College
  2. 2. What is Gray Literature Also called , ephemera, fringe, grey, or fugitive literature “that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers.” (3rd Int‟l Conf. on Grey Literature , 1997) …i.e., “where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body.” (6th Int‟l Conf. on Grey Literature , 2004) “body of materials that cannot be found easily through conventional channels such as publishers, „but which is frequently original and usually recent” (Hawkins, 2008)
  3. 3. What is Gray Literature “literature which is not readily available through normal book selling channels, and therefore difficult to identify and obtain” (Cordes, 2004) “gray literature-things like pamphlets, handouts, and all the ephemera that usually wind up in the vertical or circular file-is on the fringe, informal, unpublished, and dare I say, invisible.” (Pace, 2002)
  4. 4. Characteristics ofGray Literature Generally recognized as a way to distribute scientific and technical information Publishers are considered corporate authors Lack editorial polish Incomplete work or mid-stage of development Raw data “white” literature finds an outlet in traditional publishing venues Unorganized research
  5. 5. Characteristics ofGray Literature Open and primary source of information Missing from subject bibliographies & indexes Distribution limited to small, targeted groups Difficult to obtain through conventional publishing venues Universal and ubiquitous
  6. 6. Key Documents in GrayLiterature Conference proceedings Reports Doctoral dissertations & master‟s theses Other – legal tests, working papers, lecture notes, article pre-prints
  7. 7. Other Formats of Gray Literature Booklets Working Papers Timelines Statistical Surveys Call for Papers Interviews Leaflets Orations Technical NotesInaugural Lectures Scientific Protocols White Papers Press Releases BrochuresTranslations Fact Sheets Speeches Newsletters Draft Reports Compliance Reports Patents Yearbooks Web Pages
  8. 8. Importance of Gray Literature Provide extremely current data, up to 12-18 months before an official publication Primary means of distributing scientific and technical data Research results are often more detailed in the primary source data/report Some conference proceedings, and research, up to 66%, is never officially published Advances in the hard and medical sciences move quickly and require a quick publishing process Publish more small trials or trials with negative results
  9. 9. Importance of Gray Literature Researchers build upon others‟ research, and therefore have a great need for rapid access to cutting-edge materials Much research generated in undeveloped countries, but researchers cannot rely on commercial publishing channels Researchers from undeveloped countries do not have easy access to commercially published materials and rely on gray literature to understand all sides of an issue
  10. 10. Problems with Gray Literature Lack of controlled vocabulary No single name or organization authority file (ResearcherID.com) Language barriers, English materials dominate Not formally peer reviewed Ethical dilemmas, digital rights, and copyright Digital space needed to preserve digital collections Long-term archiving for print materials Electronic search engines and web crawlers cannot always read the code in which these documents are written, therefore they are not retrieved Many countries lack for systematic collection and access
  11. 11. Selective Access Pointsfor Gray Literature AcademyHealth - http://www.academyhealth.org/ Agricola - http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/ British Library - http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/atyourdesk/docsupply/collection/index.html CiteSeerX – http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/index;jsessionid=61B338A72E692C7B59C4968598C5603D Digital repositories Energy Citations Database - http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/ *GreyNet International, Grey Literature Network Service - http://www.greynet.org/ inSPIRE – http://inspirehep.net/
  12. 12. Selective Access Pointsfor Gray Literature *Internet Archive Wayback Machine - http://www.archive.org/ Italian Grey Literature Database - http://www.bice.rm.cnr.it/letteratura_grigia_inglese.ht m National Technical Information Service (NTIS) - http://www.ntis.gov/ New York Academy of Medicine: Grey Literature Gray Literature Report - http://www.nyam.org/library/online- resources/ *OpenDOAR - http://www.opendoar.org/ OpenSIGLE – System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe - http://www.greynet.org/opensiglerepository.html *Science.gov SCIRUS - http://www.scirus.com/
  13. 13. Selective Access Pointsfor Gray Literature STINET - http://www.stinet.org/links.htm Traditional databases, e.g., WoS, Dissertations & Theses Full Text from PQ U.S. Government: Technical Reports - http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/us/techre p.htm U.S. Patent & Trademark Office - http://www.uspto.gov/patents/process/search/ Virtual Technical Reports Central - http://www.lib.umd.edu/ENGIN/TechReports/Virtua l-TechReports.html
  14. 14. Bibliography Anderson, Byron. (2001): “Grey literature and electronic publishing.” Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian, 19:2, 81-85. 3rd International Conference on Grey Literature, Conference Proceedings, Luxembourg, 1997. 6th International Conference on Grey Literature, Conference Proceedings, New York City, 2004. Cordes, Ruth. (2004): “Is grey literature ever used? Using citation analysis to measure the impact of GESAMP, an international marine scientific advisory body.” Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 28:1, 50-69. Hawkins, Donald T. (2008): “Gray literature: whats new on the information landscape.” Information Today, 25:2, 27-8. Mathews, Brian S. (2004): “Gray literature: resources for locating unpublished research.” CR&L News, 65:3, 125-128. Pace, Andrew. (2002): “Black, white, and shades of gray (literature) on the web.” Computers in Libraries, 22:4, 44-47. Pappas, Cleo and Irene Williams. (2011): “Grey literature: its emerging importance.” Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 11:3, 228-234. Schmidt, Karen, Wendy Allen Shelbourne, and David Steven Vess. “Approaches to selection, access, and collection development in the web world: a case study with fugitive literature.” Library Resources and Technical Services, 52:3, 184-191. Schopfel, Joachim & Dominic J. Farace. “Grey literature.” Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2010, 2029-2039.

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