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Reading Skills Toefl Summary

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toefl itp reading strategies

toefl itp reading strategies

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  • 1. Reading Toefl SUMMARY OF SKILLS
  • 2. SKILL ONE  Answer Main Idea questions correctly If you see the following in the question… topic, subject, title, primary idea, main idea, main point, With what is the author primarily concerned ? TIP – to save time…   Read the FIRST SENTENCE of each paragraph or the THESIS STATEMENT of the essay…
  • 3. SKILL TWO  Recognize the ORGANIZATION of ideas. If you see the following questions… How is the information in the passage organized ? How is the information in the second paragraph related to the information in the first paragraph? TIP – to save time…  Read the FIRST LINE of each paragraph Look for words that show the relationship between the paragraphs
  • 4. SKILL THREE  Answer the stated DETAIL questions correctly If you see the following in the question… According to the passage… It is stated in the passage… The passage indicates that… The author mentions that… Which of the following is true …? TIP – to save time…   Choose a KEY WORD in the question  FIND the key word in the passage & read the sentence carefully…  Find the BEST answer that restates the idea in the passage.
  • 5. SKILL FOUR  Find UNSTATED details. If you see the following questions… Which of the following is not stated ?... is not mentioned ? … is not discussed?... All of the following are true except … TIP – to save time…   Choose a KEY WORD in the question  FIND the key word in the passage & read the sentence carefully…  Find the answer that is NOT TRUE or NOT DISCUSSED in the passage.
  • 6. SKILL FIVE  Find PRONOUN references. If you see the question… The pronoun “…” in line X refers to which of the following? TIP – to save time…  Find the pronoun in the passage. Look for nouns that come before the pronoun.
  • 7. SKILL SIX  Answer IMPLIED DETAIL questions correctly. If you see the following in the question… It is IMPLIED in the passage that… It can be INFERRED from the passage that… It is most LIKELY that… What PROBABLY happened…? TIP – to save time…   Fist Choose a KEY WORD in the question  Look for this/these word/s in the passage  Carefully read the sentence with the key word.  Look for the option that could be true according to that sentence.
  • 8. SKILL SEVEN  Answer TRANSITION questions correctly. If you see the following in the question… The paragraph PRECEDING the passage probably… What is most likely in the paragraph FOLLOWING the passage… TIP – to save time…   Read the FIRST LINE of the passage for the “Preceding”… and LAST LINE for the “Following” questions.  Make up your mind about what comes before/ after.  Choose the best option that is reflected in the first/last line of the passage.
  • 9. VOCABULARY QUESTIONS SKILL EIGHT  Find DEFINITIONS from STRUCTURAL clues. If you see the following in the question… What is…? What is the MEANING of…? What is true about…? TIP – to save time…  Look at punctuation… comma, parantheses, dashes (for explanations) Restatement… or,that is, in other words, i.e Examples… such as,for example, e.g
  • 10. TIP – to save time…  (cont) Find the WORD in the passage Locate any STRUCTURAL clues Read the part of the passage AFTER the structural clues CAREFULLY. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining clues.
  • 11. SKILL NINE  Determine meanings from WORD PARTS. TIP – to save time…  Check out the LIST of word formation (prefixes, roots, suffixes) at the end of this presentation… Use these word parts to guess the meaning of the words.
  • 12. SKILL TEN  Use CONTEXT to determine meanings of DIFFICULT words. If you see the following in the question… What is the MEANING…? Which of the following is closest in MEANING to…? NOTE: The word is a difficult one and that you probably do not know. TIP – to save time…   Find the word in the passage  Read the sentence with the word CAREFULLY  Look for CONTEXT clues to help you understand the meaning
  • 13. SKILL ELEVEN  Use CONTEXT to determine meanings of SIMPLE words. If you see the following in the question… What is the MEANING…? Which of the following is closes in MEANING to…? Note: The word is a simple word, one that you see often in everyday English. TIP – to save time…   Find the word in the passage.  Read the sentence with the word CAREFULLY  Look for CONTEXT clues to help you understand the meaning as its usually different from the simple meaning.  Choose the best option.
  • 14. OVERALL REVIEW QUESTIONS SKILL TWELVE  Determine where SPECIFIC INFORMATION is found. If you see the following in the question… WHERE in the passage…? TIP – to save time…   Choose a KEY WORD /IDEA in the question  Skim the lines in the passage that are LISTED in the answers. Skim for the KEY WORD/IDEA.  Choose the answer that contains the line numbers of a restatement of the question.
  • 15. SKILL THIRTEEN  Determine the TONE, PURPOSE, or COURSE If you see the following in the question… What is the TONE of the passage?... What is the author’s PURPOSE in this passage?...In which COURSE would this reading be assigned? TIP – to save time…   TONE: there will be clues throughout the passage that the author is showing EMOTION rather than just presenting facts. Skim the passage looking for clues that author is showing EMOTION.
  • 16. TIP – to save time…  (Cont.) PURPOSE: Draw a conclusion about the PURPOSE from the main idea and supporting details. Study the main idea in the topic sentence and the details used to support the main idea. Draw a conclusion about the purpose. COURSE: Draw a conclusion about the COURSE from the topic of the passage and the supporting details. Study the main idea in the topic sentence and the details used to support the main idea. Draw a conclusion about the course.
  • 17. READING COMPREHENSION Word formation with prefixes, Stems, and Suffixes PREFIXES Ab- Out of; Absorb (to take (something) out of something) Ante- Before; Antecedent (someone or something that existed in the past) Anti- Against; Antigovernment (against the government) Bi- Two; Bidirectional (in two or both directions)
  • 18. Circum- Around; Circumvent (to avoid, to work around something) Co-, col-, Together, with; Cooperate (to work together) Com-,con-, Commettee (a group working together) congreate (to come together) Dis- Not, take away; Dissatisfied (not satisfed) Em-,en-, İn,into,inside; Enclose (to surround, to include)
  • 19. Ex-, Out, from; External (outside, outer) For-,fore-, Ahead, to the front; Forward (ahead) Il-,im-, Not; İllogical (not logical) impossible (not possible) İm-,in-, İn, into; İmport (to bring into a country) inhale (to breathe in) İn-,ir-, Not; İncovenient (not convenient) irresponsible (not responsible)
  • 20. Inter-, Between, among; Interstate (between or among states) Re-, Again, back; Revive (to bring back to life) reread (to read again) Sub-, Below, under; Subsurface (under the surface) Syn-, Same; Synchronic (occurring at the same time) micro-, Very small; Microcomputer (a small computer)
  • 21. Mis-, Wrong(ly); Misbehave (to behave wrongly) Over-, Above, more; Overcrowded (to be crowded above capacity) Post-, After; Postwar (after the war) Pre-, Before; Precede (to come before)
  • 22. Pro-, Before, in front of, in favor of; Proclaim (to present a claim before others) Trans-, Across; Transport (to carry across) Un-, Not; Unclear (not clear)
  • 23. ROOTS Alter Other, different; Alternative (another choice) Anthro Human; Anthropology (the study of humankind) Aqua Water; Aquarium (water container/tank) Astro Star; Astronomer (a person who studies stars) Auto Self; Automobile (moving by itself (vehicle))
  • 24. Bio Life; Biography (a description of someone’s life) Chron Time; Synchronic (occuring at the same time) Cycle Circle; Bicycle (two circles (wheels)) Demo People; Demographics (a description (science) of people (population)) Dic,dict To speak, to say; Dictate (to say words (out loud)) Equi Equal; Equilibrium (balance (having equal weight on both or all sides)
  • 25. Extra Over, in addition; Extraordinary (out of the ordinary) Geo Earth; Geography (a description (science) of the earth) Graph To write; Phonograph (a device that records (writes) sounds) Homo Same; Homogeneous (of the same kind) Hydr(o) Water; Hydrology (a science of water) Hyper Extra, over; Hyperactive ( overactive) Judic Law; Judicial (associated with the law)
  • 26. Liber Free; Liberate (to set free) Log(y) Study of, description of; Sociology (the study/description of society) Manu Hand; Manufacture (produce by hand) Medi Middle; Mediterranean Sea (the sea that is in the middle of the earth) Medieval (pertaining to the Middle Ages) Meter To measure; Geometry (a sicence of measuring the earth) Mit/s To send; Transmit (to send over) Mobil Movable; Mobility (motion, movement)
  • 27. Mono One; Monosyllabic (consisting of one syllable) Mort Death; Mortal (someone/thing that ) can die Phon Voice, sound; Phonology (a study (science) of voice or sounds) Photo Light; Photosensitive (sensitive to light) Poly Many; Polysyllabic ((consisting of) many syllables) Port To carry; Transport (to carry over/to)
  • 28. Prim First; Prime minister (the first (most important) minister Scope To view; Microscope (an instrument for viewing very small things) Scrib,scrip To write; Tapescript (something written on tape) Simu(l) Same time; Simultaneous (occurring at the same time) Spec(t) To look; Spectacular (worthy of being looked at, watched)
  • 29. Tele Over (at a) distance; Telephone ( sound over distance) Tempo Time; Temporary (for a limited time) Terra Land, earth; Terrain (surface of the land) Tract To pull; Tractor (a machine that pulls)
  • 30. Uni One; Uniform (consistent (as one) in shape or appearance) Ver True, genuine; Verify (to check for truthfulness, to prove to be true) Vit(a) Life; Vital (very important for life) Vid,vis To see; Visible (can be seen)
  • 31. SUFFIXES -able,-ible, Adjective – able; Lovable (can be loved) -al,-ical, -ial, Adjective – belonging to, pertaining to, having to do with; Magical (having to do with magic) -ance,-ence, Noun – state of being; Presence (the state f being here) Absence (the state of not being here) -ant,-ent, Noun – someone or something who does something; Student (someone who studies)
  • 32. -er, Noun – someone who does something; Worker (someone who works) -fic, Adjective – making, doing; Specific (making special) -ful, Adjective – full of; Playful, joyful -fy, Verb- to add, to make; Simplify (to make simple) -hood, Noun – state, condition; brotherhood, (the state of being brothers)
  • 33. -ic, Adjective – belonging to; Public (belonging to the people) Noun Medic (one who belongs to or is associated with medicine) -ion,(-tion,-sion), Noun – act, state; Motion (the act of moving) Decision (the act of deciding) -ious,-ous, Adjective – full of, having the quality of; Ambiguous (having ambiguity) -ist, Noun – someone who is something or routinely does something; Violonist (someone who plays a violin)
  • 34. -ism, Noun- belief, values of, practice of; Capitalism (values based on capital) -ity,-ty, Noun – state; Clarity (the state of being clear) -less, Adjective – without; Penniless (without a penny(coins)) -ly, Adverb- Honestly, warmly -ment, Noun – result of an action/state; Development (the result of developing)
  • 35. -ness, Noun from adjectives – state, condition; Kindness (the state of being kind) -ship, Noun – state, condition; Relationship (the state of being related to someone or something) -ure, Noun – act, process, state; Adventure, temperature -y, Adjective – characterized by, like; lucky,happy