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Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
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Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009

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  • Advance an open system of scholarship by reducing barriers to access, sharing, and use of scholarship -- and in particular, scientific researchCatalyst for actionPositive response first to cost of serialsEducatingIncubatingAdvocacy
  • Note that many have multiple rolesPublisher group can be broken down into several subgroups Large commercial have their own titles and also publish scholarly society titles Large societies Smaller societies Independent publishers University presses Trade – not reflected in these discussions Textbook and educational materials – rising group
  • Vision StatementThe creation of new knowledge lies at the heart of the research university and results from tremendous investments of resources by universities, federal and state governments, industry, foundations, and others. The products of that enterprise are created to benefit society. In the process, those products also advance further research and scholarship, along with the teaching and service missions of the university. Reflecting its investments, the academy has a responsibility to ensure the broadest possible access to the fruits of its work both in the short and long term by publics both local and global. Faculty research and scholarship represent invaluable intellectual capital, but the value of that capital lies in its effective dissemination to present and future audiences. Dissemination strategies that restrict access are fundamentally at odds with the dissemination imperative inherent in the university mission.
  • ImmediateMeeting in Budapest February 14, 2002Freely availableOver the internetScholarship that researchers produce without expectation of paymentOriginal emphasis on articles (i.e., not novels or textbooks)Permission to use without barriers financial legal/permission technical (except for ability to get to the internet)Some use permanent (library perspective of providing perpetual access)Others talk about full-text (the entire document)No longer just articles, but any scholarly researchMore recently, public policy perspective – society benefits from taxpayer supported research made openly accessible
  • Journals in about 50 languages can be found and all subject areas are welcome. Now there are journals from 98 countries in DOAJ. To maintain the quality of the service we also have to remove titles from DOAJ if they no longer live up to the selection criteria. 94 titles have been removed during 2008.DOAJ is sponsored by the National Library of Sweden INASP, Swedish Library Association, and Lund University.SELF GENERATED INCOMEINPUT FEESAuthor submission chargesArticle processing feesOff-print salesAFFINITY RELATIONSHIPSAdvertising SponsorshipsCo-hosting of conferences and exhibitsALTERNATIVE DISTRIBUTORSConvenience-format licenses or distributor format feeRELATED PRODUCTS AND SERVICESJournal publication in off-line mediaValue-added fee-based servicesELECTRONIC MARKETPLACEContextual E-commerce Community MarketplaceINTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SUBSIDIESINTERNAL SUBSIDIESDues SurchargeGRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONSFoundation GrantsInstitutional Grants and SubsidiesGovernment GrantsGifts and FundraisingVoluntary ContributorsIn-kind Contributions
  • Now some national policies on deposit
  • The Policy implements Division G, Title II, Section 218 of PL 110-161 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008) which states: SEC. 218. The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central an electronic version of their final peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.ACCESS - Provide fast, free electronic access to federally- funded research publications.ARCHIVE - Provide permanent archive of vital federally-funded research results.ADVANCE SCIENCE - Create new information resource for scientists to use in innovative ways.ACCOUNTABILITY - Allow federal agencies to manage research portfolios more effectively and transparently.
  • Provides the widest possible freedom and flexibility for faculty and others to employ their work for teaching, learning, and research in a fast-changing technological environmentStrengthen universities as institutions through which faculty and others can achieve their aspirations for teaching, learning, and researchFosters the Constitutionally defined purpose of the copyright law:"[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts."
  • Transcript

    • 1. THE SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING & ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION21 Dupont Circle NW, Suite 800Washington, DC 20036(202) 296-2296
      www.arl.org/sparc
      New Models and Open Access:
      The Changing Nature ofScholarly Publications
      Julia C. Blixrud
      New Approaches to Scholarly Communication and Publishing
      Binghamton University Libraries  April 15-16, 2009
    • 2. Overview
      About SPARC
      Universities and Publishing
      Some Models
      Issues and Concerns
      What’s Next
      www.arl.org/sparc
      2
    • 3. www.arl.org/sparc
      3
      About SPARC
      Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
      Alliance of over 800 institutions
    • 4. Who’s Involved
      Researchers/Authors/Readers
      Libraries
      Publishers
      Scholarly societies
      University presses
      Commercial companies
      Academic administrators
      Students
      Taxpayers
      Non-profit organizations
      Government agencies
      Funding agencies
      Legislators/national governments
      www.arl.org/sparc
      4
    • 5. University Publishing in a Digital Age
      5
      What will, or should, the future scholarly communications system look like? First, every university that produces research should have a publishing strategy.
      Ithaka Report, 2007
    • 6. The Vision
      • Creation of new knowledge
      • 7. Investment of resources
      • 8. Products that benefit society and advance further research, scholarship, and the teaching and service mission
      • 9. Local and global
      • 10. Value of intellectual capital is in effective dissemination
    • www.arl.org/sparc
      7
    • 11. Types of Digital Scholarly Works (n=206)
      www.arl.org/sparc
      8
    • 12. E-journal –JoVE: Journal of Visualized Experiments
      • A journal of “video articles”
      • 13. A for-profit effort, independently supported
      • 14. The first video journal to be accepted by National Library of Medicine
    • Review –Bryn Mawr Classical Review
      • Publishes a “review a day, every day”
      • 15. Pushes content to subscribers via email list
      • 16. Low admin costs in general, aside from postage to mail books to reviewers
    • Preprint Server –PhilSci Archive
      • Modeled on arXiv
      • 17. Serves a well-defined niche: philosophy of science
      • 18. Goal is to stay in the niche, but to serve it well
    • Encyclopedia –Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
      • Online reference work for philosophy
      • 19. Encyclopedia articles are volunteered by academics
      • 20. ~1,000 entries
      • 21. Continuously updated
      • 22. Operates from an endowment
    • Data-based Resource –eBird
      • Community data project
      • 23. Amateur-supplied data creates large database for researchers
      • 24. Trains users and engages them to participate
      • 25. Large scale makes sponsorship possible
    • Blog –PEA Soup
      • Aggregates researchers in this niche field from around the US and the world
      • 26. Speed of exchanges allows members to work through ideas in days, rather than months or years
    • List –H-France Forum
      • Founded in 1991
      • 27. Goal of mimicking “types of conversations that occurred around the coffee machine”
      • 28. Restricted access, list moderation, list archiving enhance credibility
    • Hub –Alzheimer Research Forum
      • Includes original articles and news updates, as well as job notices and announcements
      • 29. User generated content includes a “hypothesis factory” where people can post ideas and comment on others.
    • www.arl.org/sparc
      17
      A Definition of Open Access
      Immediate, free electronic availability of research that scholars produce without expectation of payment
      A vision of scholarly communication in the networked digital environment where:
      Barriers to access and use the results of research are eliminated
      Potential usage is maximized
      Value of research is more fully realized
      Dysfunctions in the legacy system are addressed
      An access model, not a business model
    • 30. 18
      Open Access Models
      Two main approaches:
      Open-access journals – require alternative business models to replace subscription-based models
      Open-access archives – publicly available digital repositories, exist alongside traditional publishing
    • 31. Potential Open Access Revenue Streams
      ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE
      Contextual E-commerce
      Community Marketplace
      INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SUBSIDIES
      INTERNAL SUBSIDIES
      Dues Surcharge
      GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS
      Foundation Grants
      Institutional Grants and Subsidies
      Government Grants
      Gifts and Fundraising
      Voluntary Contributors
      In-kind Contributions
      SELF GENERATED INCOME
      INPUT FEES
      Author submission charges
      Article processing fees
      Off-print sales
      AFFINITY RELATIONSHIPS
      Advertising Sponsorships
      Co-hosting of conferences and exhibits
      ALTERNATIVE DISTRIBUTORS
      Convenience-format licenses or distributor format fee
      RELATED PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
      Journal publication in off-line media
      Value-added fee-based services
      www.arl.org/sparc
      19
    • 32. The Gold Road
      www.arl.org/sparc
      20
    • 33. The Green Road
      www.arl.org/sparc
      21
    • 34. NIH Public Access Policy
      www.arl.org/sparc
      22
    • 35. Deposit Policies
      www.arl.org/sparc
      23
    • 36. Issues and Concerns
      Peer review
      Academic reward structures (promotion & tenure)
      Business models
      Role of funding organizations
      Copyright & intellectual property
      Adjustments to accessing scholarly information disseminated differently
      www.arl.org/sparc
      24
    • 37. www.arl.org/sparc
      25
      Author Rights
      To publish and distribute a work in print or other media
      To reproduce it (e.g., through photocopying)
      To prepare translations or other derivative works
      To perform or display the work publicly
      To authorize others to exercise any of these rights
    • 38. www.arl.org/sparc
      26
      Know Your Rights
      The author is the copyright holder
      Assignment of rights matters
      The copyright holder controls the work
      Transferring copyright doesn’t have to be all or nothing
      Read your publisher agreements
    • 39. www.arl.org/sparc
      27
      Retaining Rights
      www.arl.org/sparc/author/addendum.html
    • 40. www.arl.org/sparc
      28
    • 41. www.arl.org/sparc
      29
    • 42. Faculty Activism
      www.arl.org/sparc
      30
    • 43. Open Access and the Academy
      www.arl.org/sparc
      31
      “Open access serves scholarly communication by: facilitating text-mining; data and literature integration; construction of large- scale knowledge structures; and creation of co-laboratories that integrate the scholarly literature directly into knowledge creation and analysis environments…
      It also honors our commitments to the democratization of teaching, learning, scholarship, and access to knowledge throughout our society and globally.”
      - Clifford Lynch, CNI, Closing comments, ARL/CNI/SPARC Public Access Forum, October 20, 2006
    • 44. What’s Next
      Campus conversation
      Society/discipline conversation
      Policy development
      Repository consideration
      www.arl.org/sparc
      32
    • 45. Students and Faculty
      www.arl.org/sparc
      33
    • 46. www.arl.org/sparc
      34
    • 47. www.arl.org/sparc
      35
      This work was created by Julia C. Blixrud
      on April 14, 2009
      and is licensed under the
      Creative Commons
      Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0
      United States License.
      http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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