Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009
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Blixrud: New Models and Open Access, 4/15/09, Binghamton 2009

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  • Advance an open system of scholarship by reducing barriers to access, sharing, and use of scholarship -- and in particular, scientific researchCatalyst for actionPositive response first to cost of serialsEducatingIncubatingAdvocacy
  • Note that many have multiple rolesPublisher group can be broken down into several subgroups Large commercial have their own titles and also publish scholarly society titles Large societies Smaller societies Independent publishers University presses Trade – not reflected in these discussions Textbook and educational materials – rising group
  • Vision StatementThe creation of new knowledge lies at the heart of the research university and results from tremendous investments of resources by universities, federal and state governments, industry, foundations, and others. The products of that enterprise are created to benefit society. In the process, those products also advance further research and scholarship, along with the teaching and service missions of the university. Reflecting its investments, the academy has a responsibility to ensure the broadest possible access to the fruits of its work both in the short and long term by publics both local and global. Faculty research and scholarship represent invaluable intellectual capital, but the value of that capital lies in its effective dissemination to present and future audiences. Dissemination strategies that restrict access are fundamentally at odds with the dissemination imperative inherent in the university mission.
  • ImmediateMeeting in Budapest February 14, 2002Freely availableOver the internetScholarship that researchers produce without expectation of paymentOriginal emphasis on articles (i.e., not novels or textbooks)Permission to use without barriers financial legal/permission technical (except for ability to get to the internet)Some use permanent (library perspective of providing perpetual access)Others talk about full-text (the entire document)No longer just articles, but any scholarly researchMore recently, public policy perspective – society benefits from taxpayer supported research made openly accessible
  • Journals in about 50 languages can be found and all subject areas are welcome. Now there are journals from 98 countries in DOAJ. To maintain the quality of the service we also have to remove titles from DOAJ if they no longer live up to the selection criteria. 94 titles have been removed during 2008.DOAJ is sponsored by the National Library of Sweden INASP, Swedish Library Association, and Lund University.SELF GENERATED INCOMEINPUT FEESAuthor submission chargesArticle processing feesOff-print salesAFFINITY RELATIONSHIPSAdvertising SponsorshipsCo-hosting of conferences and exhibitsALTERNATIVE DISTRIBUTORSConvenience-format licenses or distributor format feeRELATED PRODUCTS AND SERVICESJournal publication in off-line mediaValue-added fee-based servicesELECTRONIC MARKETPLACEContextual E-commerce Community MarketplaceINTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SUBSIDIESINTERNAL SUBSIDIESDues SurchargeGRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONSFoundation GrantsInstitutional Grants and SubsidiesGovernment GrantsGifts and FundraisingVoluntary ContributorsIn-kind Contributions
  • Now some national policies on deposit
  • The Policy implements Division G, Title II, Section 218 of PL 110-161 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008) which states: SEC. 218. The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central an electronic version of their final peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.ACCESS - Provide fast, free electronic access to federally- funded research publications.ARCHIVE - Provide permanent archive of vital federally-funded research results.ADVANCE SCIENCE - Create new information resource for scientists to use in innovative ways.ACCOUNTABILITY - Allow federal agencies to manage research portfolios more effectively and transparently.
  • Provides the widest possible freedom and flexibility for faculty and others to employ their work for teaching, learning, and research in a fast-changing technological environmentStrengthen universities as institutions through which faculty and others can achieve their aspirations for teaching, learning, and researchFosters the Constitutionally defined purpose of the copyright law:"[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts."

Transcript

  • 1. THE SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING & ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION21 Dupont Circle NW, Suite 800Washington, DC 20036(202) 296-2296
    www.arl.org/sparc
    New Models and Open Access:
    The Changing Nature ofScholarly Publications
    Julia C. Blixrud
    New Approaches to Scholarly Communication and Publishing
    Binghamton University Libraries  April 15-16, 2009
  • 2. Overview
    About SPARC
    Universities and Publishing
    Some Models
    Issues and Concerns
    What’s Next
    www.arl.org/sparc
    2
  • 3. www.arl.org/sparc
    3
    About SPARC
    Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
    Alliance of over 800 institutions
  • 4. Who’s Involved
    Researchers/Authors/Readers
    Libraries
    Publishers
    Scholarly societies
    University presses
    Commercial companies
    Academic administrators
    Students
    Taxpayers
    Non-profit organizations
    Government agencies
    Funding agencies
    Legislators/national governments
    www.arl.org/sparc
    4
  • 5. University Publishing in a Digital Age
    5
    What will, or should, the future scholarly communications system look like? First, every university that produces research should have a publishing strategy.
    Ithaka Report, 2007
  • 6. The Vision
    • Creation of new knowledge
    • 7. Investment of resources
    • 8. Products that benefit society and advance further research, scholarship, and the teaching and service mission
    • 9. Local and global
    • 10. Value of intellectual capital is in effective dissemination
  • www.arl.org/sparc
    7
  • 11. Types of Digital Scholarly Works (n=206)
    www.arl.org/sparc
    8
  • 12. E-journal –JoVE: Journal of Visualized Experiments
    • A journal of “video articles”
    • 13. A for-profit effort, independently supported
    • 14. The first video journal to be accepted by National Library of Medicine
  • Review –Bryn Mawr Classical Review
    • Publishes a “review a day, every day”
    • 15. Pushes content to subscribers via email list
    • 16. Low admin costs in general, aside from postage to mail books to reviewers
  • Preprint Server –PhilSci Archive
    • Modeled on arXiv
    • 17. Serves a well-defined niche: philosophy of science
    • 18. Goal is to stay in the niche, but to serve it well
  • Encyclopedia –Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    • Online reference work for philosophy
    • 19. Encyclopedia articles are volunteered by academics
    • 20. ~1,000 entries
    • 21. Continuously updated
    • 22. Operates from an endowment
  • Data-based Resource –eBird
    • Community data project
    • 23. Amateur-supplied data creates large database for researchers
    • 24. Trains users and engages them to participate
    • 25. Large scale makes sponsorship possible
  • Blog –PEA Soup
    • Aggregates researchers in this niche field from around the US and the world
    • 26. Speed of exchanges allows members to work through ideas in days, rather than months or years
  • List –H-France Forum
    • Founded in 1991
    • 27. Goal of mimicking “types of conversations that occurred around the coffee machine”
    • 28. Restricted access, list moderation, list archiving enhance credibility
  • Hub –Alzheimer Research Forum
    • Includes original articles and news updates, as well as job notices and announcements
    • 29. User generated content includes a “hypothesis factory” where people can post ideas and comment on others.
  • www.arl.org/sparc
    17
    A Definition of Open Access
    Immediate, free electronic availability of research that scholars produce without expectation of payment
    A vision of scholarly communication in the networked digital environment where:
    Barriers to access and use the results of research are eliminated
    Potential usage is maximized
    Value of research is more fully realized
    Dysfunctions in the legacy system are addressed
    An access model, not a business model
  • 30. 18
    Open Access Models
    Two main approaches:
    Open-access journals – require alternative business models to replace subscription-based models
    Open-access archives – publicly available digital repositories, exist alongside traditional publishing
  • 31. Potential Open Access Revenue Streams
    ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE
    Contextual E-commerce
    Community Marketplace
    INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SUBSIDIES
    INTERNAL SUBSIDIES
    Dues Surcharge
    GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS
    Foundation Grants
    Institutional Grants and Subsidies
    Government Grants
    Gifts and Fundraising
    Voluntary Contributors
    In-kind Contributions
    SELF GENERATED INCOME
    INPUT FEES
    Author submission charges
    Article processing fees
    Off-print sales
    AFFINITY RELATIONSHIPS
    Advertising Sponsorships
    Co-hosting of conferences and exhibits
    ALTERNATIVE DISTRIBUTORS
    Convenience-format licenses or distributor format fee
    RELATED PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
    Journal publication in off-line media
    Value-added fee-based services
    www.arl.org/sparc
    19
  • 32. The Gold Road
    www.arl.org/sparc
    20
  • 33. The Green Road
    www.arl.org/sparc
    21
  • 34. NIH Public Access Policy
    www.arl.org/sparc
    22
  • 35. Deposit Policies
    www.arl.org/sparc
    23
  • 36. Issues and Concerns
    Peer review
    Academic reward structures (promotion & tenure)
    Business models
    Role of funding organizations
    Copyright & intellectual property
    Adjustments to accessing scholarly information disseminated differently
    www.arl.org/sparc
    24
  • 37. www.arl.org/sparc
    25
    Author Rights
    To publish and distribute a work in print or other media
    To reproduce it (e.g., through photocopying)
    To prepare translations or other derivative works
    To perform or display the work publicly
    To authorize others to exercise any of these rights
  • 38. www.arl.org/sparc
    26
    Know Your Rights
    The author is the copyright holder
    Assignment of rights matters
    The copyright holder controls the work
    Transferring copyright doesn’t have to be all or nothing
    Read your publisher agreements
  • 39. www.arl.org/sparc
    27
    Retaining Rights
    www.arl.org/sparc/author/addendum.html
  • 40. www.arl.org/sparc
    28
  • 41. www.arl.org/sparc
    29
  • 42. Faculty Activism
    www.arl.org/sparc
    30
  • 43. Open Access and the Academy
    www.arl.org/sparc
    31
    “Open access serves scholarly communication by: facilitating text-mining; data and literature integration; construction of large- scale knowledge structures; and creation of co-laboratories that integrate the scholarly literature directly into knowledge creation and analysis environments…
    It also honors our commitments to the democratization of teaching, learning, scholarship, and access to knowledge throughout our society and globally.”
    - Clifford Lynch, CNI, Closing comments, ARL/CNI/SPARC Public Access Forum, October 20, 2006
  • 44. What’s Next
    Campus conversation
    Society/discipline conversation
    Policy development
    Repository consideration
    www.arl.org/sparc
    32
  • 45. Students and Faculty
    www.arl.org/sparc
    33
  • 46. www.arl.org/sparc
    34
  • 47. www.arl.org/sparc
    35
    This work was created by Julia C. Blixrud
    on April 14, 2009
    and is licensed under the
    Creative Commons
    Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0
    United States License.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/