Advance an open system of scholarship by reducing barriers to access, sharing, and use of scholarship -- and in particular, scientific researchCatalyst for actionPositive response first to cost of serialsEducatingIncubatingAdvocacy
Note that many have multiple rolesPublisher group can be broken down into several subgroups Large commercial have their own titles and also publish scholarly society titles Large societies Smaller societies Independent publishers University presses Trade – not reflected in these discussions Textbook and educational materials – rising group
Vision StatementThe creation of new knowledge lies at the heart of the research university and results from tremendous investments of resources by universities, federal and state governments, industry, foundations, and others. The products of that enterprise are created to benefit society. In the process, those products also advance further research and scholarship, along with the teaching and service missions of the university. Reflecting its investments, the academy has a responsibility to ensure the broadest possible access to the fruits of its work both in the short and long term by publics both local and global. Faculty research and scholarship represent invaluable intellectual capital, but the value of that capital lies in its effective dissemination to present and future audiences. Dissemination strategies that restrict access are fundamentally at odds with the dissemination imperative inherent in the university mission.
ImmediateMeeting in Budapest February 14, 2002Freely availableOver the internetScholarship that researchers produce without expectation of paymentOriginal emphasis on articles (i.e., not novels or textbooks)Permission to use without barriers financial legal/permission technical (except for ability to get to the internet)Some use permanent (library perspective of providing perpetual access)Others talk about full-text (the entire document)No longer just articles, but any scholarly researchMore recently, public policy perspective – society benefits from taxpayer supported research made openly accessible
Journals in about 50 languages can be found and all subject areas are welcome. Now there are journals from 98 countries in DOAJ. To maintain the quality of the service we also have to remove titles from DOAJ if they no longer live up to the selection criteria. 94 titles have been removed during 2008.DOAJ is sponsored by the National Library of Sweden INASP, Swedish Library Association, and Lund University.SELF GENERATED INCOMEINPUT FEESAuthor submission chargesArticle processing feesOff-print salesAFFINITY RELATIONSHIPSAdvertising SponsorshipsCo-hosting of conferences and exhibitsALTERNATIVE DISTRIBUTORSConvenience-format licenses or distributor format feeRELATED PRODUCTS AND SERVICESJournal publication in off-line mediaValue-added fee-based servicesELECTRONIC MARKETPLACEContextual E-commerce Community MarketplaceINTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SUBSIDIESINTERNAL SUBSIDIESDues SurchargeGRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONSFoundation GrantsInstitutional Grants and SubsidiesGovernment GrantsGifts and FundraisingVoluntary ContributorsIn-kind Contributions
Now some national policies on deposit
The Policy implements Division G, Title II, Section 218 of PL 110-161 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008) which states: SEC. 218. The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine’s PubMed Central an electronic version of their final peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.ACCESS - Provide fast, free electronic access to federally- funded research publications.ARCHIVE - Provide permanent archive of vital federally-funded research results.ADVANCE SCIENCE - Create new information resource for scientists to use in innovative ways.ACCOUNTABILITY - Allow federal agencies to manage research portfolios more effectively and transparently.
Provides the widest possible freedom and flexibility for faculty and others to employ their work for teaching, learning, and research in a fast-changing technological environmentStrengthen universities as institutions through which faculty and others can achieve their aspirations for teaching, learning, and researchFosters the Constitutionally defined purpose of the copyright law:"[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts."
THE SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING & ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION21 Dupont Circle NW, Suite 800Washington, DC 20036(202) 296-2296 www.arl.org/sparc New Models and Open Access: The Changing Nature ofScholarly Publications Julia C. Blixrud New Approaches to Scholarly Communication and Publishing Binghamton University Libraries April 15-16, 2009
Overview About SPARC Universities and Publishing Some Models Issues and Concerns What’s Next www.arl.org/sparc 2
www.arl.org/sparc 3 About SPARC Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition Alliance of over 800 institutions
Who’s Involved Researchers/Authors/Readers Libraries Publishers Scholarly societies University presses Commercial companies Academic administrators Students Taxpayers Non-profit organizations Government agencies Funding agencies Legislators/national governments www.arl.org/sparc 4
University Publishing in a Digital Age 5 What will, or should, the future scholarly communications system look like? First, every university that produces research should have a publishing strategy. Ithaka Report, 2007
Aggregates researchers in this niche field from around the US and the world
Speed of exchanges allows members to work through ideas in days, rather than months or years
List –H-France Forum
Founded in 1991
Goal of mimicking “types of conversations that occurred around the coffee machine”
Restricted access, list moderation, list archiving enhance credibility
Hub –Alzheimer Research Forum
Includes original articles and news updates, as well as job notices and announcements
User generated content includes a “hypothesis factory” where people can post ideas and comment on others.
www.arl.org/sparc 17 A Definition of Open Access Immediate, free electronic availability of research that scholars produce without expectation of payment A vision of scholarly communication in the networked digital environment where: Barriers to access and use the results of research are eliminated Potential usage is maximized Value of research is more fully realized Dysfunctions in the legacy system are addressed An access model, not a business model
18 Open Access Models Two main approaches: Open-access journals – require alternative business models to replace subscription-based models Open-access archives – publicly available digital repositories, exist alongside traditional publishing
Potential Open Access Revenue Streams ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE Contextual E-commerce Community Marketplace INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SUBSIDIES INTERNAL SUBSIDIES Dues Surcharge GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Foundation Grants Institutional Grants and Subsidies Government Grants Gifts and Fundraising Voluntary Contributors In-kind Contributions SELF GENERATED INCOME INPUT FEES Author submission charges Article processing fees Off-print sales AFFINITY RELATIONSHIPS Advertising Sponsorships Co-hosting of conferences and exhibits ALTERNATIVE DISTRIBUTORS Convenience-format licenses or distributor format fee RELATED PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Journal publication in off-line media Value-added fee-based services www.arl.org/sparc 19
Issues and Concerns Peer review Academic reward structures (promotion & tenure) Business models Role of funding organizations Copyright & intellectual property Adjustments to accessing scholarly information disseminated differently www.arl.org/sparc 24
www.arl.org/sparc 25 Author Rights To publish and distribute a work in print or other media To reproduce it (e.g., through photocopying) To prepare translations or other derivative works To perform or display the work publicly To authorize others to exercise any of these rights
www.arl.org/sparc 26 Know Your Rights The author is the copyright holder Assignment of rights matters The copyright holder controls the work Transferring copyright doesn’t have to be all or nothing Read your publisher agreements
www.arl.org/sparc 27 Retaining Rights www.arl.org/sparc/author/addendum.html
Open Access and the Academy www.arl.org/sparc 31 “Open access serves scholarly communication by: facilitating text-mining; data and literature integration; construction of large- scale knowledge structures; and creation of co-laboratories that integrate the scholarly literature directly into knowledge creation and analysis environments… It also honors our commitments to the democratization of teaching, learning, scholarship, and access to knowledge throughout our society and globally.” - Clifford Lynch, CNI, Closing comments, ARL/CNI/SPARC Public Access Forum, October 20, 2006
What’s Next Campus conversation Society/discipline conversation Policy development Repository consideration www.arl.org/sparc 32
www.arl.org/sparc 35 This work was created by Julia C. Blixrud on April 14, 2009 and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/