Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply



Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide
  • Academically, Donald manages fairly well. He needs a magnifier to read smaller text and cannot see the blackboard, but reads at grade level. His printing and writing are very poor, and he has had a scribe for most of his schooling. He is about a year behind grade level in math.
  • Sports are a challenge for Donald. He has limited depth perception, and is can’t tell when a ball is coming at him. He also has difficulty gauging depth when running or riding a bicyle.
  • What percent of speech is available to someone who uses speech reading?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Visual and Hearing Impairments
      EPSE 317
    • 2. Not One, but Two Stories:
      Evelyn, 12, acquired profound sensorineural hearing impariment
      Donald, 9, loss of sight in right eye when 2, severe impairment in left eye
    • 3. Donald
      Donald is nine years old
      He lives in Quesnel with his father, who works for Tolko forest industries and him mother, who works for the Schoo District as a SEA.
      He has no sibs.
      He has always lived in Quesnel.
      When he was two, he lost his right eye to neuroblastoma.
      His left eye was damaged by chemotherapy; he has 20/120 vision in it.
    • 4. Donald’s School
      Donald attends St. Jude Elementary, a school within the Kamloops Diocesan School District.
      It’s a small school, but the District has good special education resources that operate out of Kamloops.
      Donald has always been at St. Jude’s and is popular with classmates and teachers.
    • 5. Academically, Donald does well
      He reads at grade level, although he needs a magnifier to read smaller text.
      He can’t see the blackboard.
      Math is a bit of a problem—he’s about a year behind grade level.
      His printing is very unclear
      And he gets tired and loses his ability to pay attention
    • 6. Sports are a challenge for Donald
      In addition to poor vision, he has limited depth perception, so he can’t track a ball easily
      Running is also difficult; he’s inclined to stumble
      He’s inactive at recess, and generally reluctant during gym.
    • 7. Donald enjoys sculpture
      He has always liked to model things out of clay or plasticine, and has recently taken to woodcarving.
      He makes some nice little statues of animals, which his friends and family like very much.
    • 8. Next Year Donald Will Be in Grade 4
      What are likely to be the challenges he will face?
      What can we offer him to make schooling successful and enjoyable?
    • 9. Auntie Liz’s TRUE story(Pretty much, true…)
      This is the story of Evelyn
      It is, for a change, not set in British Columbia, but rather in Northeast Scotland
    • 10. It began in Ellon…
      A little farming community, north of Aberdeen
      A couthy family lived on a farm, there, and had for some generations.
      They farmed cattle, mostly black Angus
      There were two children, Alistair and Evelyn
    • 11. Like most Scots, they enjoyed music, and the kids were encouraged to take music lessons, and back then the school system provided free lessons.
      Little Evelyn really took to music—by the time she was seven she played piano and clarinet really well.
    • 12. Evelyn dreamed of becoming a professional musician—either with the Scottish National Orchestra or maybe one of the London Orchestras.
      But when she was eight she became very ill—with what was likely a meningitis
      She got better but she’d lost her hearing—she realised she couldn’t follow a conversation in the dark.
    • 13. In fact, when her parents took her to the audiologist in Aberdeen, they learned that she was profoundly (not completely) deaf.
    • 14. Evelyn stayed at school, with support from the Aberdeen School for the Deaf
      Because she had already developed good speech and learned to read before she lost her hearing, she became a good speech reader.
      And she could access learning content by reading.
    • 15. Evelyn’s music teacher was very sad; her wonderful student would no longer be able to study and grow as a musician.
      But the next year, Evelyn showed up for lessons. She could still play piano and clarinet well, and played first clarinet in the school band.
    • 16. Evelyn remained determined to become a musician.
      When she was twelve, it was time to move on from the Ellon Academy.
      At her new school , the guidance counsellor tried her best to make Evelyn see reality.
    • 17. Deaf people can’t become musicians.
      Evelyn, being a bright young woman, should think of another career.
      Evelyn dug in her heels.
      What do you think?
    • 18. The new school also insisted that Evelyn wear hearing aids.
      She hated them, and took them out on every opportunity.
      What do you think?
    • 19.
    • 20. Congenital / Adventitious (aka) Acquired
      Different issues, depending on the age an impairment is acquired.
      Concept: rather than disabled, a person who uses four senses
      The challenge is to make your classroom and instruction accessible to the person with four senses.
    • 21. Signs of possible vision problems
      Rubs eyes
      Squints, shuts, or covers one eye
      Tilts or thrusts head forward
      Holds head at unusual angle when reading or looking at things
      Blinks more often than usual
      Irritable when doing close-up work
    • 22. Moves head rather than eyes when reading
      Can’t see distant things clearly
      Has difficulty copying both near and far
    • 23. Child may complain of
      Eye discomfort—itch, burn, scratchy
      Can’t see well
      Dizziness, headaches, nausea after doing close-up work.
      Blurred or double vision.
    • 24. Vision impairments
      Lack of acuity
      Lack of clarity
      Lack of stability
    • 25. Visual Impairments
      Use of text and other visual resources for learning
      Math concepts
      Possibly socialisation—ability to read social situations, visual pragmatics
    • 26. Challenges
      Availability of adapted materials
      Classroom set up
      Access to physical activity
      Meaningful evaluation and assessment
    • 27. Supports and services
      For blind and very low vision
      Mobility instructor when in new environments
      Enough room on desktop to allow for large print, or magnifier
      Accessible storage area for adapted material
      Placement—not directly into glare, but with adequate lighting
    • 28. Enable participation and view of classmates
      Use enlarge function of photocopier
      Make sure auditory environment is optimal
      Rehearse emergency procedures
      Ask child what he/she needs to help
    • 29. Safety stuff
      Understand and make sure students understand how to guide a blind person….
      Don’t leave cupboards or drawers open.
    • 30. Adaptive Tech
      Braille note-takers and computer monitors
      Anything that can scan and enlarge print
      Kurzweil and other text-to-voice scanners
      Tape-recorded materials
      E-text (project Gutenberg)
      Captioned film and videos
    • 31. Using adaptive tech and other instructive stuff
      Access Provincial Resource Centre for the Visually Impaired
      Allow time for reading—may be slower than classmates
      Don’t talk to the blackboard!!!
      Glossy paper and whiteboards are problems for low vision
      Find forms of vigorous physical exercise for students.
    • 32. Pointing at things doesn’t work—describe whereabouts on 12-hour clock
      Be conscious of “blinding” mannerisms
      Call on child by name
      Don’t under-estimate
    • 33. Deafness and Hearing Impairments
      Deaf—a culture, defined by its language, not by its audiological deficits.
      Signed languages—signed culture
      Likely schooled in separate programs whenever available
      Some bi-bi (bilingual-bicultural) programs available throughout Canada
    • 34. Hearing Impaired
      Oral instruction
      Children taught speech and speech-reading from early age
      Use of vestigial hearing emphasised
      Often will use assistive technology to augment hearing
      Hearing aids
      FM, and soundfield systems
      Cochlear implants
    • 35. Hearing Aids
      With young children, be sure that batteries are functioning and that aid is adjusted correctly.
      Encourage use. If child seems reluctant, be sure that aid is adjusted correctly.
      Recognise that ambient noise will not be filtered.
      Limit noise levels.
    • 36. Cochlear Implants
      Optimally implanted in young children
      Child will need to learn to use hearing—this is not automatic in a child who is not born with full hearing.
      Work with technicians.
      Not a cure-all for all children even if they are physically suitable for technology.
    • 37. Cochlear Implants, cont’d.
      Again, ambient noise is a problem
      Extend the same courtesies as for a speech-reading situation.
      Person teaching child will emphasise his/her use of hearing, but your job is to teach. Encourage use of hearing, but make information available regardless.
    • 38. FM receiver
      Teacher wears transmitter
      Child has receiver and earphones or headset to hear teacher’s speech.
      Great if teacher remembers to turn device on & off (don’t broadcast snarky asides).
      Great if earphones work.
      Cosmetically a bit problematic for kids.
      Can’t hear rest of classmates.
    • 39. Amplification Technology not always effective
      Hearing impairment is rarely the experience of total silence (it can be)
      Sensorineural hearing loss as opposed to conductive hearing loss
      Head noises
      Alternatives to auditory hearing (is this what Evelyn’s refusal to use hearing aids is about?)
    • 40. Sign and its variants
      True sign—ASL, LSQ, LSF, etc., are real languages, with distinctive syntax, grammars, dialects, and vocabularies
      Signed English (and similar variants) use the vocabulary and syntax of their language of origin—they are a sort of pidgin
      “Total communication”—a combination of a Signed English and speech
      Cued speech
    • 41. Signed Interpreter Courtesy
      Speak to person for whom the interpretation is provided, not the interpreter.
      Allow time for replies
      In a classroom indicate who in group is speaking
    • 42. Other courtesies
      Gain attention by waving or sometimes slapping or rapping table top
      Recognise that touch is more part of communication than is typical in hearing culture, but don’t touch without being visible
    • 43. Speechreading
      Can be very developed
      Courtesy with a speech reader
      Keep your mouth visible (Well, Duh!)
      Don’t stand in front of light sources
      Don’t over-articulate (try too hard)
      Speak normally
      Don’t talk to the blackboard…
      Use gesture and facial expression
      Stand close enough to be read
    • 44. Classroom Issues
      Film—captioned is good, but only if student can read.
      Slides likewise, and darkened room is a noncommunicative room for a student with limited hearing.
      Noisy classroom will limit hearing.
      Set up classroom so that student has option of seeing classmates.
    • 45. Check for student comprehension –ask what a student understood, not whether. What did you understand, not Did you understand.
      Make as much information visible as possible—bulletin boards, binders, models,…
      Watch for fatigue, and encourage (not allow) breaks.
    • 46. Speech
      Students who have been born with impairment or lost hearing early may have significant speech difficulties.
      Be patient.
      Recognise that speech impairment is not an indicator of lack of intelligence. Give student alternatives—print, type?
    • 47. Collaborate with other professionals
      Evaluation of learning will need adaptation.
      Gym will need some adaptation.
    • 48. Glennie-frith