Fasd Booklet Final Web


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Fasd Booklet Final Web

  1. 1. This booklet was written to provide useful information about Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), and to focus on an approach and an attitude when working with individuals affected by FASD. If you have further questions about FASD or would like more information, please contact: First Nations Special Education at: 1.877.422.3672 This handbook was updated by Madeline Price Desktop Design by Brent Scout © 2006 FNESC
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Talking About Special Education Volume Inside: Introduction……………………………………….. 2 What is FASD?…………………………………... 3 FASD Identification……………………………… 4 Understanding People with FASD…………….. 5 “Trying Differently Rather Than Harder” Understanding the role of the brain in FASD and Basic Needs of Persons with FASD…………… 8 the shift in recognizing the difference between The Ideal Classroom…………………………….. 9 non-competence and non compliance sets the stage for Trying Differently Rather than Harder” Individual Education Plan (IEP)………………… 10 Adapted from the book: Paradigm Shifts and FASD……………………... 11 Trying Differently Rather Than Harder (Diane Malbin M.S.W. 2nd Edition) FASD in the Classroom…………………………. 12 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 2002 Teaching Students with FASD/FAE…………… 13 Design Concrete Measures of Time…………... 14 The T Chart………………………………………. 15 Supporting Behavioural Changes…………….. 16 Trying Differently………………………...…….... 17 Appendices ……………………………………... 19 A - An Example of an IEP B - Resources
  3. 3. What is Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder? Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Introduction This is an updated handbook from the series of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella informational handbooks prepared by the First Nations term that refers to a range of birth defects caused by Education Steering Committee (FNESC) and the First drinking during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Nations Schools Association (FNSA). This handbook (FAS) is a medical diagnosis and has 4 key features: follows from the general discussion of special needs included in Talking About Special Education Volume I, • prenatal exposure to alcohol which includes issues such as parental involvement, • growth deficiency special needs identification, individual education plans, • certain facial characteristics and advocacy. • brain damage Several sources of information were used in the *Although the term Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) is being development of this publication. FNESC and the FNSA phased out, it still appears in the literature usually would like to gratefully acknowledge the following work referred to as Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental as most of this information in this booklet comes from Disorders (ARND). these sources: Partial FAS (pFAS) - confirmed maternal alcohol Trying Differently Rather Than Harder 2nd Edition exposure - has some but not all of the physical signs of Diane Malbin, M.S.W. — Director of FASCETS (Fetal FAS (learning and behaviour difficulties). Alcohol Syndrome Consultation, Education and Training Services www.FASCETS.org Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD) - confirmed maternal alcohol exposure - displays some physical Submissions from Deb Evenson — Project FACTS anomalies resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure, for http://fasalaska.com/links-html example heart, skeletal, vision, hearing, and fine and gross motor problems. Aboriginal Nurses Association of Canada (ANAC). 1997. It Takes a Community. A Resource Manual for Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders Community-Based Prevention of Fetal Alcohol (ARND) — confirmed alcohol exposure — refers to the Syndrome. variable range of central nervous system dysfunctions Contact the ANAC at: 192 Bank Street, Ottawa, ON that are associated with alcohol consumption during K2P 1W8, phone (613) 236 - 3373, pregnancy. ARND is demonstrated by learning e-mail Info@anac.on.ca difficulties, poor impulse control, poor social skills, and problems with memory, attention and judgment. Proceedings of the 2005 FASD National Conference Page 2 Page 3
  4. 4. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Understanding People With FASD (This larger group is now believed to be at greater risk for failure since they are often not seen as having a Infants disability). Infants may experience a range of characteristics. People with ARND may have significant brain Severely affected infants may require hospitalization differences, yet their behaviours may be the only from disorders affecting major organs. Infants with symptoms of their disability. ARND is often referred to FASD are also prone to infections, and they generally as an “invisible handicapping condition” develop more slowly than other infants. They may have (Streissguth 1996). difficulty sleeping, sucking and swallowing, keeping food down, gaining weight, and may be irritable and FASD Identification unpredictable. The diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome requires the Be patient, and keep their level of stimulation low. presence of measurable physical characteristics in (Adapted from Aboriginal Nurses Association, 1997) addition to symptoms of brain damage and is generally made by a multidisciplinary team. It is the only alcohol- related diagnosis that may be make in the absence of a Young Children confirmed maternal alcohol history. From toddler through preschool, children with FASD The majority of people prenatally exposed to alcohol may be slow to develop, and if they are severely have no external physical characteristics, since the affected they may continue to have health problems facial features of FAS result from specific timing of due to organ damage. prenatal alcohol exposure — during days 18-21 of gestation. However, even though a person with FASD Delays in their speech and vocabulary may be has no physical features, their brain dysfunction may noticeable in preschool years, and referral to therapy be as severe as for full Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. and special needs preschools may be considered. Identification for this larger group with FASD is crucial Children with FASD may be clumsy and accident prone since they are at greater risk for failure due to the due to late development of their motor skills, and their greater invisibility of their disability (Clarren et al; 1998; learning through experience, seeing and hearing may Riley, 2003, Streissguth et al. 1996). also be delayed. They may rely more on touch to explore their surroundings. Page 4 Page 5
  5. 5. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Understanding People With FASD Adolescents and Young Adults with FASD Young Children (continued) Youth with FASD and their caregivers are dealing with normal teenage issues plus the concerns of FASD. Over-stimulation or changes in daily routine can lead to tantrums and destructive behaviour, and interacting Youth with FASD can be easily misled, and may need with other children may be a problem. social skills interventions, a supervised environment and appropriate school programming. An assessment may be needed to determine what special services are needed to ensure a successful Affected youth may have problems making friends transition to school. because of unacceptable or immature behaviour, and they may have difficulty in communicating and understanding instructions. School Age Children with FASD Abstract thinking is slow to develop, and their literacy There are physical, learning and behavioural difficulties and numeracy skills may be below their age and grade common to most children with FASD. level. Their speech and language development may be Attention deficit and hyperactivity will affect learning delayed. and relationships with peers. Their excess energy should be directed. They may have problems mentally “registering” information, and once information is learned it may take Some affected youth become skilled in individual sports more time to be “retrieved.” like swimming or running, and sports can help to build self-esteem and social skills. Their ability to understand consequences may be impaired, and learning disabilities are common. The youth, however, may have difficulty with rules, daily living skills, managing money and time; therefore, The child may have a short attention span, life skills must be reinforced from an early age. under-developed motor skills and reasoning, and learning disabilities resulting in inappropriate behaviour. Page 6 Page 7
  6. 6. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Basic Needs of Persons Living with FASD The Ideal Classroom (Adapted from Aboriginal Nurses Association, 1997) • Structured with flexibility The person affected with FASD needs nurturing, • Visual supports understanding and support. • Little clutter A stable home, responsive school system, supporting The Ideal Teacher Interaction friends and caring community are also important aspects of nurturing the child. • Warm and accepting • Consistent in behavioural expectations The person with FASD needs to feel that he or she is a • Frequent positive feedback based on realistic expec- part of the community. Self-esteem and acceptance are tations critically important. • Regular communications between parent and school • An Individual Education Plan outlining strengths with Parents of children with FASD need connections with realistic and achievable goals in place. the community, other parents, and services that provide family centred and culturally sensitive support. Teaching Methods in the Ideal Classroom Parents may need help dealing with addictions, • Emphasis on collaborative problem solving poverty, low self-esteem, and limited work and • Emphasis on explicit teaching (make it as concrete parenting skills. Caregivers should be respectful and as possible) non-judgmental toward families living with FAS/E and • Programs adaptations (example: more time allowed acknowledge that the parents are performing a for completion of in-class demanding job. • Assignments - less written work, visual supports, use of a computer) The community social safety net should meet the basic needs of family members and provide early assistance to the child’s family. Families should have access to appropriate assessments and diagnoses and be empowered to contribute to all discussions about their children. Page 8 Page 9
  7. 7. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Individual Education Plan (IEP) Paradigm Shifts and FASD Taken from Building Strengths, Creating Hope — Alberta The Individual Education Plan is the cornerstone to the Learning. For a complete manual for instruction online at: http:// educational program of many students with FASD. www.education.gov.ab.ca/K_12/specialneeds/fasd.asp Students with FASD can be successful when realistic From seeing the child as To understanding the child as and effective approaches are used. There is much Won’t Can’t hope for this population! Bad, annoying Frustrated, challenged When realistic and achievable goals are designed Lazy, unmotivated Trying hard, tired of failing Lying Story telling to compensate for based on previous and appropriate assessment, the memory, filling in the blanks stage is set for student growth and success. Fussy Oversensitive Acting young, babied Being younger The successful IEP is collaborative in nature, and Trying to get attention Needing contact, support involves all team members (teacher, teacher Inappropriate Displaying behaviours of a younger child assistants, family members, the student, and others Doesn’t try Exhausted or can’t get started working with the student in their educational program). Mean Defensive, hurt The IEP is designed to set the student up for success. Doesn’t care Can’t show feeling It focuses on the student strengths, and incorporates Refuses to sit still Over stimulated support in the areas of student need. Resisting Doesn’t get it Trying to annoy me Can’t remember Showing off * If you would like to have FNESC Special Education Support demonstrate and facilitate an IEP at your school, please call or email Kelly From Personal Feelings of: To Feelings of: Kitchen at 1.877.422.3672 or kellyk@fnesc.ca Hopelessness Hope Fear Chaos, confusion Understanding If you have questions related to the IEP please email or Power struggles Organization, comprehension call Madeline Price at 1. 877.422.3672, Isolation Working with madelinep@fnesc.ca or call our Toll Free resource Line Networking, collaboration at 1.877.547.1919 or email Lisa Ellis at lisae@fnesc.ca Professional shifts from: To: ***** See Appendix for Example of IEP ***** Stopping behaviours Preventing Problems Behaviour Modification Modeling, using cues Changing people Changing environments Page 10 Page 11
  8. 8. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 When teaching students with FAS/FAE... FASD in the Classroom (Adapted from FAS/E Support Network 604.576.9911 Remove charts, maps, etc. after use or email info@fetalalcohol.com Break down work into small pieces In group activities, pair a FAS/E child with a high tolerance child When teaching students with FAS/FAE, try the Have the same teacher, Teacher aide, assistant all following: year  Teach memory strategies Provide order!!! Control interruptions of the classroom Keep a routine oriented classroom Do not allow any talking-out with out hands up  Provide a highly structured environment Use homework books with parents, making the Build in transition periods  teacher and parents responsible for the books  Make areas of the room clearly defined by Clean out the child’s desk with them at least once activity (wall decorations should reflect only what weekly goes on in that area) Use a wide spaced paper Use pink highlighters, not yellow Put as little as possible on the walls Find a way to provide at least some lunch hour and Keep colour to a minimum  recess supervision Put desks in rows—groupings do not work  Keep any time out very short Put the child directly across from speaker for Supervise the child when going from one place to eye contact another  Use uncluttered worksheets Use open book tests with the areas being tested Give immediate feedback on assignments highlighted Keep a posted schedule for the day’s activities Limit homework to a reasonable amount Ask visitors to the classroom to arrive on time Allow the student more time to respond to questions  Flick the classroom lights to get attention  Try to have all people who interact with the child use Test one on one for knowledge, not attention the same language to mean the same thing Give thought to developing a peer monitoring Use redirects—”this is your”…”this is where it program goes” After elementary school, emphasize life skills and Plan ahead for special events and keep them vocational training infrequent  Don’t personalize behaviour Break up concentration activities with physical Use concrete measures of time (see next page) activities Teach explicitly, never assume the student will get it Store books, materials, etc. by type, not size (see T chart—Page 26) Label shelves and cupboards with words and Listen to parents! They often know what works best pictures/symbols Page 12 Page 13
  9. 9. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 HOW TO DESIGN A CONCRETE MEASURE The T Chart OF TIME T Chart’s can make rules more concrete and visual. This is an example of a T Chart for a high school Many students have great difficulty working on an student who could read but could not remember how to assignment to completion — sometimes this is leave the breakfast area in the resource room clean. because they cannot grasp the measure of time and don’t know when they will be finished. Rule: Breakfast area is clean after breakfast ☺ Time is often a difficult and abstract concept to grasp. Sounds like: Looks like: A concrete measure of time can help. *Good Job! For younger kids paper chains work well — each part of the chain can represent 1 minute — the task could be 5 or 10 minutes and at each minute one link is taken off — this can be attached to the board at the front of the room or on the student’s desk. Teacher Assistants • can help with this support. * insert a digital photo of For more sophisticated students — the teacher may •the real-life situation Dishes in cupboard Teachers and Teacher’s give them 30 minutes on task work. The teacher could • Knives, forks and Assistants will be smiling count down the time by 5’’s and write it on the board. spoons in tray and saying: • Cereal put away in cup- There are many creative ways to use concrete board “GOOD JOB KOBI, I • Bread bag has clip on it REALLY LIKE THE WAY measures of time. Egg timers work and can be placed YOU CLEANED UP on a student’s desk, or a big one on the teachers desk. • Bread is put in the cup- board EVERYTHING ON THE Timers with bells can work as well. COUNTER, ON THE • Milk is in the fridge TABLE AND ON THE Sometimes students need to know that they can have a • Counters are wiped FLOOR!” break after they have successfully completed a certain and shiny amount of time on task — so you can pair time on task • Floor does not have * insert photo of student with 5 minutes of time that the student can have anything on it working personally — whatever works to make the student successful and able to complete time on task! Page 14 Page 15
  10. 10. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Trying Differently Rather Than Harder — Supporting Behavioral Changes By Supporting Behavioural Changes by Recognizing Cognitive Differences Recognizing Cognitive Differences By Diane Malbin — FACETS Inc. www.FASCETS.ORG A Neurobehavioural Approach (Taken from the 2005 Alcohol Spectrum DisorderNational Recent studies have shown the importance of linking Conference — Equality of Access: Rights and the Right brain damage with behaviour and communication to Thing To Do) improve outcomes for students with FASD. Parents and teachers tend to try harder, using good Brain damage causes behavioural and communication techniques, to change behaviours. symptoms. Good techniques that work with other children may Our Attitudes and Approach in working with students simply not work for people with FASD. Paradoxically, with FASD will make a difference. their behaviours change as a function of changes in the environment. In other words we can set these individuals up for success if we adapt the environment What Interventions are a poor fit? to ensure better outcomes. 1. Accept that the person has an invisible physical disability. Interventions based on changing behaviour symptoms Establish relationship. have not worked. Traditional methods of teaching behaviour have often been unsuccessful. 2. Clarify your needs, feelings, resources and supports. 3. As with other more obvious physical handicapping Techniques based on “learning theory” which include conditions, evaluate environments for their “goodness of behaviour modification techniques to eliminate or fit” and adapt /modify environments as appropriate to change behaviour often make things worse. maximize potentials. Recognize which elements of environments may be posing undue challenges, chronic frustrations...or be inappropriate. Adjust accordingly. These approaches do not include a conscious recognition of brain dysfunction. 4. Ask the “what if” questions and continue to explore 5. Identify strengths, interests, and work through these. 6. Create climates characterized by structure rather than control. 7. Control tends to be top-down, other-initiated, set up power struggles. Page 16 Page 17
  11. 11. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 8. Structure is safe, respectful, invites participation, Chart establishes a “with” “not at” relationship and values the By Diane Malbin person’s input for developing solutions. FASCETS — WWW.FASCETS.ORG 9. Our challenge in part is to recognize the articulate learning Environmental abilities we take for granted, i.e. Inferential learning, Standard Secondary Accommodations to generalizing information, linking words with action, and to Interventions Behaviours Prevent Challenging then clarify whether a discrepancy exists between Behaviours apparent ability and actual ability. Talk fast Anxiety Slow down Therapy Frustration Give time 10. Observe patterns; consciously rethink events. Recall that Punish Shut down Adjust workload there may be a delayed reaction from the time of stressor Take away privileges Anxiety Give time, Slow down and acting out behaviour. A behaviour at home that Shame Frustration Reduce work load apparently occurs in response to a request to do a chore Ridicule Tantrums Accept slow pace may actually relate to a frustration that occurred at school, Fear Accept need to or with friends. Think broader context, bigger picture. Punish Frustration re-teach a concept in Anger different settings 11. Depersonalize. Reframe perceptions, shifting from Teach age-based Think younger, thinking “willful” to considering “organic” component, or skills, Punish Lonely Establish develop- possible gaps in ability. Shift from thinking “won’t” to “inappropriate” Isolated mentally appropriate understanding “can’t.” behaviours Depression expectations 12. Work to 90% success. Break down tasks into small steps Punish Anxiety, fear, Recognize and allow and check for completion and comprehension prior to Ground No confidence, for variability adding more tasks. These may gradually be expanded Shame Erode self-esteem Prevent anxiety with pattern development and maturity. Punish, More work Agitation, overactive, Evaluate the Medicate avoidance, anger, environment 13. Recognize that individual needs may be at direct odds to No Recess anxiety, tantrums Adjust accordingly environmental constraints. Difficult decisions may be Provide breaks necessary. Punish Anger Adjust workload 14. Consider: There’s always logic to the behaviour. It’s our More work Tantrums Provide breaks & snacks challenge to understand the context and recognize the potential role of “brain damage.” Prevent problems Punish Avoidance Build on strengths 15. Specifically include the person with FASD in the Defiance Use visual cues strategizing or problem solving process. Choose words More hours on Burnout Provide Kinesthetic such as “show me” or “How” rather than “why” to invite homework, No recess Shut down Experiential Relational input. Therapy Give up options for learning 16. Keep it concrete, specific, and simple. Interrupt Resistance Adjust workload to Assert control Anger achieve closure 17. Always consider the neurological potential. “Think Require transitions Big Tantrums Provide time younger”, and remember “Fair is not same.” Page 18 Page 19
  12. 12. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 APPENDICES 1: Example of an IEP ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Phone: Fax: Individual Education Plan YEAR 2005-2006 Appendix A Example of an IEP Student: Kobi Anderson DATE OF IEP MEETING: June 11, 2005 BIRTH DATE: September 4th, 1994 AGE: 11 GENDER M MAIL ADDRESS: Box 2220 Sechelt BC VON 3AO GRADE: 8 PHONE: 604-885-9039 PARENT/GUARDIAN: Victor and Gloria Anderson School: Pine Elementary IEP Year 2005-2006 Student: Kobi Anderson A1
  13. 13. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Example of Individual Education Plan: Student Profile Example of IEP (continued): STUDENT PROFILE ASSESSMENT INFORMATION: Formal Assessment: (Standard Scores) INFORMAL ASSESSMENT: Date Assessment Name Comments/ Recommendations (Classroom Based/Teacher Assessment) Weschler Recommendations: Date Assessment Comments/ - Small group language 2003 Intelligence Scale for instruction Name Recommendations Children 111 - Comprehension Strategies Informal Teacher Comprehension (WISC) Counsellor at school June 2005 Assessment/ needs to be sup- recommended 2X weekly. Reading/Writing Observation ported by activities Explicit teaching of strate- Verbal SS-76 gies for sensory overload prior, during and Performance SS-98 Unit tests at Grade 6 after reading. Is - Visual calm down strategies level working in a reme- - Social story folder dial literacy class in - Quiet place to ‘hang out’ the afternoons for sensory overload June 2005 Informal teacher Enrolled in a Math Bender Visual Motor - Include in timetable — extra computer/and wood Math Assessment Mastery Skills 2003 Integration — work electives Working at a - Mastery unit tests Program * area of strength for Kobi Grade 3/4 level 2003 Weschler Individual - Include extra scaffolding strategies for ‘inferential’ 2005 Projects Excels in these Achievement Test comprehension PE classes (has 2 block Reading SS 90 - Stress/Add a ‘Life Skills’ Woodwork of PE) One block is Math SS 70 to Math Program - Money Computer Physio — working Writing SS 96 - Banking on weights - Accounting program ************************* 2003 Peabody Picture *See SLP handout Pre-teach vocabulary. Requires rigid routine/TA Support, and Vocabulary Test (Receptive Use as many visuals as accommodations in all areas possible Language) Support “words with SS 79 double meanings” ************************ * Use Rewards Program 2003 Referral to Asante Centre for complete assessment A2 A3
  14. 14. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 AREAS OF NEED CURRENT SKILL LEVELS: R = Regular Program A = Adapted Program M = Modified ACADEMIC Math Skills: money, time, accounting A Reading Reading for comprehension M Math Practical Writing Skills A Writing BEHAVIOURAL Protocol for managing behaviour outbursts A Social Studies Strict routine to support success A Science SOCIAL/EMOTIONAL Self Esteem R Physical Education Confidence R Art/Woodwork LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION R Music Build skills in receptive and expressive language A Spelling PHYSICAL Bilateral Hearing Loss (FM Systems in place) A Listening LIFE SKILLS A Expressive Language Work towards Communications 11 and 12 Math Essentials/Accounting Strengths: Athletic (enjoys PE); likes to be helpful; enjoys music, Career Prep. And Job Support/ Work Experience art and woodwork; creative; likes to make things; can be independent with a visual schedule; enjoys structure and routine; LONG TERM GOALS/DREAMS/DESIRES loves computers To graduate Grade 12 and get a job. Descriptors: Hard working; good sense of humour; can be To play on the Men’s Soccer Team after Grade 12 volatile/anger triggers; likes to be independent but has trouble remembering; likes to have a concrete visual schedule; prints WHAT DO WE WANT KOBI TO ACCOMPLISH THIS YEAR? neatly; can be easily stimulated i.e. sensory system overloads, • To complete and master all literacy units requires a consistent calming quiet place • To complete Grade 4 Saxon Math Program Learns Best When: Has visual schedules for timetable and • To follow his outlined visual schedules routines; All program adaptations are in place; when feels • To try to remember using polite words respected; in a quiet environment; 1 on 1 for new concepts; has a • To use his color coded binders/bins in the resource room Learning Assistance Block; When language is spoken slowly, • To put his breakfast food/dishes away in the resource room clearly, concretely and with few words (“get to the point)” with • To continue to take weights class and PE Class personal feelings left out • To find his TA/Teacher when he feels he is “losing it” Medical History: Bilateral hearing loss; exposure to alcohol • To use the Resource Room as a calm place to rest prenatally, chronic congestion; Overactive Sensory System (not • To try to stay in his classes until they are finished on medication at this time) • If he feels tired, to go ask to go to the resource Room • Morning routine: 7:30 in Resource Room, makes own School History: K—7 Pine Elementary breakfast, cleans up afterwards. A4 A5
  15. 15. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 GOAL CHART Adaptations & Modifications Need Goal: Strategy and Team Measurement of (6 areas ) Student Responsibility Progress Adaptations/Accommodations needed for student to Kobi will: CT’s will: CT will: meet regular grade outcomes: - Complete level 20 - Follow Kobi’s Graph Kobi’s pro- by next reporting protocol for all classes gress unit by unit demo/model processes/product time Oct. 28 - Use a concrete - Liaise with RR Accessibility: access to all areas of school  feedback immediate/frequent - Use LA time to measure of time to Teacher, to help practice guided/independent  complete assign- help Kobi focus on Kobi bring assign- fire exits & routes  Academic ments if needed assignments ments to RR for furniture & storage  multisensory (oral/experiential/ written) Literacy - Hand in all - Chart his progress completion support health & professional care  parking lot, roads & walk- memory (reduce/teach assignments into so can visually see - RR teacher will strategies) the RED “IN” BOX his work completed check in with ways  play areas & equipment  pace quick/slow  - Support all program Literacy Teacher short sessions/lessons  Work with TA to be adaptations, literacy and support when showers, washrooms & fountains  teach key concepts/vocabulary on time strategies needed other: transportation to and from school  Kobi will: CT’s will: Anecdotal notes other:  Organizational & Study - Direct Kobi to use his   Strategies - Use his “calm calm-down routines. Assignments & Homework b.b. or chart reminders  down” visual sup- - Allow him to leave Positive phone class schedule/timetable  alternate assignments or port when he feels the room if he calls home clock/timer/watch format upset/angry chooses, must go desk/locker/tote tray (personal) length and/or number - Go directly to the directly to RR with TA Behaviour Resource Room - Use of concrete Record of behav- (decrease) furniture arrangement  partner or group routines for use of materials  (RR) if he is not measure of time iour/solution work- student planner/home-school assignments managing his be- - Use the same sheets book time allowed (increase)  haviour well language, “remember teach organizational/study skills other: - Remember to use your polite words” other: polite words/use - Follow protocol, use Behaviour Management journal of T charts consequences — clear/ Equipment & Specialized consistent  Materials Kobi will: work with TA will meet Kobi at Visual attendance expectations/rules —clear/ augmentative commun device Behaviour his TA to get to the first bell and walk graph consistent Braille machine/materials  Late for Class class on time with him to class in home-school program calculator (large keys/regular/ time for second bell outside agency support  voice) reinforcement (class/group/ camera (Polaroid/digital/ Kobi will: CT’s (and TA’s) will: CT will: individual) regular/video) - Graph progress, - Graph Kobi’s school counselling program  computer/word processor  - Complete up to Praise all efforts, liaise progress unit by student contract/goal computer printer/peripherals  level 14 by Oct. 28 with RR Teachers, RR unit setting  fine/gross motor equipment Teachers will Liaise - Liaise with RR teach/assignments at skill hearing aids/fm system - Attend all Math with CT’s for work Teacher to help level headphones/listening centre Classes completion and focus Kobi bring assign- teach & reinforce social Language Master & cards on task ments to RR for skills  Math magnifier/lenses - Use concrete completion support other: overhead projector measures of time - RR Teacher will reference books - Ensure all outlined check in with Teaching Strategies: Spell Checker/Grammar program adaptations Literacy Teacher advance organizers/key Checker are in place: calcula- and support when visuals tor, recipe cards, needed alternate content/skills  calculation process, 1 - Home on 1 support to check commun. once A6 understanding weekly to advise of A7 progress
  16. 16. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Equipment & Specialized revision (first draft, sharing, revising, 2nd draft, sharing Materials 3rd draft, polishing;, final, SUPPORT TEAM standing frame/walker publishing switches/adapted handles, Have student write ideas on etc tape recorder  post it notes and then rear- Role Participant Contact range them to make an outline  wheelchair Teach keyboarding skills  Name Information other: _______________ Use an outline and 2 column Reading, Writing & Note notes for paragraph and essay taking: writing Mother/Father Use graphic organizers alternate formats note tak- Use the dot procedure (work to ing: carbon copy/outline/ photocopy/taped notes  the dot and get feedback) Teacher other: _________________ alternate formats reading: Braille/enlarged print/rebus/ tapes/videos  Testing & Evaluation alternate formats writing: alternate setting/time  Principal computer/printing/word alternate test/format  process time (increase/short sessions) alternate materials/texts: open book/take home exams easier reading level/parallel oral (reader/scribe/tape)  Teacher Assistant unit programmed learning  note taker, reader and/or rewriting permitted (TA) scribe (parent/peer/staff/ Recognize and give credit for class participation  volunteer)  Review the grading process Teacher/Hearing Imp. other: _______________ before the test Following Directions: provide examples of criteria for Provide only one or two each letter grade directions at a time  Allow student to retake test Classroom Teacher Restate directions in clear Teach Relaxation strategies  (CT) simple language  Provide sample items at the Stand close to the student beginning of the test  and gain eye contact before Provide visual graphic cues as Classroom Teacher giving directions the test directions change Provide visual support for Repeat directions to the stu- directions (on students desk dent once you have given them or on board to the class Classroom Teacher Use take home tests for Increasing Written Input: practice Allow for a scribe or record other: __________________ responses on tape Classroom Teacher Establish the process for KEY: Resource Room A = ADAPTED (Regular Grade Learning Outcomes w/ Accomm./Adapt.) E/G = ENRICHED/GIFTED (i.e., Extended Learning Outcomes or Teacher (RR) Advanced Level) R = REGULAR (Grade Level Learning Outcomes: Content & Skills) Special Ed. Teacher M = MODIFIED ('Substantially Different" from Regular) A8 A9
  17. 17. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 SAMPLE PROTOCOL INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PLAN ATTENTION ALL TEACHERS: Date: _________ Student: Kobi Anderson — Grade 8 REVIEW DATE: __________ Structure: Create a structured environment-includes choices and clear routines. ACCOMPLISHMENTS Supervise: Carefully supervise so the behaviour does not escalate into a situation that becomes unworkable. Simplicity Use clear simple language - stated briefly—leave personal feelings out of the conversation-leave out any verbal justifications, explanations. GOAL REVIEW Steps: Break down tasks into small steps, and teach each step through repetition, and social, verbal or appropriate Reward Context: Teach skills into the context in which the skills are to be used- be careful not to assume that the student will generalize from one concept to another, or understand TRANSITION PLAN in which contexts the behaviour is appropriate and when it is not. Kobi may not be able to translate information into action- understand cause and Transition to Grade 8 , Plan begins _______ effect. Kobi may not be able to take information learned from one situation and apply it to another. To repeat instructions can sometimes help but does not ensure compliance or understanding. BASELINE MEASURE DOCUMENTATION Often problems are not behavioural, emotional, or environmental - they are neurological - damage to the brain. Baseline Review #1 Review #2 End of Year Situations need to be set up for a “win-win” as much as possible- confrontational or Measure Measure punitive actions will not support the student well or provide for an ongoing positive relationship. Sometimes Kobi’s behaviour may seem to be willful behaviour, however this may Reading Level not be the case and in most circumstances is the result of a disability and therefore 16 we need to set up situations that will ensure that structures and routines are in place and external supports are in place to ensure success and safety. Chronological Age 10-11 Developmental Age 6 in the areas of social skills, emotional maturity and concept Math Level 12 development. Auditory memory is weak. Please support Kobi with as many visual supports in the classroom as possible. Homework written on the board, and in his planner. TA may need to ensure this is done at the end of each class. Please send Kobi to the Resource Room if he is having problems adjusting to # of times changes in the classroom setting, or settling down. missed Math *** Kobi has a visual support for calming down-please prompt him to use this Class before he decides to leave the room. ***PLEASE LET KOBI OUT OF CLASS 2 MIN. BEFORE THE BELL. THIS WILL EN- SURE A SAFE AND INCIDENT FREE TRAVEL TO THE RESOURCE ROOM TO CHANGE BINDERS AND BOOKS FOR NEXT CLASS. PLEASE CALL MADELINE # of times POHLMANN “FIRST” CASE MANAGER/RESOURCE ROOM IF A SITUATION ARISES missed WHERE THE PRINCIPAL OR FAMILY ARE ASKED TO BE INVOLVED. Literacy Class A10 A 11
  18. 18. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 FASD Neurocognitive Characteristics, Expectations, Secondary Behaviours and Examples of Accommodations Primary “Fit” within Interpretation Behavioural Environments: of Behaviours Characteristics Values when Expectations FASD Expectations Are not met Think fast, Ignoring me, Slow auditory pace, Pay attention Resistant goes blank Stay on task Personalize Think fast, timed tests Controlling, Avoidant Appendix B Slow cognitive pace Finish work within Not trying, holding Resources Doesn’t answer allotted time/schedule others up on purpose Difficulty generalizing Follow the rules, learn Willful on purpose, get the piece, not the inferentially intentional. He knew picture “gets it by watching” what the rule was Dysmaturity: Poor Social Skills Developmentally Act your age Acting like a baby younger than their Be responsible Inappropriate age: 7.5 more like a 3 Be appropriate Overprotective year old & 15 more parents like a 10 year old Learn the first time He/she doesn’t care Memory problems and remember from — lazy, needs to try “on days/off days” day to day harder Sensory issues Not trying Over stimulated Pay attention Undisciplined Overwhelmed, Sit still Off task, distractible Ignore distractions ADD Not trying, Lazy Easily fatigued Keep up Work Avoidant Try harder Unmotivated Impulsive Think ahead Willful inability to predict Plan Disobedient outcomes Set goals Inappropriate acts fast—thinks slow Rein in impulses Doesn’t care Concrete thinker Abstract, sit still pay Lazy, unmotivated Learns by doing attention, listen/learn and/or poor parenting Rigid, perseverance, Stop when told! Controlling, wants all difficulty stopping/ Don’t resist the power, bossy, changing activities Oppositional B1
  19. 19. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Sources of Information on FASD in BC Alcohol and Drug Information and Referral Service #202 - 3102 Main Street, Vancouver, B.C., V5T 3G7 To order Diane Malbin’s book: Toll-free: 1 - 800 - 663 - 1441 Trying Differently Rather Than Harder phone: (604) 660 - 9382 fax: (604) 660 - 9415 contact FASCETS, Inc at www.FASCETS.org Information and referral to treatment services and Website: http//fasal.aska.com/links-html agencies for those who are seeking assistance with alcohol and other drug misuse. Teaching Students with FASD A complete manual for instruction online from Alberta B.C. FAS Resource Society Learning:http://www.education.gov.ag.ca/k_12/ Sunny Hill Health Centre for Children specialneeds/fasd.asp. 3644 Slocan Street, Vancouver, B.C., V5M 3E8 (604) 465 - 8204 FAS Bookshelf — Books and Videos on FASD Project Office: #302 - 11965 Fraser Street, 604-942-2024 Maple Ridge, B.C. V2X 8H7 phone: (604) 465 - 5211 For Diagnosis and Assessment: Information about support and services to families, Sunnyhill Hospital for Children professionals and the broader community around 604-453-8314 prevention, intervention and treatment issues related to http://www.sunnyhill.ca alcohol and other drug related developmental http://www.bcchf.ca/index/html disabilities. Asante Centre for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder BC Aboriginal Network on Disabilities Society 1-866-FAS-7101 (1-866-327-7101) 1179 Kosapsum Crescent Email: asalahub@asantecentre.org Victoria, B.C. V8X 7K7 Web: www.asantecentre.org Toll free: 1 - 888 - 815 - 5511 or: (250) 381 - 7303 Canadian Guidelines for the diagnosis of FASD Resources are available to First Nations parents, http://www.cmha.ca/cai/content/full/172/5supply/F1 groups and educators, including videos, manuals, (Adapted from Materials from the Provincial FAS/E displays and brochures dealing with FAS and the Prevention Coordinator) effects of alcohol on pregnancy. B2 B3
  20. 20. Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Talking About Special Education Volume II - FASD , 2006 Prevention Source BC and advocacy through support groups, one-on-one 2750 Commercial Drive, Vancouver, B.C. V5N 5P4 resource parents, and a lending library. Toll free: 1 - 888 - 663 - 1880 phone: (604) 874 - 8452 FAS/E Information Service Information service to residents of BC seeking YWCA Crabtree Corner FAS/NAS Prevention Project information about prevention, organizations, programs, (604) 689 - 5463 materials and research in the area of substance abuse. 101 East Cordova Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6A 1K7 FAS/E Provincial Prevention Coordinator: phone: (604) 689 - 2808 fax: (613) 235 - 8101 (604) 875 - 2039 Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse Women’s Health Centre #300 - 75 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5E7 Room 501, 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6H Toll-free: 1 - 800 - 559 - 4514 or phone: 3N1 (613) 235 - 4048 phone: (604) 875 - 3599 A national service that includes a list server for Information on how to access information, resources, discussion with other individuals interested in FAS/E. expertise and services related to FAS/E. Helps with E-mail message to list@ccsa.ca and type “join fastlink” networking among relevant agencies, and setting up in the message. Offers educational workshops, a community based initiatives. resource lending library, a peer support group for moms with children with FAS/NAS and information and Society of Special Needs Adoptive Parents (SNAP) crisis counselling. Posters and pamphlets are available, FAS/E Support Network as well as guides to prevention, caring for children and (604) 589 - 8438 e-mail: fasnet@istar.ca a guide to resources. 151 - 10090 152nd Ave., Suite 187, Surrey, B.C. V3R 8X8 FAS Early Intervention Consultant phone: (604) 589 - 1854 fax: (604) 687 - 3364 Aurora Centre 4500 Oak Street, 5th floor, #1150 - 409 Granville Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1T2 Vancouver, B.C. V6H 3N1 Toll-free: 1 - 800 - 663 - 7627 phone: (604) 687 - 3114 phone: (604) 875 - 2017 Information on support, consultation and advocacy Works with health/social providers on early intervention services for individuals, families, professionals and the approaches with women at risk. Develops policy broader community around prevention, intervention and regarding treatment and disseminates information on treatment issues. Assists special needs adoptive early intervention. families through mutual support, information sharing B4 B5
  21. 21. Copyright © The First Nations Education Steering Committee and The First Nations Schools Association 2006 For additional copies, please write to: Suite #113-100 Park Royal South West Vancouver, BC V7T 1A2 Email: fnesc@fnesc.ca Or download a copy at: www.fnsa.ca