Class 8 Vis and Hearing


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  • Academically, Donald manages fairly well. He needs a magnifier to read smaller text and cannot see the blackboard, but reads at grade level. His printing and writing are very poor, and he has had a scribe for most of his schooling. He is about a year behind grade level in math.
  • Sports are a challenge for Donald. He has limited depth perception, and is can’t tell when a ball is coming at him. He also has difficulty gauging depth when running or riding a bicyle.
  • What percent of speech is available to someone who uses speech reading?
  • Class 8 Vis and Hearing

    1. 1. Visual and Hearing Impairments EPSE 317
    2. 2. Not One, but Two Stories: <ul><li>Evelyn, 12, acquired profound sensorineural hearing impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Donald, 9, loss of sight in right eye when 2, severe impairment in left eye </li></ul>
    3. 3. Donald <ul><li>Donald is nine years old </li></ul><ul><li>He lives in Quesnel with his father, who works for Tolko forest industries and him mother, who works for the Schoo District as a SEA. </li></ul><ul><li>He has no sibs. </li></ul><ul><li>He has always lived in Quesnel. </li></ul><ul><li>When he was two, he lost his right eye to neuroblastoma. </li></ul><ul><li>His left eye was damaged by chemotherapy; he has 20/120 vision in it. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Donald’s School <ul><li>Donald attends St. Jude Elementary, a school within the Kamloops Diocesan School District. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a small school, but the District has good special education resources that operate out of Kamloops. </li></ul><ul><li>Donald has always been at St. Jude’s and is popular with classmates and teachers. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Academically, Donald does well </li></ul><ul><li>He reads at grade level, although he needs a magnifier to read smaller text. </li></ul><ul><li>He can’t see the blackboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Math is a bit of a problem—he’s about a year behind grade level. </li></ul><ul><li>His printing is very unclear </li></ul><ul><li>And he gets tired and loses his ability to pay attention </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Sports are a challenge for Donald </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to poor vision, he has limited depth perception, so he can’t track a ball easily </li></ul><ul><li>Running is also difficult; he’s inclined to stumble </li></ul><ul><li>He’s inactive at recess, and generally reluctant during gym. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Donald enjoys sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>He has always liked to model things out of clay or plasticine, and has recently taken to woodcarving. </li></ul><ul><li>He makes some nice little statues of animals, which his friends and family like very much. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Next Year Donald Will Be in Grade 4 <ul><li>What are likely to be the challenges he will face? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we offer him to make schooling successful and enjoyable? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Auntie Liz’s TRUE story (Pretty much, true…) <ul><li>This is the story of Evelyn </li></ul><ul><li>It is, for a change, not set in British Columbia, but rather in Northeast Scotland </li></ul>
    10. 10. It began in Ellon… <ul><li>A little farming community, north of Aberdeen </li></ul><ul><li>A couthy family lived on a farm, there, and had for some generations. </li></ul><ul><li>They farmed cattle, mostly black Angus </li></ul><ul><li>There were two children, Alistair and Evelyn </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Like most Scots, they enjoyed music, and the kids were encouraged to take music lessons, and back then the school system provided free lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Little Evelyn really took to music—by the time she was seven she played piano and clarinet really well. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Evelyn dreamed of becoming a professional musician—either with the Scottish National Orchestra or maybe one of the London Orchestras. </li></ul><ul><li>But when she was eight she became very ill—with what was likely a meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>She got better but she’d lost her hearing—she realised she couldn’t follow a conversation in the dark. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>In fact, when her parents took her to the audiologist in Aberdeen, they learned that she was profoundly (not completely) deaf. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Evelyn stayed at school, with support from the Aberdeen School for the Deaf </li></ul><ul><li>Because she had already developed good speech and learned to read before she lost her hearing, she became a good speech reader. </li></ul><ul><li>And she could access learning content by reading. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Evelyn’s music teacher was very sad; her wonderful student would no longer be able to study and grow as a musician. </li></ul><ul><li>But the next year, Evelyn showed up for lessons. She could still play piano and clarinet well, and played first clarinet in the school band. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Evelyn remained determined to become a musician. </li></ul><ul><li>When she was twelve, it was time to move on from the Ellon Academy. </li></ul><ul><li>At her new school , the guidance counsellor tried her best to make Evelyn see reality. </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Deaf people can’t become musicians. </li></ul><ul><li>Evelyn, being a bright young woman, should think of another career. </li></ul><ul><li>Evelyn dug in her heels. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>… .. </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>The new school also insisted that Evelyn wear hearing aids. </li></ul><ul><li>She hated them, and took them out on every opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    20. 20. Congenital / Adventitious (aka) Acquired <ul><li>Different issues, depending on the age an impairment is acquired. </li></ul><ul><li>Concept: rather than disabled, a person who uses four senses </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge is to make your classroom and instruction accessible to the person with four senses. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Signs of possible vision problems <ul><li>Rubs eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Squints, shuts, or covers one eye </li></ul><ul><li>Tilts or thrusts head forward </li></ul><ul><li>Holds head at unusual angle when reading or looking at things </li></ul><ul><li>Blinks more often than usual </li></ul><ul><li>Irritable when doing close-up work </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Moves head rather than eyes when reading </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t see distant things clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty copying both near and far </li></ul>
    23. 23. Child may complain of <ul><li>Eye discomfort—itch, burn, scratchy </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t see well </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness, headaches, nausea after doing close-up work. </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred or double vision. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Vision impairments <ul><li>Lack of acuity </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of stability </li></ul>
    25. 25. Visual Impairments <ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of text and other visual resources for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly socialisation—ability to read social situations, visual pragmatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety-- </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Challenges <ul><li>Availability of adapted materials </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom set up </li></ul><ul><li>Access to physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful evaluation and assessment </li></ul>
    27. 27. Supports and services <ul><li>For blind and very low vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility instructor when in new environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enough room on desktop to allow for large print, or magnifier </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible storage area for adapted material </li></ul><ul><li>Placement—not directly into glare, but with adequate lighting </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Enable participation and view of classmates </li></ul><ul><li>Use enlarge function of photocopier </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure auditory environment is optimal </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse emergency procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Ask child what he/she needs to help </li></ul>
    29. 29. Safety stuff <ul><li>Understand and make sure students understand how to guide a blind person…. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t leave cupboards or drawers open. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Adaptive Tech <ul><li>Braille </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Braille note-takers and computer monitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anything that can scan and enlarge print </li></ul><ul><li>Kurzweil and other text-to-voice scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Tape-recorded materials </li></ul><ul><li>E-text (project Gutenberg) </li></ul><ul><li>Captioned film and videos </li></ul>
    31. 31. Using adaptive tech and other instructive stuff <ul><li>Access Provincial Resource Centre for the Visually Impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for reading—may be slower than classmates </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t talk to the blackboard!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Glossy paper and whiteboards are problems for low vision </li></ul><ul><li>Find forms of vigorous physical exercise for students. </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Pointing at things doesn’t work—describe whereabouts on 12-hour clock </li></ul><ul><li>Be conscious of “blinding” mannerisms </li></ul><ul><li>Call on child by name </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t under-estimate </li></ul>
    33. 33. Signs of Possible Hearing Problems <ul><li>Doesn’t turn to soft voice on first call </li></ul><ul><li>Isn’t alert to environmental sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t respond to sound or turn toward origin of sound </li></ul><ul><li>Speech sounds different from age peers </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t show consistent growth of understanding and use of words to communicate </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Seems consistently inattentive: says “what?” or “huh?” more often than other children </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstands verbal directions? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Deafness and Hearing Impairments <ul><li>Deaf —a culture, defined by its language, not by its audiological deficits. </li></ul><ul><li>Signed languages—signed culture </li></ul><ul><li>Likely schooled in separate programs whenever available </li></ul><ul><li>Some bi-bi (bilingual-bicultural) programs available throughout Canada </li></ul><ul><li>DEAF PEOPLE DO NOT REGARD THEMSELVES AS DISABLED. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Hearing Impaired <ul><li>Oral instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children taught speech and speech-reading from early age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of vestigial hearing emphasised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often will use assistive technology to augment hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FM, and soundfield systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cochlear implants </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Hearing Aids <ul><li>With young children, be sure that batteries are functioning and that aid is adjusted correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage use. If child seems reluctant, be sure that aid is adjusted correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise that ambient noise will not be filtered. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit noise levels. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Cochlear Implants <ul><li>Optimally implanted in young children </li></ul><ul><li>Child will need to learn to use hearing—this is not automatic in a child who is not born with full hearing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with technicians. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a cure-all for all children even if they are physically suitable for technology. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Cochlear Implants, cont’d. <ul><li>Again, ambient noise is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Extend the same courtesies as for a speech-reading situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person teaching child will emphasise his/her use of hearing, but your job is to teach. Encourage use of hearing, but make information available regardless. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. FM receiver <ul><li>Teacher wears transmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Child has receiver and earphones or headset to hear teacher’s speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Great if teacher remembers to turn device on & off (don’t broadcast snarky asides). </li></ul><ul><li>Great if earphones work. </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetically a bit problematic for kids. </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t hear rest of classmates. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Amplification Technology not always effective <ul><li>Hearing impairment is rarely the experience of total silence (it can be) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensorineural hearing loss as opposed to conductive hearing loss </li></ul><ul><li>Head noises </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives to auditory hearing (is this what Evelyn’s refusal to use hearing aids is about?) </li></ul>
    42. 42. Sign and its variants <ul><li>True sign—ASL, LSQ, LSF, etc., are real languages, with distinctive syntax, grammars, dialects, and vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Signed English (and similar variants) use the vocabulary and syntax of their language of origin—they are a sort of pidgin </li></ul><ul><li>“ Total communication”—a combination of a Signed English and speech </li></ul><ul><li>Cued speech </li></ul>
    43. 43. Signed Interpreter Courtesy <ul><li>Speak to person for whom the interpretation is provided, not the interpreter. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow time for replies </li></ul><ul><li>In a classroom indicate who in group is speaking </li></ul>
    44. 44. Other courtesies <ul><li>Gain attention by waving or sometimes slapping or rapping table top </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise that touch is more part of communication than is typical in hearing culture, but don’t touch without being visible </li></ul>
    45. 45. Speechreading <ul><li>Can be very developed </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy with a speech reader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your mouth visible (Well, Duh!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t stand in front of light sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t over-articulate (try too hard) </li></ul><ul><li>Speak normally </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t talk to the blackboard… </li></ul><ul><li>Use gesture and facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Stand close enough to be read </li></ul>
    46. 46. Classroom Issues <ul><li>Film—captioned is good, but only if student can read. </li></ul><ul><li>Slides likewise, and darkened room is a noncommunicative room for a student with limited hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Noisy classroom will limit hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up classroom so that student has option of seeing classmates. </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Check for student comprehension –ask what a student understood, not whether. What did you understand, not Did you understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Make as much information visible as possible—bulletin boards, binders, models,… </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for fatigue, and encourage (not allow) breaks. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Speech <ul><li>Students who have been born with impairment or lost hearing early may have significant speech difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise that speech impairment is not an indicator of lack of intelligence. Give student alternatives—print, type? </li></ul>
    49. 49. <ul><li>Collaborate with other professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of learning will need adaptation. </li></ul><ul><li>Gym will need some adaptation. </li></ul>