Class 3

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  • Good citizen: Note environmental responsibility
  • She’s had a couple of collages on the place of honour—the front bulletin board of the school.
  • Mantra: recognise and build on strengths
  • A process of systematic assessment and documentation identifies students with learning disabilities based on their
  • Level B and Level C
  • Note the importance of building on strengths
  • Note: Stuff to look out for: Depression, loss of efficacy --what are the effects, not of the LD but of three years of struggling and not getting it? What can be done for Nancy to address her dyslexia? This will depend to some extent on the reading program used by the Mission District. What can be done for Nancy to address her possible 2ary stuff?
  • Three areas of math verbal visual-motor conceptual
  • Emotional issues. Loss of sense of efficacy. Trust in system. Where does labelling fit in?
  • Class 3

    1. 1. LEARNING DISABILITIES WEEK 3 EPSE 317
    2. 2. <ul><li>http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid13847493001?bclid=6971547001&bctid=5543963001 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Auntie Liz’s Story Time: <ul><li>This is the story of Nancy, a delightful little girl who is just beginning Grade 4 at Stave Lake Elementary School in Mission, BC. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Stave Lake Elementary <ul><li>A small school, with a strong commitment to inclusive education. </li></ul><ul><li>A caring principal </li></ul><ul><li>A vice-principal with a background in special education </li></ul><ul><li>A resource room, </li></ul><ul><li>And access to the District Literacy Specialist, and the usual support professionals. </li></ul>
    5. 5. A Bit About Nancy <ul><li>She’s always been healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s popular with her classmates and has nice manners. </li></ul><ul><li>She likes listening to stories and understands what she hears. </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy has always been cheerful and cooperative but just lately that’s been changing… </li></ul>
    6. 6. Nancy’s Family <ul><li>Mom—Rebecca, works part-time as a receptionist in a dentist’s office. She reads to the kids and takes them to the library every week. </li></ul><ul><li>Dad—George, owns a garage in Mission. School was hard for him, but he managed to graduate and he’s done ok. </li></ul><ul><li>Kid sister--Julie—starting Grade 2 at Stave Lake. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always looked up to her big sister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nancy always was proud of her little sister, BUT: </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. A Problem <ul><li>At the end of last year, Julie read at a Grade 3 level. </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy can barely manage early Grade 1 pattern books. </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy doesn’t understand why her kid sister finds something she can’t do at all so very easy. </li></ul><ul><li>She’s unhappy; her parents are concerned. </li></ul>
    8. 8. At the end of last year, Nancy was assessed by the district psychologist, who found that she: <ul><li>Tested above average in intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Tested well above average in math skills </li></ul><ul><li>Read at a kindergarten entry level </li></ul><ul><li>Did not have any apparent disability in language processing or in visual processing </li></ul>
    9. 9. Nancy’s Grade Three teacher reported: <ul><li>Nancy tried hard to do well in school </li></ul><ul><li>She printed neatly, but was very slow at copying material from the blackboard and made lots of mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>She was very good at math and enjoyed math </li></ul><ul><li>She couldn’t spell or write a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>She was exceptionally good for her age at drawing and other art projects </li></ul>
    10. 10. What’s going on here? <ul><li>…form into groups of 4 </li></ul><ul><li>You have 5 minutes to share ideas, and then report back to the class. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Nancy’s problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions should we be asking about Nancy? </li></ul><ul><li>What is she good at? </li></ul>
    11. 11. BC Ministry of Education’s Definition of a Learning Disability: <ul><li>Learning disabilities refers to a number of disorders that may affect the acquisition, </li></ul><ul><li>organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information. </li></ul><ul><li>These disorders affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>As such, learning disabilities are distinct from global intellectual disabilities. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Or in other words, <ul><li>Learning disabilities affect specific abilities and leave others more or less intact. </li></ul><ul><li>They are in part a diagnosis of exclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>They are not explained by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lack of the opportunity to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some other disorder, such as a hearing or visual impairment, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second language status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global intellectual disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health or emotional issues </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Learning Disabilities can affect many different areas of learning <ul><li>Oral language (e.g., listening, speaking, understanding) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading, or dyslexia (e.g., decoding, phonetic knowledge, word recognition, comprehension). </li></ul><ul><li>Written language, or dysgraphia (e.g., spelling and written expression) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics, or dyscalculia (e.g., computation, problem solving) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities may also involve difficulties with organizational skills, social perception, social interaction and perspective taking. </li></ul>
    14. 14. More from the Min of Ed.: Students are identified as having a learning disability by “a process of systematic assessment and documentation…based on their: <ul><li>1. Persistent difficulty learning and </li></ul><ul><li>2. Average or above average cognitive ability and </li></ul><ul><li>3. Weaknesses in cognitive processing.” </li></ul>
    15. 15. Identification of LDs <ul><li>Varies from one district to another but must include: </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized assessment for formal diagnosis of learning disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Level B and Level C assessments must be conducted by appropriately qualified professionals who can interpret results considering the student’s opportunities for learning, learning patterns, approach to tasks and response to instruction. </li></ul>
    16. 16. --Level B? --Level C? <ul><li>A little about standardised testing, here: </li></ul><ul><li>The assumption with some tests (those published for use within large populations—countries, provinces, etc.) is that performance of a given student (or group of students) on them can be meaningfully compared to that of another, comparable individual or group. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Such tests require training for their administration and interpretation. <ul><li>The level of that training can fit into one of three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>A: minimal training (usually BEd, and use of manual.) </li></ul><ul><li>B: some specific training (SE certification or equivalent) </li></ul><ul><li>C: Specific training on test administration and theory and registration as psychologist or school psychologist. </li></ul>
    18. 18. What kinds of obstacles will the Grade 4 curriculum pose for Nancy? <ul><li>Back to groups… </li></ul><ul><li>5 minutes to brainstorm </li></ul>
    19. 19. Obstacles:
    20. 20. What will help Nancy to achieve the learning goals set for her grade? <ul><li>Brainstorm…feedback… </li></ul><ul><li>Note especially what Nancy’s strengths are and make use of them… </li></ul>
    21. 21. Finally <ul><li>Who will be responsible for the supports identified above? </li></ul><ul><li>What will successful supports look like? </li></ul>
    22. 22. What kind of LD does Nancy have? <ul><li>Dyslexia (why not dysgraphia?) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most commonly identified LDs. </li></ul>
    23. 23. About Dyslexia <ul><li>Once called “word blindness.” </li></ul><ul><li>In most cases originates in deficits in phonological processing ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to recognise and analyse sounds in speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurologically based. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid13847493001?bclid=6971547001&bctid=6801856001 </li></ul>
    25. 25. Nonverbal LDs
    26. 27. Nonverbal Learning Disability <ul><li>Refresher: Definition of LD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning disabilities refers to a number of disorders that may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information . These disorders affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or reasoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As such, learning disabilities are distinct from global intellectual disabilities. </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>NLD: Primary stuff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty reading social cues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical awkwardness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty using space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe associated with spatial perception? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language ability seems to deteriorate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts math </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Secondary Stuff <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Social exclusion </li></ul>
    29. 30. Other possibilities
    30. 31. Good news (maybe) <ul><li>You don’t have to diagnose… </li></ul><ul><li>Financial issues… </li></ul><ul><li>NLD won’t bring the district any money, so support may be limited </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s needs a high-level diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>DCD?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you put together an IEP that matches this? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. IEP <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record behaviour specialist’s involvement and its effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiotherapist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other clinicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement, other school reports </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Instruction should be primarily verbal <ul><li>Integrate verbal and visual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.do2learn.com/subscription/product_details/Faceland/video_Faceland2.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Try watching film clips with the sound off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe, explain, predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfGWPpPy0uw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach how to talk through an activity </li></ul>
    33. 34. Adapt environment <ul><li>Give more space and time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra places to keep stuff out of his desk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk through where stuff goes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Before I go home, I… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put my pencils in my pencil bag and then into my backpack </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put my books in my box unless I’m using them tonight in which case I </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put them in my backpack </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put paper in my binder and have Ms. Z (the aide) make sure they’re tidy… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 35. <ul><li>For kids with spatial and balance processing, it can be helpful to let them leave the room before their classmates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give an errand… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gym may need to be adapted—kids need exercise, but will not be good at team activities. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Reading comprehension=social comprehension? <ul><li>http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid46047440001?bclid=6310972001&bctid=5545012001 </li></ul>
    36. 37. Technology <ul><li>Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe even voice-recognition software </li></ul>
    37. 38. Positive Behaviour Support <ul><li>School-wide coaching re difference, and inclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>What to do if someone knocks you down…etc. </li></ul>
    38. 39. With any LD <ul><li>Discuss pros and cons of early identification (KG or grade 1). Groups—one pro and one con from each group. </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid13847493001?bclid=6971547001&bctid=5205385001 </li></ul>

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