The Comparative Method <ul><li>Reconstructing Pre-Historic Languages </li></ul>
Reconstruction of Pre-Historic Languages  depends on cognates English Dutch German Norwegian Lithuanian Celtic mother moed...
English “two” and Latin “duo” False Cognates: English “day” and Latin “dies” Cognates: similar words in two or more langua...
English “virtue” borrowed from Latin “virtus” Loan Word: A word borrowed from another language, not having the same ancest...
Regular Occurrences of Phonemes Unknown Proto-Language: m______r English m_____r German m_____r Latin m_____r
“ Regularity of Sound Correspondences” pes foot Latin English pater father caput heafod (Old English) pisces fish Proto-La...
A Complete Reconstruction From McWhorter, from Watkins Cognates: General Idea of Sister-in-Law Sanskrit snuṣaa Old English...
Initial Sound Easiest to postulate some languages lost an s rather than a few all coincidentally added an s Many other exa...
First Vowel Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, and Armenian all have u Regular Sound Correspondences: Slavic  ŭ  corresponds with San...
Next Consonant After u, Slavic has kh where older languages have s After u, Sanskrit s changes to ṣ Under certain conditio...
Final Reconstructed Proto-word snusos’
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Comparativemethod

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Comparativemethod

  1. 1. The Comparative Method <ul><li>Reconstructing Pre-Historic Languages </li></ul>
  2. 2. Reconstruction of Pre-Historic Languages depends on cognates English Dutch German Norwegian Lithuanian Celtic mother moeder mutter mor mater mathair Latin Italian Spanish French Sanskrit Greek mater madre madre mere matar meter
  3. 3. English “two” and Latin “duo” False Cognates: English “day” and Latin “dies” Cognates: similar words in two or more languages that have a common ancestor
  4. 4. English “virtue” borrowed from Latin “virtus” Loan Word: A word borrowed from another language, not having the same ancestor or root.
  5. 5. Regular Occurrences of Phonemes Unknown Proto-Language: m______r English m_____r German m_____r Latin m_____r
  6. 6. “ Regularity of Sound Correspondences” pes foot Latin English pater father caput heafod (Old English) pisces fish Proto-Language p Latin p; English f
  7. 7. A Complete Reconstruction From McWhorter, from Watkins Cognates: General Idea of Sister-in-Law Sanskrit snuṣaa Old English snoru Old Church Slavonic sn ŭ kha Russian snokha Latin nurus Greek nuos Armenian nu
  8. 8. Initial Sound Easiest to postulate some languages lost an s rather than a few all coincidentally added an s Many other examples of Greek, Latin and Armenian losing the s before an n Therefore, initial sounds in our Proto-Language word were sn
  9. 9. First Vowel Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, and Armenian all have u Regular Sound Correspondences: Slavic ŭ corresponds with Sanskrit u; Germanic u has evolved into Old English o Therefore, first vowel sound in Proto-Language word is u
  10. 10. Next Consonant After u, Slavic has kh where older languages have s After u, Sanskrit s changes to ṣ Under certain conditions, Latin s and Germanic s change to r (e.g., flos, floris; was, were) All point to earlier s
  11. 11. Final Reconstructed Proto-word snusos’
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