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# Scaffolding 2

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• ### Scaffolding 2

1. 1. SCAFFOLDING What is it? and How to do it ...
2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSWHAT IS SCAFFOLDED LITERACY?WHY IS IT NECESSARY?AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING (E.G. SCAFFOLDING READING,FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING (E.G. MINDMAPS, TABLES, CLOZE)EXAMPLESWHAT DEMANDS DOES SCAFFOLDING PLACE ON THETEACHER?CONCLUSION: WHAT TO KEEP IN MIND WHEN SCAFFOLDING
3. 3. LIST OF RELEVANT RESOURCESTHE FOLLOWING TWO RESOURCES PROVIDE A GOOD STARTINGPOINT TO INVESTIGATE WAYS IN WHICH MAINSTREAM CLASSROOMTEACHERS (AND TEACHERS IN TRAINING) CAN INCORPORATESCAFFOLDED LITERACY INTO CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES AND STUDENTSUPPORT.GIBBONS, P. (2002) SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDINGLEARNING : TEACHING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN THEMAINSTREAM CLASSROOM, PORTSMOUTH: HEINMANN.EMBRACING LITERACY, DOWNLOADABLE COPY AVAILABLE ATHTTP://HOMEPAGE.MAC.COM/EBRACE/LITERACY/STRATEGIES.HTM/ALL LOWER CASE, EXCEPT THAT THE “L” IN LITERACY AND THE “S” INSTRATEGIES MUST BE CAPITALISED.
4. 4. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?
5. 5. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?WHAT IT IS?
6. 6. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?WHAT IT IS?SCAFFOLDED LITERACYINVOLVES PROVIDINGRESOURCES THAT HELPSTUDENTS ACCESS ANDENGAGE IN THE LANGUAGEAND TEXT TYPES OF CLASS
7. 7. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?WHAT IT IS?SCAFFOLDED LITERACYINVOLVES PROVIDINGRESOURCES THAT HELPSTUDENTS ACCESS ANDENGAGE IN THE LANGUAGEAND TEXT TYPES OF CLASSGUIDES SO THAT ESLSTUDENTS MAKEPROGRESS TOWARDINDEPENDENT LANGUAGEUSE IN THE MAINSTREAMCLASSROOM.
8. 8. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?WHAT IT IS? WHAT IT ISN’T?SCAFFOLDED LITERACYINVOLVES PROVIDINGRESOURCES THAT HELPSTUDENTS ACCESS ANDENGAGE IN THE LANGUAGEAND TEXT TYPES OF CLASSGUIDES SO THAT ESLSTUDENTS MAKEPROGRESS TOWARDINDEPENDENT LANGUAGEUSE IN THE MAINSTREAMCLASSROOM.
9. 9. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?WHAT IT IS? WHAT IT ISN’T?SCAFFOLDED LITERACY IT IS NOT LANGUAGEINVOLVES PROVIDING GAMES, OR EXPLICITRESOURCES THAT HELP LEARNING OF PHONEMES,STUDENTS ACCESS AND PREFIXES, GRAMMAR, ETCENGAGE IN THE LANGUAGEAND TEXT TYPES OF CLASSGUIDES SO THAT ESLSTUDENTS MAKEPROGRESS TOWARDINDEPENDENT LANGUAGEUSE IN THE MAINSTREAMCLASSROOM.
10. 10. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?WHAT IT IS? WHAT IT ISN’T?SCAFFOLDED LITERACY IT IS NOT LANGUAGEINVOLVES PROVIDING GAMES, OR EXPLICITRESOURCES THAT HELP LEARNING OF PHONEMES,STUDENTS ACCESS AND PREFIXES, GRAMMAR, ETCENGAGE IN THE LANGUAGEAND TEXT TYPES OF CLASS IT IS NOT LEARNING THROUGHGUIDES SO THAT ESL CONVERSATIONALSTUDENTS MAKE IMMERSIONPROGRESS TOWARDINDEPENDENT LANGUAGEUSE IN THE MAINSTREAMCLASSROOM.
11. 11. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?WHAT IT IS? WHAT IT ISN’T?SCAFFOLDED LITERACY IT IS NOT LANGUAGEINVOLVES PROVIDING GAMES, OR EXPLICITRESOURCES THAT HELP LEARNING OF PHONEMES,STUDENTS ACCESS AND PREFIXES, GRAMMAR, ETCENGAGE IN THE LANGUAGEAND TEXT TYPES OF CLASS IT IS NOT LEARNING THROUGHGUIDES SO THAT ESL CONVERSATIONALSTUDENTS MAKE IMMERSIONPROGRESS TOWARDINDEPENDENT LANGUAGE IT IS NOT INSTRUCTIONUSE IN THE MAINSTREAM FOCUSING ONLY ONCLASSROOM. LANGUAGE
12. 12. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING? WHAT IT IS? WHAT IT ISN’T? SCAFFOLDED LITERACY IT IS NOT LANGUAGE INVOLVES PROVIDING GAMES, OR EXPLICIT RESOURCES THAT HELP LEARNING OF PHONEMES, STUDENTS ACCESS AND PREFIXES, GRAMMAR, ETC ENGAGE IN THE LANGUAGE AND TEXT TYPES OF CLASS IT IS NOT LEARNING THROUGH GUIDES SO THAT ESL CONVERSATIONAL STUDENTS MAKE IMMERSION PROGRESS TOWARD INDEPENDENT LANGUAGE IT IS NOT INSTRUCTION USE IN THE MAINSTREAM FOCUSING ONLY ON CLASSROOM. LANGUAGEMULTIPLE APPROACHES ARE REQUIRED FOR LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
13. 13. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVESMODELING THEPRACTICES ANDPROCESSES TO THE“UNINITIATED”TEACHING INVOLVESPROVIDING SCAFFOLDEDACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
14. 14. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVES JOINTMODELING THE CONSTRUCTIONPRACTICES ANDPROCESSES TO THE“UNINITIATED”TEACHING INVOLVESPROVIDING SCAFFOLDEDACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
15. 15. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVESMODELING THEPRACTICES ANDPROCESSES TO THE“UNINITIATED”TEACHING INVOLVESPROVIDING SCAFFOLDEDACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
16. 16. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVES MODELINGMODELING THEPRACTICES ANDPROCESSES TO THE“UNINITIATED”TEACHING INVOLVESPROVIDING SCAFFOLDEDACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
17. 17. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVES MODELINGMODELING THEPRACTICES AND GUIDEDPROCESSES TO THE“UNINITIATED” CONSTRUCTIONTEACHING INVOLVESPROVIDING SCAFFOLDEDACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
18. 18. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVES MODELINGMODELING THEPRACTICES ANDPROCESSES TO THE“UNINITIATED”TEACHING INVOLVESPROVIDING SCAFFOLDEDACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
19. 19. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVES MODELINGMODELING THEPRACTICES ANDPROCESSES TO THE SCAFFOLDING“UNINITIATED”TEACHING INVOLVESPROVIDING SCAFFOLDEDACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
20. 20. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?TEACHING INVOLVESINITIATING ANINDIVIDUAL INTO ASERIES OF PRACTICESTEACHING INVOLVES MODELINGMODELING THEPRACTICES ANDPROCESSES TO THE SCAFFOLDING“UNINITIATED”TEACHING INVOLVES INDEPENDENTPROVIDING SCAFFOLDED CONSTRUCTIONACTIVITIES SO STUDENTSCAN BEGIN TO NOTICETHE PATTERNS INCONTENT AND IN THELEARNING PROCESS.
21. 21. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO EXPLORE TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE WORDS AND TO SUPPORT READING CONCEPTS TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
22. 22. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO EXPLORE TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE WORDS AND TO SUPPORT READING CONCEPTS TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
23. 23. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
24. 24. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
25. 25. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
26. 26. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE AND SEQUENCE TO SUPPORT READING KNOWLEDGE TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
27. 27. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
28. 28. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
29. 29. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
30. 30. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE TO GUIDE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
31. 31. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
32. 32. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
33. 33. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO PLAN, TO ORGANISE PREPARE and KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING STRUCTURE TO GUIDE WRITING WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
34. 34. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
35. 35. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
36. 36. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
37. 37. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE TO GUIDE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING LISTENING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
38. 38. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
39. 39. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
40. 40. AREAS OF SCAFFOLDING TO EXPLORE WORDS/ CONCEPTS TO ORGANISE KNOWLEDGE TO SUPPORT READING TO GUIDE WRITING TO SCAFFOLD LISTENING* SEE SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING LEARNING BY PAULINE GIBBONS
41. 41. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS CLOZE MINDMAPS GUIDING EXERCISES QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
42. 42. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS CLOZE MINDMAPS GUIDING EXERCISES QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
43. 43. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
44. 44. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS TABLES and MINDMAPSINFORMATION GUIDING GRIDS QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
45. 45. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
46. 46. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
47. 47. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
48. 48. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
49. 49. FORMS OF Characteristic 2 SCAFFOLDING Characteristic 1 CLOZE EXERCISES Characteristic 3 TABLES AND Example Group 1 Example GRIDS MINDMAPS Example Example GUIDING Characteristic 1 Characteristic 1 Classification QUESTIONSCharacteristic 1 Group 2 Group 3 COLUMNED Characteristic 1 Characteristic 1 Characteristic 1 NOTES Example Example * SEE EMBRACING LITERACY
50. 50. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
51. 51. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS GUIDING MINDMAPSQUESTIONS and GUIDINGSTUDY GUIDES QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
52. 52. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
53. 53. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
54. 54. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS COLUMNED MINDMAPS GUIDING GUIDES QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
55. 55. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
56. 56. ESSAY FORMS OFEssay Topic:Essay Question Justice How has media unfairly portrayed particular groups? SCAFFOLDING INTRODUCTIONDefine the general concept Define the central topic(s) raised in the question CLOZE EXERCISESThesis Statement: Brief statement of your main argument in the essayOrientation / Outline: Points you will make in the essay that will satisfy your argument TABLES AND FIRST BODYFirst Topic : Portrayal of women GRIDSFirst Topic Statement: Woman are portrayed unfairly. They are portrayed according to social expectations, whether this is family or beauty expectation.General and background - images of the housewife ! image of the skinny model MINDMAPSfeatures/ details / ideas:Specific evidence: A statistic or a particular TV show, or ad or newspaper articleSignificance of the point: and how it contributes to your argument GUIDING SECOND BODYSecond Topic : Portrayal of religious minorities QUESTIONSSecond Topic Statement: Religious minorities are unjustly portrayed as not share the same values and beliefs as Australian. This broad generalization gives a wrong impression of a diverse group in the community COLUMNEDGeneral and background In Australia – in Americafeatures/ details / ideas:Specific evidence: Haneef – how has this been exaggerated: viewed as guilty, and NOTES the media presented him as a terrorist. Significance of the point: and how it contributes to your argument THIRD BODYThird Topic : Portrayal of disabled minorities* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
57. 57. FORMS OF SCAFFOLDING CLOZE EXERCISES TABLES AND GRIDS MINDMAPS GUIDING QUESTIONS COLUMNED NOTES* SEE EMBRACINGLITERACY
58. 58. COMPREHENDING AND Gorillas in Crisis RESPONDING TO A TEXT By Kathleen Donovan-SnavelyWhat will you have for supper tonight? Hotdogs? Pizza? Gorilla? It may surprise you toknow that these “gentle creatures of the jungle” regularly appear as the featured entrée at A TEXTmany a meal served near the African rainforest. That isn’t the only problem that hauntsgorillas lately. The combined threats posed by hunters, loggers, and disease are eliminatinglarge numbers of gorillas in central and West Africa. The future of gorillas in the wild is atrisk. MAP TO RECORD1. DETAILSGorilla meat is a dietary staple for nearly 12 million people who live near the rainforests ofcentral and West Africa. Some Africans prefer bush meat, such as gorilla, because itprovides an economical source of daily protein. Poor families without the means topurchase food at the market travel a short distance to the rainforest to get bush meat. Their MAP TOonly expense is the cost of ammunition and the fee to rent a gun. Some of these samefamilies raise chickens and goats, but do not eat them. Instead, they sell the animals for thecash they need for buying supplies. Africa’s population is increasing rapidly, along with its SUMMARISEdemand for bush meat. If nothing changes, primatologists fear that gorillas may becomeextinct in the next thirty years. CAUSE AND EFFECT2.Moving away from one’s childhood home sometimes leaves us longing for familiar placesand traditions. Naturally, the African families who move away from their originalrainforest homes struggle with these feelings of sadness and displacement. Now living in QUESTIONS TOvillages and cities, they eat bush meat to feel closer to the past and to their old way of life.For them, gorilla feeds the body and the soul as well. This custom brings little comfort toendangered gorillas, whose females produce only one offspring every five to seven years. It SKIM FOR FACTSis easy to see why gorillas are being killed faster than they can reproduce.3.While Africans plunder the gorilla population, they are not the only ones. Over the years, AND DRAWtheir European neighbors have developed a taste for exotic bush meat as a status symbol.Trophy hunters value gorillas for their collectable heads and hands. Finally, some hunterspersist in the decades-long practice of trapping young gorillas to sell to zoos and private CONCLUSIONScitizens across the world. When mature members of the gorilla troop try to defend aninfant, hunters shoot to preserve their prize. Entire troops of gorillas have perished thisway. The international gorilla trade continues even though it is illegal, since the laws arenearly impossible to enforce. Gorilla populations continue to decline. LETTER RESPONSE WRITTEN AS A CLOZE EXERCISE
59. 59. COMPREHENDING AND Gorillas in Crisis RESPONDING TO A TEXT By Kathleen Donovan-SnavelyWhat will you have for supper tonight? Hotdogs? Pizza? Gorilla? It may surprise you toknow that these “gentle creatures of the jungle” regularly appear as the featured entrée at A TEXTmany a meal served near the African rainforest. That isn’t the only problem that hauntsgorillas lately. The combined threats posed by hunters, loggers, and disease are eliminatinglarge numbers of gorillas in central and West Africa. The future of gorillas in the wild is atrisk. MAP TO RECORD1. DETAILSGorilla meat is a dietary staple for nearly 12 million people who live near the rainforests ofcentral and West Africa. Some Africans prefer bush meat, such as gorilla, because itprovides an economical source of daily protein. Poor families without the means topurchase food at the market travel a short distance to the rainforest to get bush meat. Their MAP TOonly expense is the cost of ammunition and the fee to rent a gun. Some of these samefamilies raise chickens and goats, but do not eat them. Instead, they sell the animals for thecash they need for buying supplies. Africa’s population is increasing rapidly, along with its SUMMARISEdemand for bush meat. If nothing changes, primatologists fear that gorillas may becomeextinct in the next thirty years. CAUSE AND EFFECT2.Moving away from one’s childhood home sometimes leaves us longing for familiar placesand traditions. Naturally, the African families who move away from their originalrainforest homes struggle with these feelings of sadness and displacement. Now living in QUESTIONS TOvillages and cities, they eat bush meat to feel closer to the past and to their old way of life.For them, gorilla feeds the body and the soul as well. This custom brings little comfort toendangered gorillas, whose females produce only one offspring every five to seven years. It SKIM FOR FACTSis easy to see why gorillas are being killed faster than they can reproduce.3.While Africans plunder the gorilla population, they are not the only ones. Over the years, AND DRAWtheir European neighbors have developed a taste for exotic bush meat as a status symbol.Trophy hunters value gorillas for their collectable heads and hands. Finally, some hunterspersist in the decades-long practice of trapping young gorillas to sell to zoos and private CONCLUSIONScitizens across the world. When mature members of the gorilla troop try to defend aninfant, hunters shoot to preserve their prize. Entire troops of gorillas have perished thisway. The international gorilla trade continues even though it is illegal, since the laws arenearly impossible to enforce. Gorilla populations continue to decline. LETTER RESPONSE WRITTEN AS A CLOZE EXERCISE
60. 60. COMPREHENDING AND RESPONDING TO A TEXT Sample Fishbone Map A TEXT MAP TO RECORD d foo as ing high in protein DETAILS rill kill for bush meat for s ch go lla as hunters infect gorillas oa ri rt rill go sp economical po go kill for trophies government can’t ex ls se kil protect gorillas ill rea ns sick gorillas sk accidental killings while at war MAP TO ola ea inc more people while stealing infants infect other gorillas an Eb rop r need more food ric for zoos Wa Eu Af x z | ~ Root Directly and indirectly, SUMMARISEffect Cause humans kill gorillas. CAUSE AND EFFECTorillas may y { destroy habitat } Mi Af a t Af a tr Lo and food miners bring an increase inecome extinct. comfort food i ric s p ad ni nin gg i a bush meat hunting QUESTIONS TO g an ar iti e s gor ers gor g gi ns rt tio se o n nc logging roads indilllas i ea f homesick r rea t b the help poachers a ire s ie bu t i se se SKIM FOR FACTS us ir c ctll sh sp y me kil oa i ea ac ll ch t ing AND DRAW CONCLUSIONS Copyright 2003 IRA/NCTE. All rights reserved. ReadWriteThink LETTER RESPONSE materials may be reproduced for educational purposes. WRITTEN AS A CLOZE EXERCISE
61. 61. COMPREHENDING ANDRESPONDING TO A TEXT A TEXT MAP TO RECORD DETAILS MAP TO SUMMARISE CAUSE AND EFFECT QUESTIONS TO SKIM FOR FACTS AND DRAW CONCLUSIONS LETTER RESPONSE WRITTEN AS A CLOZE EXERCISE
62. 62. COMPREHENDING ANDRESPONDING TO A TEXT A TEXT MAP TO RECORD DETAILS MAP TO SUMMARISE CAUSE AND EFFECT QUESTIONS TO SKIM FOR FACTS AND DRAW CONCLUSIONS LETTER RESPONSE WRITTEN AS A CLOZE EXERCISE
63. 63. COMPREHENDING ANDRESPONDING TO A TEXT A TEXT MAP TO RECORD DETAILS MAP TO SUMMARISE CAUSE AND EFFECT QUESTIONS TO SKIM FOR FACTS AND DRAW CONCLUSIONS LETTER RESPONSE WRITTEN AS A CLOZE EXERCISE
64. 64. PREPARING TOAN ANNOTATED WRITE ATEXT REVIEWA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FORGUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDETO WRITING AREVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF
65. 65. PREPARING TOAN ANNOTATED WRITE ATEXT REVIEWA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FORGUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDETO WRITING AREVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF
66. 66. PREPARING TOAN ANNOTATED WRITE ATEXT REVIEWA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FORGUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDETO WRITING AREVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF
67. 67. PREPARING TOAN ANNOTATED WRITE ATEXT REVIEWA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FORGUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDETO WRITING AREVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF
68. 68. PREPARING TOAN ANNOTATED WRITE ATEXT REVIEWA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FORGUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDETO WRITING AREVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF
69. 69. PREPARING TOAN ANNOTATED WRITE ATEXT REVIEWA WORD BANK TOGATHER SUITABLEWORDS ANDPHRASESMINDMAP FORGUIDEDEXPLORATIONCOLUMNED GUIDETO WRITING AREVIEW COULD INCLUDE A CLOZE EXERCISE (IF
70. 70. WHAT IT REQUIRES FROM THE TEACHER?SCAFFOLDING REQUIRES THAT TEACHERS REFLECT UPON BOTHTHE FEATURES OF DIFFERENT TEXTS AND THE WAYS HOW WEREAD OR HOW WE WRITE THEM).SCAFFOLDING REQUIRES THAT TEACHERS INDICATE CONCEPTUALCATEGORIES AND SEQUENCES THAT ARE INVOLVED IN PARTICULARSUBJECTS, IN WAYS OF THINKING OR IN THE USE OF WORDS.SCAFFOLDING REQUIRES THAT TEACHERS EITHER SELECT ORCREATE APPROPRIATE SCAFFOLDS TO GUIDE STUDENTS TO WORKINDEPENDENTLY WITHIN THEIR SKILL AREA.SCAFFOLDING REQUIRES TEACHERS TO USE DIFFERENTSCAFFOLDS BASED UPON THE SKILLS OF THE STUDENT AND HIS/HER STAGE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.
71. 71. WHAT TO KEEP IN MINDSCAFFOLDING IS A WAY IN WHICH A TEACHER CAN GUIDE A STUDENTWHILST STILL ALLOWING THE STUDENT TO WORK INDEPENDENTLY.IN A SCAFFOLD, A TEACHER MAKES EXPLICIT CERTAIN UNDERLYINGSTRUCTURES, SEQUENCES AND (PLANNING) PROCESSES THAT ASTUDENT MAY NOT BE AWARE OF.SCAFFOLDS ALLOW A TEACHER TO FOCUS ON ONE SKILL AT A TIME.FOR EXAMPLE, A CLOZE EXERCISE MAY EMPHASISE THE USE OFADJECTIVES OR THE APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE FOR LETTER WRITING.ULTIMATELY, A SCAFFOLD ALLOWS A STUDENT TO WORK WITHIN ASET OF PARAMETERS WITH WHICH HE/SHE IS COMFORTABLE.AS TIME GOES ON, THE SCAFFOLDS BECOME LESS STRUCTURED ANDSTUDENTS PRODUCES SELF-GENERATED TEXT OR NOTES.
72. 72. LIST OF RELEVANT RESOURCESTHE FOLLOWING TWO RESOURCES PROVIDE A GOOD STARTINGPOINT TO INVESTIGATE WAYS IN WHICH MAINSTREAM CLASSROOMTEACHERS CAN INCORPORATE SCAFFOLDED LITERACY INTOCLASSROOM ACTIVITIES AND STUDENT SUPPORT.GIBBONS, P. (2002) SCAFFOLDING LANGUAGE, SCAFFOLDING :TEACHING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN THE MAINSTREAMCLASSROOM, PORTSMOUTH: HEINMANN.EMBRACING LITERACY, DOWNLOADABLE COPY AVAILABLE ATHTTP://HOMEPAGE.MAC.COM/EBRACE/LITERACY/STRATEGIES.HTM/ALL LOWER CASE, EXCEPT THAT THE “L” IN LITERACY AND THE “S”IN STRATEGIES MUST BE CAPITALISED.
73. 73. THANK YOU