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• ### Esl scales 2

1. 1. ESL SCALESAN OVERVIEW OF THE RESOURCE
2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSI. LIST OF RELEVANT READINGII. HISTORY OF THE ESL SCALESIII. THE RATIONALE FOR THE ESL SCALESIV. THE SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF THE SCALESV. INVESTIGATION OF THE SCALESVI. APPLICATION OF THE SCALESVII. CONCLUSION
3. 3. LIST OF RELEVANT RESOURCESTHIS PRESENTATION IS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SCALES. IENCOURAGE YOU TO ACCESS A COPY OF THE FULL SCALES.CURRICULUM CORPORATION (1994) THE ESL SCALESWEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.CURRICULUMPRESS.EDU.AU/
4. 4. HISTORY OF THE ESL SCALESIN 1989, THE AUSTRALIAN EDUCATION COUNCIL (AEC) WERE REVISINGGUIDELINES FOR EIGHT CURRICULUM AREAS, INCLUDING ENGLISH,HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION, SCIENCES AND MORE.IN 1992, THE CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT COMMITTEE (CURASS)OF AEC DECIDED TO SUPPLEMENT THE EIGHT CURRICULUM AREASWITH A SET OF SCALES TO RECORD THE PROGRESS OF STUDENTSLEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL).IN 1994, THE CURRICULUM CORPORATION PUBLISHED WHAT IS NOWKNOWN AS THE ESL SCALES, WHICH ARE AN EFFECTIVE GUIDE FORBOTH ESL AND MAINSTREAM CLASSROOM TEACHERS.
5. 5. RATIONALE OF THE SCALES1. THE PURPOSE OF THE ESL SCALES IS TO: 1.1. PROVIDE A SET OF BENCHMARKS AGAINST WHICH THE FULL RANGE OF ESL LEARNERS’ ACHIEVEMENTS IN ENGLISH MAY BE SET; 1.2.ASSIST TEACHERS IN MAKING CONSISTENT AND INFORMED JUDGEMENTS; 1.3.HELP IN IDENTIFYING ESL LEARNERS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND THEIR NEEDS SO AS TO ASSIST PROGRAM AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT2. THE SCALES HELP TEACHERS IDENTIFY ESL STUDENTS’ PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT IN LISTENING, SPEAKING , READING AND WRITING.
6. 6. SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF THE SCALES1. THE SCALES FOCUS ON THREE CORE SKILL AREAS: 1.1. ORAL INTERACTION (SPEAKING AND LISTENING) 1.2.READING AND RESPONDING 1.3.WRITING2. IN EACH AREA, THERE ARE GUIDELINES FOR: 2.1. COMMUNICATION SKILLS 2.2. LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING 2.3. UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURES AND FEATURES 2.4. STUDENT’S USE OF STRATEGIES
7. 7. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
8. 8. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
9. 9. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
10. 10. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
11. 11. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
12. 12. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
13. 13. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
14. 14. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
15. 15. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
16. 16. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
17. 17. LANGUAGE STRUCTURES ANDFEATURES REFERS TOSTUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OFCONVENTIONAL STRUCTURES OFWORDS, SENTENCES AND TEXTSSTRATEGIES DOES NOT REFERSTO TEACHING STRATEGIES. ITREFERS TO STUDENT’S EFFECTIVEUSE OF STRATEGIES IN READING,WRITING, SPEAKING ANDLISTENINGCOMMUNICATION REFERS TOSTUDENT’S ABILITY TO EXPRESSHIM OR HERSELF IN THE GIVENSKILL AREALANGUAGE AND CULTUREUNDERSTANDING REFERS TO THEDEGREE TO WHICH A STUDENTDEMONSTRATES AN AWARENESSOF SOCIAL NUANCES ANDCONTEXTS OF LANGUAGE USE. OUTCOMES PAGES
18. 18. EACH LEVEL INCLUDES ASTATEMENT PAGE. THESTATEMENT PAGES GIVES ANOVERARCHING VIEW OF THESKILLS A STUDENT SHOULDHAVE IF HE/SHE IS AT THIS LEVELAN OUTCOME OVERVIEW PAGEFOLLOWS THE STATEMENT PAGE.IT PROVIDE THE GENERALOUTCOMES FOR THE SKILLAREAS AT THAT LEVEL.A MORE DETAILED ACCOUNT OFOUTCOMES FOLLOWS THESEGENERAL PAGES. THESTATEMENT AND OUTCOMEOVERVIEW PAGES ARE HELPFULIN GUIDING THE TEACHERSOBSERVATIONS. STATEMENT PAGES
19. 19. EACH LEVEL INCLUDES ASTATEMENT PAGE. THESTATEMENT PAGES GIVES ANOVERARCHING VIEW OF THESKILLS A STUDENT SHOULDHAVE IF HE/SHE IS AT THIS LEVELAN OUTCOME OVERVIEW PAGEFOLLOWS THE STATEMENT PAGE.IT PROVIDE THE GENERALOUTCOMES FOR THE SKILLAREAS AT THAT LEVEL.A MORE DETAILED ACCOUNT OFOUTCOMES FOLLOWS THESEGENERAL PAGES. THESTATEMENT AND OUTCOMEOVERVIEW PAGES ARE HELPFULIN GUIDING THE TEACHERSOBSERVATIONS. STATEMENT PAGES
20. 20. EACH LEVEL INCLUDES ASTATEMENT PAGE. THESTATEMENT PAGES GIVES ANOVERARCHING VIEW OF THESKILLS A STUDENT SHOULDHAVE IF HE/SHE IS AT THIS LEVELAN OUTCOME OVERVIEW PAGEFOLLOWS THE STATEMENT PAGE.IT PROVIDE THE GENERALOUTCOMES FOR THE SKILLAREAS AT THAT LEVEL.A MORE DETAILED ACCOUNT OFOUTCOMES FOLLOWS THESEGENERAL PAGES. THESTATEMENT AND OUTCOMEOVERVIEW PAGES ARE HELPFULIN GUIDING THE TEACHERSOBSERVATIONS. STATEMENT PAGES
21. 21. EACH LEVEL INCLUDES ASTATEMENT PAGE. THESTATEMENT PAGES GIVES ANOVERARCHING VIEW OF THESKILLS A STUDENT SHOULDHAVE IF HE/SHE IS AT THIS LEVELAN OUTCOME OVERVIEW PAGEFOLLOWS THE STATEMENT PAGE.IT PROVIDE THE GENERALOUTCOMES FOR THE SKILLAREAS AT THAT LEVEL.A MORE DETAILED ACCOUNT OFOUTCOMES FOLLOWS THESEGENERAL PAGES. THESTATEMENT AND OUTCOMEOVERVIEW PAGES ARE HELPFULIN GUIDING THE TEACHERSOBSERVATIONS. STATEMENT PAGES
22. 22. EACH LEVEL INCLUDES ASTATEMENT PAGE. THESTATEMENT PAGES GIVES ANOVERARCHING VIEW OF THESKILLS A STUDENT SHOULDHAVE IF HE/SHE IS AT THIS LEVELAN OUTCOME OVERVIEW PAGEFOLLOWS THE STATEMENT PAGE.IT PROVIDE THE GENERALOUTCOMES FOR THE SKILLAREAS AT THAT LEVEL.A MORE DETAILED ACCOUNT OFOUTCOMES FOLLOWS THESEGENERAL PAGES. THESTATEMENT AND OUTCOMEOVERVIEW PAGES ARE HELPFULIN GUIDING THE TEACHERSOBSERVATIONS. STATEMENT PAGES
23. 23. EACH LEVEL INCLUDES ASTATEMENT PAGE. THESTATEMENT PAGES GIVES ANOVERARCHING VIEW OF THESKILLS A STUDENT SHOULDHAVE IF HE/SHE IS AT THIS LEVELAN OUTCOME OVERVIEW PAGEFOLLOWS THE STATEMENT PAGE.IT PROVIDE THE GENERALOUTCOMES FOR THE SKILLAREAS AT THAT LEVEL.A MORE DETAILED ACCOUNT OFOUTCOMES FOLLOWS THESEGENERAL PAGES. THESTATEMENT AND OUTCOMEOVERVIEW PAGES ARE HELPFULIN GUIDING THE TEACHERSOBSERVATIONS. STATEMENT PAGES
24. 24. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
25. 25. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
26. 26. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
27. 27. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
28. 28. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
29. 29. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
30. 30. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
31. 31. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
32. 32. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
33. 33. AT EVERY LEVEL AND IN EACHSKILL AREA, THERE IS ADETAILED ACCOUNT OF THEEVIDENCE/CRITERIA REQUIRED IFA STUDENT IS TO MEET THISLEVEL.YOU WILL NOTICE THAT THEEVIDENCE IS VERY PRACTICAL(“CAN FOLLOW SIMPLEINSTRUCTIONS, RELYING ON KEYWORDS AND CONTEXT”)BY ASSESSING A STUDENTTHROUGH THESE CRITERIA, YOUWILL BE BETTER ABLE TODISCUSS A STUDENT WITHEXPERIENCED ESL TEACHERS.TOGETHER YOU AND THE ESLTEACHER CAN DEVELOP LESSONSWHICH TARGET STUDENT’SNEEDS WHILST ACKNOWLEDGINGSTRENGTHS.DETAILED OUTCOME PAGES
34. 34. Supporting ReadingRefugee Action Support Tutor Training27 February 2009
35. 35. Communication:
36. 36. Communication:• LEVEL 1: Gains and shares meaning from hearing andreading short simple texts in structured reading activities
37. 37. Communication:• LEVEL 1: Gains and shares meaning from hearing andreading short simple texts in structured reading activities• LEVEL 2: Reads with understanding short texts based onsimple language structures, familiar vocabulary and familiarcontexts
38. 38. Communication:• LEVEL 1: Gains and shares meaning from hearing andreading short simple texts in structured reading activities• LEVEL 2: Reads with understanding short texts based onsimple language structures, familiar vocabulary and familiarcontexts• LEVEL 3:Reads with understanding and learns from controlledfamiliar and unfamiliar texts containing predictable structuresand familiar vocabulary
39. 39. Communication:• LEVEL 1: Gains and shares meaning from hearing andreading short simple texts in structured reading activities• LEVEL 2: Reads with understanding short texts based onsimple language structures, familiar vocabulary and familiarcontexts• LEVEL 3:Reads with understanding and learns from controlledfamiliar and unfamiliar texts containing predictable structuresand familiar vocabulary• LEVEL 4: Reads for a range of purposes and identifies mainideas and specific information in simple texts.
40. 40. Communication:• LEVEL 1: Gains and shares meaning from hearing andreading short simple texts in structured reading activities• LEVEL 2: Reads with understanding short texts based onsimple language structures, familiar vocabulary and familiarcontexts• LEVEL 3:Reads with understanding and learns from controlledfamiliar and unfamiliar texts containing predictable structuresand familiar vocabulary• LEVEL 4: Reads for a range of purposes and identifies mainideas and specific information in simple texts.• LEVEL 6: Reads with understanding a range of more complex,authentic texts for varying purposes, making justifiableinterpretations beyond the literal level.
41. 41. Language structures and features:
42. 42. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Reads simple texts, using a small repertoire of sightwords and knowledge of basic sound/symbol relationships
43. 43. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Reads simple texts, using a small repertoire of sightwords and knowledge of basic sound/symbol relationships• LEVEL 2: Reads texts using knowledge of basic conventionsof print, a developing sight and oral vocabulary and a developingknowledge of structures of English
44. 44. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Reads simple texts, using a small repertoire of sightwords and knowledge of basic sound/symbol relationships• LEVEL 2: Reads texts using knowledge of basic conventionsof print, a developing sight and oral vocabulary and a developingknowledge of structures of English• LEVEL 3: Interprets simple texts by recognising key words thatconnect ideas and by also attending key organisational andlanguage features of text types.
45. 45. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Reads simple texts, using a small repertoire of sightwords and knowledge of basic sound/symbol relationships• LEVEL 2: Reads texts using knowledge of basic conventionsof print, a developing sight and oral vocabulary and a developingknowledge of structures of English• LEVEL 3: Interprets simple texts by recognising key words thatconnect ideas and by also attending key organisational andlanguage features of text types.• LEVEL 6: Appraises texts by attending to the specific uses,forms and features of various text types
46. 46. Strategies:
47. 47. Strategies:• LEVEL 1: Relies on code-breaking strategies, structuredreading activities (e.g. shared reading) and illustrations to gainmeaning from texts
48. 48. Strategies:• LEVEL 1: Relies on code-breaking strategies, structuredreading activities (e.g. shared reading) and illustrations to gainmeaning from texts• LEVEL 2: Uses support from modeled language and otherresources (e.g. dictionaries and thesaurus) to read in English.
49. 49. Strategies:• LEVEL 1: Relies on code-breaking strategies, structuredreading activities (e.g. shared reading) and illustrations to gainmeaning from texts• LEVEL 2: Uses support from modeled language and otherresources (e.g. dictionaries and thesaurus) to read in English.• LEVEL 5: Applies basic text access strategies to enhancecomprehension (formulates questions to help identifyinformation, asks others for clarification)
50. 50. Strategies:• LEVEL 1: Relies on code-breaking strategies, structuredreading activities (e.g. shared reading) and illustrations to gainmeaning from texts• LEVEL 2: Uses support from modeled language and otherresources (e.g. dictionaries and thesaurus) to read in English.• LEVEL 5: Applies basic text access strategies to enhancecomprehension (formulates questions to help identifyinformation, asks others for clarification)• LEVEL 6: Selects reading strategies appropriate to the natureof text and task
51. 51. Supporting WritingRefugee Action Support Tutor Training27 February 2009
52. 52. Communication:
53. 53. Communication:• LEVEL B1: Communicates messages throughsymbols, drawings or attempts at writing
54. 54. Communication:• LEVEL B1: Communicates messages throughsymbols, drawings or attempts at writing• LEVEL 2: Communicates ideas, events andexperiences through simple texts based on familiarspoken and written language
55. 55. Communication:• LEVEL B1: Communicates messages throughsymbols, drawings or attempts at writing• LEVEL 2: Communicates ideas, events andexperiences through simple texts based on familiarspoken and written language• LEVEL 3: Communicates on a number of familiartopics through writing simple creative andinformational texts in response to classroom demands
56. 56. Communication:• LEVEL B1: Communicates messages throughsymbols, drawings or attempts at writing• LEVEL 2: Communicates ideas, events andexperiences through simple texts based on familiarspoken and written language• LEVEL 3: Communicates on a number of familiartopics through writing simple creative andinformational texts in response to classroom demands• LEVEL 4: Communicates on a range of familiartopics and incorporates language and ideas drawnfrom different sources in the varying demands of theclassroom
57. 57. Communication:• LEVEL B1: Communicates messages throughsymbols, drawings or attempts at writing• LEVEL 2: Communicates ideas, events andexperiences through simple texts based on familiarspoken and written language• LEVEL 3: Communicates on a number of familiartopics through writing simple creative andinformational texts in response to classroom demands• LEVEL 4: Communicates on a range of familiartopics and incorporates language and ideas drawnfrom different sources in the varying demands of theclassroom• LEVEL 6: Communicates on a range of topics byemploying a variety of well-known text types
58. 58. Language structures and features:
59. 59. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Writes and copies simple short texts,showing some knowledge of basic conventions ofwritten English
60. 60. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Writes and copies simple short texts,showing some knowledge of basic conventions ofwritten English• LEVEL 2: Writes simple coherent texts using basicsentence structures that incorporate features oflearned oral and written English
61. 61. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Writes and copies simple short texts,showing some knowledge of basic conventions ofwritten English• LEVEL 2: Writes simple coherent texts using basicsentence structures that incorporate features oflearned oral and written English• LEVEL 4: Writes a variety of texts, demonstratingsome overall cohesion and coherence
62. 62. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Writes and copies simple short texts,showing some knowledge of basic conventions ofwritten English• LEVEL 2: Writes simple coherent texts using basicsentence structures that incorporate features oflearned oral and written English• LEVEL 4: Writes a variety of texts, demonstratingsome overall cohesion and coherence• LEVEL 5: Writes a number of coherent texts,demonstrating some flexibility and control over keyorganisational and language features
63. 63. Language structures and features:• LEVEL 1: Writes and copies simple short texts,showing some knowledge of basic conventions ofwritten English• LEVEL 2: Writes simple coherent texts using basicsentence structures that incorporate features oflearned oral and written English• LEVEL 4: Writes a variety of texts, demonstratingsome overall cohesion and coherence• LEVEL 5: Writes a number of coherent texts,demonstrating some flexibility and control over keyorganisational and language features• LEVEL 7: Writes a number of complex textscharacterised by a personal style showingconsistent control over textual features
64. 64. Strategies:
65. 65. • LEVEL 1: Use a range of basic strategies toStrategies: compensate for a limited knowledge of English and of writing (e.g. using drawings or illustrations to communicate, lists useful words before writing, translate between first language and English using a suitable dictionary)
66. 66. • LEVEL 1: Use a range of basic strategies toStrategies: compensate for a limited knowledge of English and of writing (e.g. using drawings or illustrations to communicate, lists useful words before writing, translate between first language and English using a suitable dictionary) • LEVEL 2: Use a variety of basic writing strategies to create a coherent text (e.g. use repeated formulae for text types, rewrite after conferencing with the teacher, continue writing on same topic and/ or text type to practice expression)
67. 67. • LEVEL 1: Use a range of basic strategies toStrategies: compensate for a limited knowledge of English and of writing (e.g. using drawings or illustrations to communicate, lists useful words before writing, translate between first language and English using a suitable dictionary) • LEVEL 2: Use a variety of basic writing strategies to create a coherent text (e.g. use repeated formulae for text types, rewrite after conferencing with the teacher, continue writing on same topic and/ or text type to practice expression) • LEVEL 3: Draws on knowledge of the writing process to plan, write and redraft texts
68. 68. • LEVEL 1: Use a range of basic strategies toStrategies: compensate for a limited knowledge of English and of writing (e.g. using drawings or illustrations to communicate, lists useful words before writing, translate between first language and English using a suitable dictionary) • LEVEL 2: Use a variety of basic writing strategies to create a coherent text (e.g. use repeated formulae for text types, rewrite after conferencing with the teacher, continue writing on same topic and/ or text type to practice expression) • LEVEL 3: Draws on knowledge of the writing process to plan, write and redraft texts • LEVEL 4: Makes use of discussion and reflection to enhance the writing process
69. 69. • LEVEL 1: Use a range of basic strategies toStrategies: compensate for a limited knowledge of English and of writing (e.g. using drawings or illustrations to communicate, lists useful words before writing, translate between first language and English using a suitable dictionary) • LEVEL 2: Use a variety of basic writing strategies to create a coherent text (e.g. use repeated formulae for text types, rewrite after conferencing with the teacher, continue writing on same topic and/ or text type to practice expression) • LEVEL 3: Draws on knowledge of the writing process to plan, write and redraft texts • LEVEL 4: Makes use of discussion and reflection to enhance the writing process • LEVEL 5: Focuses on planning and editing writing to improve expression
70. 70. APPLYING THE SCALES SAMPLE STUDENT #1 AREA GENERAL SPECIFIC LEVEL - understands unfamiliar topics in familiar language; - understands teacher’s questions on familiar topics; communicates in predictable social situations - participates in casual exchanges with peers in English; oral - demonstrates awareness of basic registers for formal - answers simple open-ended questions (how and whyinteraction and informal situations questions) 4 - incorporates English into own oral repertoire from a - uses language acquired from new sources (excursions, range of oral and written sources. conversations, and from reading) - reads with understanding and learns from controlled - modiﬁes intonation to differentiate questions, familiar and unfamiliar texts that use familiar vocab; exclamation and dialogue when reading aloud;reading and - understands that written English differs from spoken - compares and contrasts in simple ways, characters orresponding English events in different stories; 3 - cues into text organisation; and uses vocabulary - shows an understanding of simple word order (can knowledge to make sense of unfamiliar texts reorder words from a jumbled sequence) - communicates on a number of familiar topics - plans the format of a text according to its intended through writing simple creative and informative texts communicative purpose in response to classroom demands; - discusses the impact of different text formats (poster) writing - awareness of common formats required in class - writes identiﬁable paragraph topic sentences 3 - draws on knowledge of the writing process to plan, - writes ﬁrst draft, focusing on meaning rather than write and redraft texts. (strategy) accuracy. (strategy)
71. 71. APPLYING THE SCALES SAMPLE STUDENT #2 AREA GENERAL SPECIFIC LEVEL - follows simple instructions relying on key words and - communicates verbally and non-verbally in routine context oral social and classroom situations, using learnt formulae - indicates non-comprehension, verbally or non-verballyinteraction and well-rehearsed patterns - tunes into particulars sounds of English (rhyming) 2 - shows an understanding of simpliﬁed English and - relies on assistance of a friend to interpret or uses short utterances elaborate - gains and shares meaning from hearing and reading - reads words from familiar contexts (home & school) short simple texts in structured reading activities; - engages in short reading activities based on simplereading and - reads simple texts, using a small repertoire of sight factual or ﬁctional textsresponding words and knowledge basic sounds; - identiﬁes where a sentences begins and ends 1 - relies on code-breaking strategies, structured - reads with or slightly after the teacher reading activities, and illustrations to gain meaning. - guesses some familiar words from initial letters. - communicates using drawings or illustrations - communicates simple messages for classroom - labels pictures with words learnt in class purposes using copied text and well-rehearsed - can write in ﬁrst language writing language - writes short copied texts 1 - uses a range of basic strategies to compensate for a - uses some basics punctuation limited knowledge of English and of writing in English. - asks for translations into English from ﬁrst language.
72. 72. TO THE LEFT IS A BRIEF EXAMPLEOF HOW TO MATCH THE ESLSCALES WITH EXPECTEDACHIEVEMENT IN THE ENGLISHCLASSROOM. IF A STUDENT IS IN YEAR 5 AND IS AT ESL SCALE LEVEL 6, THEN THE STUDENT’S LANGUAGE SKILLS ARE CONSISTENT WITH THE SYLLABUS EXPECTATIONS. HOWEVER, THIS IS NOT OFTEN THE CASE WITH NEW ARRIVAL STUDENTS. A STUDENT WHO IS IN YEAR 8 MAY BE AT LEVEL 3 OF THE ESL SCALES.IT IS IMPORTANT THAT ESLTEACHERS RECOGNISE ANDWORK WITHIN THE LEVEL OF THESTUDENT. ESL SCALES AND THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM
73. 73. CONCLUSIONTHE ESL SCALES ARE EFFECTIVE GUIDELINES THAT HELP TEACHERSASSESS STUDENTS’ DEVELOPMENT IN ENGLISH SKILLS INLISTENING, SPEAKING, READING AND WRITING. THE SCALES AREDIFFERENT THAN CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT TOOLS WHICH MAYTEND TO FOCUS ON CONTENT KNOWLEDGE.STUDENTS MAY DEMONSTRATE UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT. THEY MAYEXHIBIT A HIGHER LEVEL OF ORAL INTERACTION THAN WRITTENSKILLS, OR VISA VERSA. THIS IS VALUABLE KNOWLEDGE WHENPLANNING PROGRAMING FOR ESL STUDENTS.THE SCALES ALLOW FOR A COMMON LANGUAGE BETWEEN (ESL)TEACHERS WHO CAN CREATE INDIVIDUAL LEARNING PLANS BASEDON THEIR OBSERVATIONS.
74. 74. LIST OF RELEVANT RESOURCESTHIS PRESENTATION IS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SCALES. IENCOURAGE YOU TO ACCESS A COPY OF THE FULL SCALES.IF YOU ARE CURRENTLY TEACHING ESL STUDENTS, I RECOMMENDYOU PRACTICE USING THE SCALES TO GUIDE YOUR OBSERVATIONS.CURRICULUM CORPORATION (1994) THE ESL SCALESWEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.CURRICULUMPRESS.EDU.AU/
75. 75. THANK YOU