Text complexity ocra 10.5.13


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This is a presentation given by Dr. Erica Bowers for the Orange County Reading Association fall conference on Text Complexity.

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Text complexity ocra 10.5.13

  1. 1. Text Complexity The What, the Why, and the How Orange County Reading Association October 5, 2013
  2. 2. Approaches to Reading Instruction: A quick history lesson 1500’s 1800’s McGuffey Third Reader, Junior High Level A leveled reader
  3. 3. Text Complexity- A quick history lesson 1930’s Dick and Jane A basal reader- whole word reading approach Basal Readers 1960’s-70’s Adapted text 1980’s-90’s Whole Language Child derives the text
  4. 4. Text Complexity- A quick history lesson 1990’s-2000’s Guided Reading 2000’s-2013 Anthology’s and Scripted Instruction 2014 Common Core Implementation Exemplar Texts Type of instruction?
  5. 5. Why is Text Complexity Important?
  6. 6. The Common Core brings a renewed focus on Text-Complexity Common Core and Fundamental Shifts Writefrom Sources Build Knowledgein theDisciplines
  7. 7. CCSS Standard 10-Text Complexity
  8. 8. What makes this difficult? Or is it?
  9. 9. WHAT IS IT? Text Complexity
  10. 10. Elements of Text Complexity
  11. 11. Quantitative Elements of Text The quantitative element of text complexity refers to factors of text that are easier for a computer to assess; • word length or frequency, • sentence length, • and text cohesion.
  12. 12. How do most readability formulas determine the quantitative aspect of text? – Number of syllables in words – Number of words in sentences The dog ran home. The frisky puppy scampered toward the moss covered colonial mansion. Quantitative Elements of Text
  13. 13. How to Check Readability in Word • What would you predict is the readability (Flesch- Kincaid) level of this passage? – 14.2
  14. 14. What is the Readability Level of this Passage?
  15. 15. Ways to calculate the Quantitative element Other Methods: • Scholastic- you can use book wizard http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/ • Lexile- you can use the lexile analyzer http://www.lexile.com/analyzer/ Flesch-Kincaid: • In Word 2010, click on File • Click on Options • Click on Proofing • Select, “show readability statistics”
  16. 16. Common Core Lexile Levels
  17. 17. Qualitative Elements of Text • What are other reasons this text might be considered difficult?
  18. 18. The qualitative element of text refers to factors best assessed by a human; • Levels of meaning (literary) or purpose (informational)- surface or deeper levels • Structure- simple vs complex; i.e., sequential order vs flashbacks; simple graphics vs complex • Language conventionality and clarity- simple vs complex; conversational language vs figurative Qualitative Elements of Text
  19. 19. Qualitative Elements continued • Visual device demands- types of graphics used • And knowledge demands- does the reader have the background experiences to relate to the text?
  20. 20. This is a Grade 9-10 exemplar from the CCSS. How would you assess it qualitatively? • Levels of meaning or purpose, • Structure, • Language conventionality and clarity, • Visual device demands, • And knowledge demands Qualitative Elements of Text
  21. 21. Reader/Task Considerations Reader considerations: • Cognitive capabilities- analytical ability, inferencing, visualization • Motivation- purpose, interest, self-efficacy • Knowledge- vocabulary and topic, comprehension strategies • Experiences
  22. 22. Reader/Task Considerations continued Task considerations: • The reader’s purpose – Skimming – Studying • The intended outcome – Increase in knowledge – A solution to some real-world problem (driver’s test) – Engagement with the text (reading for pleasure)
  23. 23. Things to Consider… Heibert, E. (2013). Supporting students’ movement up the staircase of text complexity. The Reading Teacher, 66(6).
  24. 24. Types of Texts? Genres? Appendix A & B of the CCSS • http://www.corestandards.org/ELA- Literacy/introduction/how-to-read-the-standards Media Text: • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/relativit y-and-the-cosmos.html
  25. 25. Literature Informational Text Stories Dramas Poetry Literary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical Texts Includes children’s adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and myth Includes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenes Includes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poem Includes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics English Language Arts Standards » Standard 10: Range, Quality, & Complexity » Range of Text Types for K-5 Students in K–5 apply the Reading standards to the following range of text types, with texts selected from a broad range of cultures and periods.
  26. 26. Grades 6-12
  27. 27. Let’s Try it! We’ll use the 3 elements Volcano! Ben Franklin
  28. 28. Let’s Try it! We’ll use the 3 elements Volcano! • Quantitative: Lexile level 750L (450-790 is Grade 2-3) Ben Franklin: His Wit and Wisdom from A-Z • Quantitative: Lexile level 820L (770-980 is Grade 4-5) Quantitative Elements first: • word length or frequency, • sentence length, • and text cohesion.
  29. 29. Evaluating text using the three elements of text complexity Volcano! • Purpose- informational- straight forward message • Structure- common informational text structure; easy to read graphic, supplemental to understanding • Language- moderate with regard to vocab; clear • Visual device- maps (depends on student and grade) • Knowledge demands- moderate Ben Franklin • Purpose- informational- explicit purpose • Structure- not a common format, pictures aid in understanding • Language- difficult with regard to vocab. Format is also unconventional. • Visual device- no graphs or charts • Knowledge demands- moderate Qualitative Elements second: • Levels of meaning or purpose, • Structure, • Language conventionality and clarity, • Visual device demands, • And knowledge demands
  30. 30. Evaluating text using the three elements of text complexity Volcano! • Appropriate for a reader who can comprehend explicit grade 3 text. • Needs a student who is interested in informational text, particularly science and other peoples. • Reader needs some knowledge of maps, the topic and comprehension strategies (sequential order, cause and effect). • The reader would needs some background knowledge of earthquakes, people from other lands… Ben Franklin • Appropriate for a reader who can comprehend grade 4-5 text. • Needs a student who is interested in history and new word meanings and where words and sayings derive from. • Reader needs some knowledge of how to follow unfamiliar text structure and comprehension strategies (using context). • The reader would need some background knowledge of US Presidents, the Revolutionary War, and colonial times. Reader Elements third: • Cognitive capabilities • Motivation • Knowledge • Experiences You Teach: • Third Graders • Some are below grade level • Some are on grade level • Some are language learners • Some are English Only • A few have been assessed as gifted
  31. 31. Evaluating text using the three elements of text complexity Task Elements third: • The reader’s purpose • The intended outcome For both books: • You would like to use for guided reading • You want to focus on comprehension of informational text, sequencing in particular.
  32. 32. So, which book do you choose? • Would you only select one? OR • Could you choose both, but use them for different purposes?
  33. 33. Resources for Text Complexity and the CCSS Can be found in iTunes- Common Core State Standards app  On the Ca Dept of Ed website: http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/cc/ The Common Core State Standards website: http://www.corestandards.org/resources