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1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
1001331 2nd lecture
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1001331 2nd lecture

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  • 1. The FemaleReproductive System 2ND Lecture
  • 2. Female Reproductive System Lesson Overview: Reproductive Anatomy The Menstrual Cycle Treating Pre- menstrual Syndrome dr.Shaban
  • 3. Anatomy and Physiology The female reproductive system consists of external and internal structures and organs. Function of Female Reproductive System -Produces sex hormones and functional ova -Protects and supports developing embryo -Nourishes newborn infant dr.Shaban
  • 4. External Sex Organs Vulva – entire female region of external sex organs Mons pubis -protective, fatty cushion over the pubic bone; -covered with pubic hair Vestibule. consists of the clitoris, urethral meatus, and the vaginal introitus. Labia Majora outer lips; tissue folds from mons to perineum surrounding the rest of the female genitals; Labia Minora inner lips; pink tissue folds between vestibule and labia majora; no hair; many oil glands; dr.Shaban
  • 5. External Sex Organs- Cont. The clitoris is a short erectile organ at the top of the vaginal vestibule whose function is sexual excitation (analogous to the penis). The urethral meatus is the opening of the urethra. The vaginal introitus is the vaginal entrance Perineum. This is the skin covered muscular area between the vaginal opening (introitus) and the anus. It aids in constricting the urinary, vaginal, and anal opening. It also helps support the pelvic contents. Bartholins Glands. The Bartholins glands lie on either side of the vaginal opening. They produce a mucoid substance, which provides lubrication for intercourse. Fourchette: Trauma provides forensic evidence in rape trials. dr.Shaban
  • 6. dr.Shaban
  • 7. The hymen Separate external organ from internal A membrane covered by stratified squamous epithelium on both sides that partially closes the vaginal orifice. Congenitally, it may have no opening (imperforate hymen), also rarely it may be absent. The shape and size of the openings vary. It is torn with the first sexual intercourse (unless the opening is unusually large or the hymen is elastic). dr.Shaban
  • 8. The Breasts The breasts are also part of the external female reproductive system. Their external structure include the nipple, areola (darker area around the nipples) and Montgomery tubercles (glands that produce a lubricant to keep the nipple soft and supple). Primary function: Lactation Influence of hormones (Estrogen-develop. of breasts , Progesterone-secretion of milk) Sucking stimulates pituitary gland to release prolactin (begin milk synthesis) and oxytocin (release of milk) dr.Shaban
  • 9. Prolactin:Source: AnteriorPituitary Targets & Functions: Breasts Stimulates alveoli of breasts to produce milk dr.Shaban
  • 10. Internal Female StructuresVagina.Uterus.Cervix (lower portion of uterus).Fallopian tubes.Ovaries. dr.Shaban
  • 11. Internal Structures: Vagina Elastic, thin-walled muscular accordion-like tube; 3-4 inches long (7.5–9 cm )Opening is the vaginal orifice covered by the hymen to the cervixpH is 3.5 – 4.5 restricts growth of pathogentilted back; Posterior to the bladder/Anterior to the rectumFunction: Receives penis & semen and serves as birth canal & passage for menstrual flow. dr.Shaban
  • 12. Internal Sex Organs Uterus – 1-inch thick walls, 3 inches long, 2 inches wide ;hollow, muscular organ between the bladder and rectum; Normally anteverted anteflexed 3 uterine wall layers: Perimetrium ; Myometrium ; Endometrium The major portion of the uterus is called the body or corpus. The fundus is the superior, rounded region above the entrance of the fallopian tubes. The cervix is the narrow, inferior outlet that protrudes into the vagina. Os – opening leading into the uterus The isthmus is the slightly constricted portion that joins the corpus to the cervix. dr.Shaban
  • 13. Function: Provides passageway for sperm,receives blastocyst, retains & nourishes fetus& expells fetus at term. Uterus dr.Shaban
  • 14. Fallopian Tubes Two 4-inch (8 to 13 cm ) length that extend from the sides of the uterus and curve up to and around the ovaries Infundibulum – has fimbriae finger-like projections at the distal end surrounding the ovaries to collect an egg upon release Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria that beat in waves hundreds of times a second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it through the tube to the uterine cavity (takes 3–4 days) . dr.Shaban
  • 15. Function: Passageway for oocyte and site of fertilization. Uterine Tubes dr.Shaban
  • 16. The Ovaries The female sex glands Are small, almond- shaped organs: near lateral walls of pelvic cavity 5 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, 8mm thick  Male Homolog = testes Function: Produce oocytes (ova) & the hormones estrogen and progesterone. dr.Shaban
  • 17. Estrogen: Sources: Maturing Follicles & Corpus Luteum Targets & Functions: Body in general • Stimulates the development of female secondary sexual chs Uterus • Stimulates proliferative phase of uterine cycle Ovaries • Promotes oogenesis Breasts • Stimulates development of milk ducts and sinuses Anterior Pituitary • Stimulates release of LH dr.Shaban
  • 18. Progesterone:  Source: Corpus Luteum & Placenta Targets & Functions: Females - Uterus • Maintains thickened endometrium • Stimulates nutrient release Females - BreastsCorpus luteum • Stimulates development of alveoli for milk production Females - Anterior Pituitary • Inhibits production & release of FSH & LH dr.Shaban
  • 19. Oxytocin: Sources: Manufactured by hypothalamus. Stored & released by Posterior Pituitary Positive Feedback Mechanisms: 1. Childbirth - Stretching of uterus and cervix 2. Suckling - Milk letdown reflex Targets & Functions: Uterus • Stimulates contraction of uterine myometrium causing lowering of fetus & labor Breasts • Stimulates contraction of milk ducts and sinuses, releasing milk dr.Shaban
  • 20. Puberty Is the stage at which the individual first becomes capable of sexual reproduction A girl has entered puberty when she begins to menstruate A Boy enters puberty when he begins to produce spermatozoa Puberty occur between 11-14 years Puberty lasts about 3 to 5 years Begins when pituitary gland initiates release of FSH and LH, which increases the ovaries production of estrogen; Pelvis widens; Pubic hair grows; Menarche occurs during this time, although it may be a few months before or after ovulationdr.Shaban begins
  • 21. Menstruation Menstruation – uterine lining is shed if no pregnancy; tissue and blood exit the introitus Four body structures are involved in physiology of MP: Hypothalamus; Ovaries; Pituitary glands; and Uterus Menstrual cycle has four phases: Follicular phase Ovulation phase Luteal phase Menstrual phase dr.Shaban
  • 22. Normal menstrual cycle Beginning  Average age of (menarche ) onset 12 or 13 , average range is 9-17 years Interval between  Average 28 days cycles , cycles between 23-35 not unusual dr.Shaban
  • 23.  Duration of  2-7 days , but menstrual flow range from 1-9 days not Amount of abnormal menstrual flow  From 30 – 80 ml per menstrual Color of menstrual flow  Dark red , combination of blood , mucus , and endiometrical cells dr.Shaban
  • 24. dr.Shaban
  • 25. Menstrual Cycle Days 6 - 13 Preovulatory Phase This is known as the proliferative phase and/or follicular phase. A drop in progesterone and estrogen stimulates the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary. FSH stimulates the maturation of an ovum with graafian follicle. The growing follicle becomes a temporary endocrine gland, secreting increasing amounts of estrogen which inhibits FSH production in the pituitary. The follicular phase: During the follicular phase, a certain number of follicles start to grow, and usually only one succeeds to continue through the pre- ovulatory follicle stage. dr.Shaban
  • 26. Menstrual Cycle Day 14 Ovulation Again, day 14 is only an average; ovulation occurs anywhere from 12 – 16 days before the next menstrual flow. When estrogen levels reach their peak, the pituitary releases a surge of LH, the release of LH increases causing a release of the ovum, which is known as ovulation. The LH surge signals the onset of ovulation within 12 to 24 hours. Signs of Ovulation -Increase in body temperature -Changes in cervical mucus -Cervix softens -Some women will experience slight pain dr.Shaban
  • 27. Menstrual Cycle Days 15 - 28 Postovulatory Phase This phase is also called the luteal or secretory phase because the cells of the follicle remain in the ovary, renamed the “corpus luteum,” where they will produce large amounts of progesterone under the effects of high levels of LH Progesterone inhibits release of LH from the pituitary gland and further prepares the endometrial lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg.Corpus luteum translated means “yellow body.” > This structure forms after the egg is expelled from the follicle. >If pregnancy does not occur it will degenerate. dr.Shaban
  • 28. Menstrual Cycle Days 1-5 Menses phase.A lack of signal from a fertilized egg influences the drop in estrogen and progesterone production.A drop in progesterone results in the sloughing off of the thick endometrial lining which is the menstrual flow.Menstrual phase – endometrial buildup is expelled through uterine contractions for 3-7 days; volume of menses is about 50 ml blood dr.Shaban
  • 29. Menstrual Cycle: In Summry Follicular phase Egg matures Ovulation Egg released Luteal phase Corpus luteum Endometrium Prep for blastocyst No Pregnancy Menses dr.Shaban
  • 30. dr.Shaban
  • 31. Menstrual Problems – Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) 3 to 14 days prior to the menstrual period, during the postovulatory/luteal phase, and are relieved by onset of the menses. Experienced by one-third to one-half of women between 20 and 50. Symptoms include weight gain, irritability, mood swings, edema, headache, inability to concentrate, food cravings, acne, and many others. Can be alleviated by pharmacological interventions, diet, and exercise, Eat „real‟ food! Eliminate „junk‟ food (caffeine, soda, alcohol, processed foods, sugar), Decrease salt intake to relieve bloating and edema. dr.Shaban
  • 32. Amenorrhea Absence of menstruation. Can be primary or secondary. Primary amenorrhea defined as absence of menstruation by age of 17. Can be related to anatomical or genetic abnormalities. Secondary amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual flow in a woman who has had previous menstrual periods, may result from nutritional deficits (anorexia nervosa), excessive exercise, emotional disturbances, endocrine dysfunction, side effects of medication, pregnancy, and lactation. dr.Shaban
  • 33. Dysmenorrhea Painful menstruation, also called “menstrual cramps,” is more common in nulliparous women and in women who are not having intercourse. S&S Painful abdominal cramping, backaches, headaches, feeling bloated and nausea Management. NSAIDS (nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs). Analgesia (aspirin mild prostaglandin inhibitor ; Adequate rest and sleep and regular exercise, showers and heating pad. dr.Shaban
  • 34. MenorrhagiaExcessive bleeding during a menstrual period Either in terms of the amount of blood lost or the number of days that bleeding lasts Hormonal disturbances, infections, and growths inside the uterus can cause menorrhagia Excessive bleeding for an extended period of time can cause a woman to become anemic from the chronic blood loss dr.Shaban
  • 35. Metrorrhagia Is bleeding between menstrual period Its normal in some adolescence whose spotting at the time of ovulation It may occur in client on oral contraceptive drugs Vaginal irritation from infection may cause mid cycle spotting low level of progesterone production and endometrial sloughing dr.Shaban
  • 36. Inflammatory Disorders: Toxic Shock Syndrome A condition most often associated with Staphylococcus aureus, which enters the bloodstream. A strong relationship found between the use of tampons during menstruation and the onset of TSS symptoms. Symptoms include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and progressive hypotension (flu-like symptoms). TSS can lead to death if not treated properly. dr.Shaban
  • 37. Infections Non-sexually transmitted infections can occur Bartholin‟s glands Urinary tract May be due to poor hygiene practices and/or frequent intercourse Treated by draining infected gland (if necessary) and use of antibiotics Douches change the vaginal pH level and can increase risk of infection dr.Shaban
  • 38. Care of Female Reproductive Organs Wash outer genitalia regularly and thoroughly Don‟t use feminine hygiene spray Go to a doctor if infection Don‟t use douches Change pads and tampons regularly during menstruation Genital self-exams are recommended for women to be familiar with their genitals and any possible abnormalities Routine gynecological examinations recommended once menstruating dr.Shaban
  • 39. In case of fertilization At time of ovulation, the cervical mucous becomes less viscous and providing channels for sperms passage. The sperms ascent through the uterine cavity and Fallopian tubes to reach the site of fertilization in the ampulla The ovum leaves the ovary after rupture of the Graafian follicle, the ovum is picked up by the fimbrial end of the Fallopian tubes and moved towards the ampulla After penetration of the ovum by a sperm, resistant to penetration by another sperms occur dr.Shaban
  • 40. Sex Determination: Ovum usually fertilized within 12 hours of ovulation, however sperm remain alive for up to 72 hours within the female genital tract. The moment the sperm penetrates the egg is called conception, creating a new and separate cell called the Zygote. The mature ovum carries 22 autosomes and one X chromosome, while the mature sperm carries 22 autosomes and either an X or Y chromosome. If the fertilizing sperm is carrying X chromosome the baby will be a female (46 XX), if it is carrying Y chromosome the baby will be a male (46 XY). dr.Shaban
  • 41. Fraternal (dizygotic) twins: Two separate ovafertilized by two different spermIdentical (monozygotic) twins: Single fertilized ovum dr.Shaban
  • 42. Human Development before Implementation On its way to the uterine cavity, the fertilized ovum (zygote) divides into 2,4,8 then 16 cells (blastomeres). This cleavage starts within 24 hours of fertilization and occurs nearly every 12 hours repeatedly The resultant 16 cells mass is called morula which reaches the uterine cavity after about 4 days from fertilization. dr.Shaban
  • 43. dr.Shaban
  • 44. Implantation• Process of blastocyst • Three cell layers are adhering to the uterine formed: wall. Slow process – Ectoderm occurring 5 - 9 days after • brain, nerves, skin the beginning of – Mesoderm fertilization. • cartilage, muscle,• Trophoblast cells produce blood vessels, enzymes that allow heart, kidneys blastocyst to burrow into – Endoderm: endometrium. • digestive tract,• Trophoblast cells secrete respiratory tree, hCG. liver, pancreas dr.Shaban
  • 45. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG): Source: Trophoblasts of blastocyst & Chorion (effects similar to LH). Target & Functions: Corpus Luteum • Maintains corpus luteum & causes it to continue producing progesterone in the absence of LH through first four months of pregnancy till placenta produces sufficient estrogen & progesterone to maintain the pregnancy • This maintains endometrium, prevents menstruation • Can be detected by week 3 with a home pregnancy test (Basis of pregnancy dr.Shaban test).
  • 46. In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Fertilized ovum introduced into the uterus (fertilization to implantation (7days) Preembryonic period  First 14 days of human development starting at the time of fertilization Embryonic period Beginning of the third week through approximately 8 weeks Fetal period  From 9 weeks until birth (at approximately 40 weeks after the last normal menstrual period). dr.Shaban
  • 47. Preembryonic Development Bone Formation dr.Shaban
  • 48. ‫- ‪Stages of Human Development‬‬ ‫‪Prenatal‬‬‫‪ Zygote‬‬ ‫‪ ‬قال تثارك ٔ تعانى: "ٔ نقد خهقُا اإلَساٌ يٍ سالنة يٍ‬ ‫طيٍ (21) ثى جعهُاِ َطفة في قرار يكيٍ (31) ثى خهقُا‬‫‪ Morula‬‬ ‫انُطفة علقة فخهقُا انعهقة مضغة فخهقُا انًضغة عظاما‬ ‫فكسَٕا انعظاو لحما ثى أَشأَاِ خلقا آخر، فتثارك اهلل‬‫‪ Blastocyst‬‬ ‫أحسٍ انخانقيٍ (41).‬ ‫‪ ‬قال انثياٌ انقرآَي: يا أيٓا انُاس إٌ كُتى في رية يٍ‬‫‪ Embryo‬‬ ‫انثعث فإَا خهقُاكى يٍ تراب ثى يٍ َطفة ثى يٍ علقة ثى‬‫‪ Fetus‬‬ ‫يٍ مضغة يخهقة ٔغير يخهقة نُثيٍ نكى َٔقر في األرحاو‬ ‫يا َشاء إنى أجم يسًى (انحج :5)‬ ‫‪ ‬قال انرسٕل صهى اهلل عهيّ ٔسهى: "إذا ير تانُطفة اثُتاٌ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ٔأرتعٌٕ نيهة تعث اهلل إنيٓا يه ًا فصٕرْا، ٔخهق سًعٓا‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ٔتصرْا ٔجهدْا ٔنحًٓا ٔعظايٓا، ثى قال: يا ر ّ أذكر‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أو أَثى؟" صحيح يسهى‬ ‫‪dr.Shaban‬‬

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