Evaluating learning resources

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Evaluating learning resources

  1. 1. Evaluating Learning Resources<br />Elvira B. Lapuz<br />Librarian<br />University of the Philippines Diliman<br />Elvira.lapuz@gmail.com<br />
  2. 2. Service center<br />Reading center<br />Guidance center<br />Material production center<br />Teaching-learning center<br />(DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998)<br />The School Library<br />
  3. 3. Library as a physical entity <br />Includes various formats (print and non-print) <br />Supports school goals, supports curriculum needs and reflects student interests <br />reflects the values and attitudes of the community towards education <br />provides access to human and material resources in local/global community <br />is managed and maintained <br />is only one element of the library program<br />The school library collection <br />
  4. 4. <ul><li>FictionEasy reading and picture books, novels
  5. 5. Non-fictionInformation books in various formats
  6. 6. ReferenceEncyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, almanacs and indexes
  7. 7. Vertical (Information) FilesNewspaper and magazine clippings, brochures and pamphlets
  8. 8. Periodicals (Magazines)Currents issues, back issues and periodical indexes
  9. 9. NewspapersDaily, weekly, special focus newspapers </li></ul>Print resources may include: <br />
  10. 10. Electronic FormatsComputer software, CD-ROMs, Online resources<br />AV materialsVideos, CDs/cassettes, slides, filmstrips, transparencies, maps, posters, graphics, games <br />AV EquipmentComputers and printers, TV, CD/DVD players, overhead projectors, slide and filmstrip projectors, CD/cassette players, cable TV, phone lines, video recorders <br />Other EquipmentLaminators, photocopiers<br />Non-print resources may include: <br />
  11. 11. Developing and Managing theSchool Library Learning Resources<br />Selection and acquisition of resources<br />Organization (cataloging, indexing)<br />Access provision and circulation<br />Maintenance and preservation<br />
  12. 12. COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES<br />Needs assessment<br />Formulating Collection Development policies<br />Selection<br />Acquisitions <br />De-selection/weeding<br />Evaluation of the collection<br />
  13. 13. Identifying/knowing your community<br />Data gathering on what kind of information is needed<br />Gathering data through patron inputs<br />Consideration of wants, needs, use and demand<br />Needs assessment<br />
  14. 14. A written statement of the plan to develop collection in the library media center<br />a prerequisite to maintaining a useful materials collection <br />should be developed for the library staff, the library board, the governing organization, and the patrons of the library <br />Also termed interchangeably as selection policies or acquisitions policies<br />COLLECTION DEVELOPMENT POLICY FOR SCHOOL LIBRARY MEDIA CENTER<br />
  15. 15. Uses of a Collection Development Policy<br />It informs everyone about the nature and scope of the collection<br />It informs everyone of collecting priorities<br />It forces thinking about organizational priorities for the collection<br />It generates some degree of commitment to meeting organizations goals<br />It sets standards for inclusion and exclusion<br />It reduces the influence of a single selector and personal biases<br />It provides a training and orientation tool for the new staff<br />It helps ensure a degree of consistency overtime and regardless of staff turnover<br />It guides staff in handling complaints<br />It aids in weeding and evaluating the collection<br />It aids in rationalizing budget allocations<br />It provides a public relations document<br />It provides a means of assessing overall performance of the collection development program<br />It provides outsiders with information about the purpose of collection development (an accountability tool)<br />
  16. 16. DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />Policies and programs for school library development<br />
  17. 17. SECTION 1 : importance of the library, functions and use of materials<br />SECTION 2 : the library as service center, reading center, guidance center, materials production center and teaching-learning center<br />SECTION 3 : establishment of a library<br />DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />
  18. 18. SECTION 4: School libraries should procure basic print supplementary materials, in addition to adequate copies of textbooks and teachers’ manuals, in accordance with the Guidelines on Supplementary Materials Intended for Public Elementary and Secondary Schools<br />DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />
  19. 19. Inclosure 1 to DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />SECTION 4 Library Collections<br />4.1 General references<br />Encyclopedia – 1 set (for elementary) and 1 set (for secondary)<br />Dictionary – 1 English-Filipino, 1 Filipino-English<br />1 English (Unabridged)<br /> 1 Dialect (secondary) <br />
  20. 20. SECTION 4 Library Collections<br />4.1 General references<br />Atlas – 2 (1) Philippine (1) world)<br />Almanac 2 (1) Philippine (1) world<br />Globe – 1<br />Maps – 3 (1) Philippine (1) world (1) Asia<br />Inclosure 1 to DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />
  21. 21. Inclosure 1 to DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />SECTION 4 Library Collections<br />Additional books for elementary schools<br />Supplementary readers in English and Filipino which may be utilized for remediation, reinforcement, or enrichment of skills developed using the basic textbooks<br />Additional books for secondary schools<br />Book of Knowledge, Thesaurus, Philippine Yearbook, Book of Facts, Handbooks, Manuals, Literary Classics, Book of Etiquette, World Record & Fiction books<br />
  22. 22. Inclosure 1 to DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />SECTION 4 Library Collections<br />4.2 General Collection<br />References to support the different subject areas including professional books for teachers and other employees, recreational and hobby books, etc.<br /><ul><li>4.3 Reference for basic learning areas at least 4 for every pupils
  23. 23. 4.4 Magazines
  24. 24. 4.5 Newspapers</li></li></ul><li>Inclosure 1 to DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />SECTION 4 Library Collections<br />4.6 Important projects of teachers and pupils/students may be stored in the library as reference materials<br />4.7 Librarians tools and supplies<br />4.8 Selection and acquisition of books and other library materials is a cooperative endeavor of the librarian, faculty and head of school. This should be based on a lists of approved textbooks, teachers’ manual and supplementary materials. Teachers may recommend books and other instructional materials needed in the classroom.<br />
  25. 25. Inclosure 1 to DECS Order No. 6, s. 1998<br />SECTION 5 Sources of Library Funds<br />5.1 Library funds shall be 5-10% of the school funds (based proportionately) as released by the Division Office<br />5.2 Donations and solicitations from civic associations, alumni, parents, and other members of the community, “friends of the library” and others.<br />
  26. 26. The heart of the collection development process<br />The process of deciding which materials to acquire for a library collection; may involve deciding between items that provide information about the same subject, systematically determining quality and value (Evans, 2006)<br />The selection of new resources by the teacher-librarian is facilitated by identifying curriculum needs and student interests<br />SELECTION<br />
  27. 27. Responsibility for Selection<br />Ordinarily, the Librarian is in charge of selection, but locally elected or appointed school board, by law; including administrators, supervisors, teachers, library media specialists, students, and even community residents can also participate and select learning resources for the school library <br />
  28. 28. Keep yourself abreast of what is going on in the publishing trade. <br />Know your community and know it well. <br /> It is critical to be aware of what is going on in the world. <br />How to be a good selector?<br />
  29. 29. The Process of Selection<br />Identify collection needs in terms of subjects and specific types of materials<br />Determine how much money is available<br />Develop a plan for identifying potentially useful materials to acquire<br />Conduct search evaluation of the desired materials<br />
  30. 30. SELECTION CRITERIA IN GENERAL<br />Subject matter<br />Construction quality<br />Potential use<br />Relation to the collection<br />Bibliographic considerations<br />Cost<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34. “A publication issued in successive parts, usually in regular intervals, and as rule, intended to be continued indefinitely, include periodicals, annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.) and memoirs, proceedings, and transactions of societies.”(ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science)<br />Serials<br />
  35. 35. “a periodical publication especially dealing with matters of current interest- often used for official or semi-official publications of special groups”<br />Journals<br />
  36. 36. magazine<br />a periodical that usually contains a miscellaneous collection of articles, stories, poems, and pictures and is directed at the general reading public<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS Main Points for Consideration<br />Budget allocation <br />Durability<br />Audio Visual quality<br />Ease of repair<br />Type of equipment required<br />AV technology that is long-lasting<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. 34<br />Audio Recordings<br /><ul><li>Cassettes, DVDs, CDs
  41. 41. Books on tape or “talking books”
  42. 42. Points to consider:</li></ul>- How will your audio collection support your library's goals <br />- Will your audio collection focus on all or only certain genres? <br />- Will you collect complete works or abridged versions? Does abridging the work affect the story? <br />- How well does the reader project his/her voice? <br />- How durable is the product? <br />- What is the overall quality of the recording?<br />
  43. 43. 35<br />Microform<br /><ul><li>a generic term for both microfilms and microfiche
  44. 44. a format not liked much by so many people
  45. 45. the format that libraries resort to
  46. 46. a good format for materials that are seldom used
  47. 47. also good alternative format for rare and archival materials.</li></li></ul><li>36<br />Microfilm<br />
  48. 48. 37<br />Microfiche<br />
  49. 49. 38<br />MOVING PICTURES<br /><ul><li>Films- Comes in variety of sizes: the 7, Super 8, 16mm and 35 mm; the 70mm is the format used in theatrical releases and is also the format collected by film archives
  50. 50. Video recordings -Videos are extremely popular with library patrons. </li></li></ul><li>39<br />STILL PICTURES<br /><ul><li>Filmstrips
  51. 51. Slides
  52. 52. Transparencies
  53. 53. Flat pictures (include paintings, posters, postcards, photographs and other pictorial materials)</li></li></ul><li>40<br />Slides<br /><ul><li>photographic slides: typical of the family collection of 35mm slides
  54. 54. mountings can be of paper, plastic, metal or glass
  55. 55. most commonly found in special libraries with scientific, medical and art museum work collections</li></li></ul><li>41<br />Transparencies<br /><ul><li>overhead transparencies: text or diagrams on cellophane sheets that are projected with a magnified light
  56. 56. designed to aid in the presentation of graphic materials to small and medium-sized groups
  57. 57. publishers often include these based on or using illustrations from their books</li></li></ul><li>42<br />Graphic Materials<br /><ul><li>include maps, photographs and globes
  58. 58. Problems: little bibliographic control and making decisions as to whether circulate OR be used only within the premises of the library</li></li></ul><li>43<br />Other Media<br /><ul><li>Printed Music
  59. 59. Music sheets and scores (full size or miniature)
  60. 60. Problem of sourcing and bibliographic control
  61. 61. Models, dioramas
  62. 62. Games</li></li></ul><li>44<br />Electronic resources<br /><ul><li>An all encompassing term to include sources in digital format: electronic serials, e-serials, electronic journals, online journals, digital journals, electronic books, e-books</li></li></ul><li>45<br />Benefits of having e-resources in libraries<br /><ul><li>ease of searching
  63. 63. remote access
  64. 64. consolidation of many volumes and years
  65. 65. reduction in theft and mutilation
  66. 66. Content can extracted and manipulated
  67. 67. Simultaneous use
  68. 68. easy export of information
  69. 69. reduced costs for binding, storage, and stack maintenance
  70. 70. hyperlinks
  71. 71. access outside normal library hours</li></li></ul><li>46<br />Electronic serials<br /><ul><li>Any journal, magazine, e’zine, webzine, newsletter, or type of electronic serial publication which is made available online
  72. 72. These are either supplied directly by the publishers or via aggregator services</li></li></ul><li>47<br />Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources<br /><ul><li>Content
  73. 73. Access
  74. 74. Technical support
  75. 75. Cost
  76. 76. Legal considerations</li></li></ul><li>48<br />Evaluation criteria for Internet Resources: Content<br /><ul><li>Authority
  77. 77. Publishing body
  78. 78. Verifiability/ Accuracy
  79. 79. Currency</li></ul>Bias<br />Appropriateness of format<br />Audience<br />Purpose<br />
  80. 80. 49<br />Evaluation criteria for Internet Resources:Access<br /><ul><li>Searching
  81. 81. Organization
  82. 82. Download time
  83. 83. Links</li></li></ul><li>50<br />Evaluation criteria for Internet Resources: Design<br /><ul><li>Constructions
  84. 84. Instructions
  85. 85. Graphics</li></li></ul><li>51<br />Evaluation of Electronic Resources<br /> Incorporate elements of selection, and include technical infrastructure, information content, support issues, management issues, extensiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, service quality, impact, usefulness, and adoption (Charles McClure)<br />
  86. 86. 52<br />Selection Tools<br /><ul><li>These are sources that provide assistance to the librarian in selecting materials for acquisitions.
  87. 87. There are tools that provide evaluative information and are selective in nature, while other tools are more comprehensive lists of titles available for purchase.</li></li></ul><li>53<br />FICTION<br /><ul><li>Fiction Catalog. New York: Wilson, 1908-</li></ul>A guide to adult fiction found most in useful in public libraries, published periodically with annual supplements.<br />
  88. 88. 54<br />Selection Tools for Books<br />Selective Resources<br /><ul><li>Book reviews
  89. 89. Book lists
  90. 90. “Best of” and Recommended Lists</li></ul>Comprehensive Resources<br />Publishers’ sources<br />Online bookstores<br />Directories of print and non-print books<br />National bibliographies<br />
  91. 91. 55<br />BOOK REVIEWS<br /><ul><li>Provide descriptive and evaluative information that can be used in place of physically examining the actual book
  92. 92. Makes comparisons to similar works to help the librarian determine whether the book being reviewed should be added to the library collection</li></li></ul><li>56<br />Book Review sources<br />
  93. 93. 57<br />websites containing reviews<br />September 12, 2010<br />57<br />
  94. 94. 58<br />websites containing reviews<br />
  95. 95. 59<br />websites containing reviews<br />
  96. 96. 60<br />websites containing reviews<br />
  97. 97. 61<br />"Best of" and Recommended Lists<br /><ul><li>For non-current reviews
  98. 98. Can be used as checklists to make sure that a particularly good book is not missed
  99. 99. If the selectors know that the library community's reading choices are influenced by recommendations, they may want to consider recommended lists in the book selection process</li></li></ul><li>62<br />Websites of “best of” and recommended lists<br /><ul><li>Literary Lists at http://www.literarylist.com/
  100. 100. Oprah's Recommended Books at http://www.2think.org/oprah/oprah.shtml</li></li></ul><li>63<br />
  101. 101. 64<br />
  102. 102. 65<br />Comprehensive Resources<br /><ul><li>Listings of books published in a particular country
  103. 103. Useful for verifying the bibliographic and purchasing information
  104. 104. Publisher sources, online bookstores, directories of in print and out of print books, and national bibliographies</li></li></ul><li>66<br />Online Bookstores<br /><ul><li>Allows the selector to search and purchase print books over the Internet
  105. 105. Can provide a quick and easy way to find publication information for a wide range of books.
  106. 106. A convenient method for purchasing books that is needed very quickly.</li></li></ul><li>67<br />Online Bookstores<br /><ul><li>"earth's biggest bookstore" is Amazon.com at < www.amazon.com>, which is a full-service online bookstore providing lists of best-sellers, award-winners, and excerpts from review sources.
  107. 107. Barnes and Noble at <www.barnesandnoble.com> offers over one million books that can be searched for and purchased over the Internet.
  108. 108. National Bookstore Onlineat </li></li></ul><li>68<br />
  109. 109. 69<br />
  110. 110. 70<br />
  111. 111. 71<br />Directories for In Print Books and Out-Of-Print Books<br /><ul><li>Sources for finding bibliographic and purchasing information for books that are available for purchase, are about to be published, or are no longer being printed.
  112. 112. Examples of titles included in this category are: Forthcoming Books, Weekly Record, Books in Print (BIP)</li></li></ul><li>72<br />Directories for In Print Books and Out Of Print Books<br />
  113. 113. 73<br />National Bibliographies<br /><ul><li>useful for checking which library owns a particular work in a particular country.
  114. 114. Usually published by the national or state libraries
  115. 115. Examples : British National Bibliography, National Union Catalog, Bibliographie Nationale Française, Deutsche Nationalbibliographie</li></li></ul><li>74<br />National Bibliographies<br />
  116. 116. 75<br />Selection Tools for Multi-Media<br /><ul><li>Videos: Choice, Library Journal, Video Librarian, Video Review, Video Source Book and Bowker’s Complete Video Directory
  117. 117. Audio Materials: Publisher's Weekly, AudioFile, Wilson Library Bulletin, Library Journal, Audiobook Review
  118. 118. Graphic Materials: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems
  119. 119. Microforms: Guide to Microforms in Print, National Register of Microform Masters</li></li></ul><li>76<br />Selection Tools for Audiovisual Materials<br />
  120. 120. 77<br />Selection Tools for Serials<br /><ul><li>Selective guides: Library Journal and New Magazine Review
  121. 121. Directories of Periodicals and Newspapers:Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory (R.R. Bowker), Serials Directory (EBSCO), The International Directory of Little Magazines and Small Presses, Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media
  122. 122. Serials List:Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature; New Serials Titles</li></li></ul><li>78<br />Selection Tools for Serials<br />
  123. 123. Acquisition of Resources<br />the process of securing materials for the library collection, whether by purchase, as gifts, or through exchange programs (Evans, 2000).<br />It is primarily concerned with the ordering, claiming and receipt of materials for the library (Gorman, 1998).<br />
  124. 124. Materials given to the library from various local and foreign sources – individuals, institutions, foundations, Friends of the Library, alumni<br />Selection and acceptance criteria should be the same as those criteria for purchased materials<br />Dispose unwanted items<br />Gifts<br />
  125. 125. <ul><li>Unwanted and duplicate materials
  126. 126. Exchange of own publications or materials between libraries/ institutions</li></ul>Exchange<br />
  127. 127. Also termed as “weeding”<br />Removal of an item from the library’s active collection for the purpose of either discarding or sending it storage<br />DE-SELECTION<br />
  128. 128. To keep the library collection in best possible condition<br />Alleviate space problems, especially for small libraries<br />Improve accessibility of the collections – removing old or seldom used materials<br />Reasons for weeding:<br />
  129. 129. Appearance and general condition<br />Superseded editions<br />Duplicate titles<br />Inappropriate, obsolete or incorrect sources of information<br />Obsolete technology<br />Materials that are infested, dirty, shabby, worn out, etc.<br />Materials with small prints, brittle paper and missing pages<br />Criteria for weeding:<br />
  130. 130. Lack of time/Takes time from the regular routine<br />Lack of staff to do evaluation of materials for de selection<br />Cost involved and property accountability of librarian<br />Actual practice is seldom done – “the bigger the collection the better”<br />Problems in De-selection/weeding<br />
  131. 131. Thank You<br />

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