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Incorporating Library Provision In School Self Evaluation Educational Review 1


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  • 1. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation Author: Sarah McNicol a Affiliation: a University of Central England, Birmingham, UK DOI: 10.1080/0013191042000201190 Publication Frequency: 4 issues per year Published in: Educational Review, Volume 56, Issue 3 November 2004 , pages 287 - 296 Abstract Traditionally, school libraries have been evaluated primarily in terms of library management; the impact they have on teaching and learning has rarely been a focus. For this reason, they have often been omitted from whole school self-evaluation. Self-evaluation can help schools to prepare for inspection, but more importantly to identify strengths and weaknesses and help schools to improve their library provision through in-depth evaluation of specific areas. This article describes a project undertaken by the Centre for Information Research (CIRT) at the University of Central England (UCE) to develop a model for the self-evaluation of school libraries which focused on teaching and learning outcomes. The approach advocated links library activities to whole school issues and relates library evaluation to the overall aims of the school. Introduction It is widely acknowledged that school libraries can make a valuable contribution to teaching and learning. However, in the past, there has been little attempt to develop a consistent way of providing evidence to support this belief. There is clearly a need for school libraries to be able to demonstrate the contribution that their services can make to the school curriculum and lifelong learning to teachers, governors, Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) inspectors, parents, funders, pupils and other stakeholders. Some areas the library is likely to contribute most noticeably to include: meeting the objectives of the National Literacy Strategy and Key Stage 3 Strategy; supporting subject studies; reading for pleasure; independent learning; and inclusion. It was in the light of this concern that the School Libraries Working Group (SLWG), managed by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES), commissioned the Centre for Information Research (CIRT) at the University of Central England (UCE) to develop models for the self-evaluation of school libraries. The project aimed to produce draft models for primary and secondary school libraries, along with guidelines for their use. These were to be focused on learning and teaching outcomes and accessible to the broad range of staff who manage libraries in schools in England. By focusing on learning and teaching outcomes, the intention was to link library activities to whole school issues and to relate library evaluation to the aims of the school. Self-evaluation in schools The importance of school self-evaluation has been stressed by numerous commentators. For example, MacBeath et al. claimed, 'it is an intrinsic feature of effective schools and professional practice … an intrinsic and necessary component Página 1 de 8
  • 2. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 claimed, 'it is an intrinsic feature of effective schools and professional practice … an intrinsic and necessary component of school improvement' (2000, p. 92). It is essential that, as an integral part of the school, the library is part of any whole school evaluation. Ericson outlined a number of reasons why self-evaluation was important: Self-awareness: 'the desirability that a school should know and understand itself through reflection and thus be in a better position to prioritise its requirements and direct its energies towards desired goals'. All that needs to be evaluated in schools cannot be achieved through external evaluators alone. Schools need to be accountable and to demonstrate that they are doing a professional job and continually improving. Evaluation should be 'an obvious and integral' part of school improvement. Evaluation allows individuals to learn about their own practice and to gain greater understanding to the evaluation process in general. (Ericson, 1992, pp. 107-108) The importance of, and approach to, school evaluation in England has changed somewhat over the last two decades. According to Norris (1990), changes in power and control within the education system in the 1980s meant a shift from evaluation for and by the teacher to evaluation on or of the teacher. At the same time, there was a change of emphasis from formative to summative evaluation; in addition, the audience for evaluation came increasingly to be seen as the executive decision-makers rather than classroom-based teachers. This trend continued and Rudd and Davies have argued that by the mid 1990s when Ofsted began to carry out school visits, 'external inspection was seen as the main driving force in terms of the evaluation of school and pupil performance' (Rudd & Davies, 2000). However, more recently, there have been moves towards greater self-evaluation and by 1999, Saunders had identified an observable change as 'schools' own capacity and responsibility for reflection and evaluation' had moved to the forefront of policy (Saunders, 1999, p. 414). As MacBeath et al. (2000) have pointed out, self-evaluation has a different rationale to external evaluation as its primary impulse is development rather than accountability. It is a mechanism through which schools can be empowered and can monitor their own progress. Stenhouse has argued: External and internal evaluators are equally important: the former provide expertise and objectivity, and the latter familiarity and understanding. The two roles are distinct yet complementary and both are necessary for effective evaluation. (Stenhouse, 1975, p. 83) While most schools now carry out some form of self-evaluation, the nature and extent of this varies considerably. The Effective School Self Evaluation (ESSE) project found that, while 60% of primary and 90% of secondary schools carry out self-evaluation, only one-quarter perform well regarding self-evaluation (Standing International Conference of Inspectorates, 2001). School library evaluation As Williams et al. (2002) found, traditionally, school libraries have been evaluated primarily in terms of library management; the impact they have on teaching and learning has rarely been a focus. This project aimed to go some way towards redressing the balance. From the results of a survey conducted in the early stages of the project, it was clear that there is wide variation in approaches to self-evaluation of school libraries in England. This was true even among Beacon schools with expertise in self-assessment; while some had clearly given a great deal of consideration to the evaluation of the library, others acknowledged that there was still much to be done in this area. The responses of the headteachers highlight the importance of considering library self-evaluation as an integral part of whole school self-evaluation and also of using the findings to inform future planning to ensure that the library has maximum impact on teaching and learning. It is important that any structure for the self-evaluation of the library is linked to whole school evaluation processes in order to secure the support of teaching staff, managers and other stakeholders. It should therefore use language, Página 2 de 8
  • 3. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 order to secure the support of teaching staff, managers and other stakeholders. It should therefore use language, structure and terms which are familiar to teachers and other educators in order to ensure that the audience is receptive to, and clearly understands, the findings of library self-evaluation. The research and development process The first stage of the research carried out to inform the development of the school library self-evaluation models consisted of a short literature search and review to identify research reports and other relevant documentation relating to the current provision and standards of school libraries in England and their impact on teaching, learning and attainment, for example, Markless and Streatfield (2000). It was hoped that these would be used to help to identify the types of measures which would be most appropriate for a self-evaluation tool. The research team proposed to draw on work done in Scotland, where two school library evaluation models: 'Taking a Closer Look at the School Library Resource Centre' and 'Best Value Quantitative Indicators' had recently been developed. In order to discover how successfully the Scottish models have worked in practice, the research team contacted members of the working groups to discuss any issues which they had encountered and to draw on their experiences in the drafting of the English models and guidelines. Consultation also took place with library and education organizations such as the School Library Association (SLA), Association of Senior Children's and Education Librarians (ASCEL), Ofsted and the DfES. To broaden out the consultation process, a questionnaire was devised asking any teachers and librarians who wished to comment for their views about a possible model and in particular, for details of any evaluation activities currently being carried out in school libraries. In order to obtain a senior management perspective, a shortened version of this questionnaire was sent to headteachers at a sample of Beacon schools with expertise in self-assessment. In total, 38 questionnaires were returned across the three groups. The research team believed that it was crucial to involve practitioners at every stage to ensure that the models developed were practical tools that catered effectively for the needs of those working in schools. A small group of practitioners from the local area was therefore formed to comment on drafts of the model at regular intervals. To involve practitioners from a wider geographical area, two small workshops of teachers and librarians were hosted by CIRT. Members of the SLWG were also actively involved and remained in regular contact with the research team throughout the project. In addition, the research team worked directly with several school library services (SLSs) which had already done work in this area. Existing library evaluation models Many of the existing models of school library self-evaluation were developed in the US. The majority of these are based around the American Association of School Librarians' Information Power structure and the most common approach is to evaluate the library in terms of: the role of the library media specialist; the library media programme (goals, budget, planning); the collection (range, selection procedures, organization, accessibility, etc.); library personnel; facilities (accommodation and access). A number of states have developed their own evaluation methods based, to a greater or lesser extent, around these themes. These provided a useful starting point for the research team, particularly in terms of the overall structure of a possible self-evaluation model and the amount of support provided to assist library staff in its implementation. However, the research team was conscious of the differences between school library and education provision in the US and the UK. There have been a number of recent attempts to develop methods of evaluating UK school libraries. In a recent research project, Williams and Wavell (2001) attempted to measure the impact of the school library on learning by dividing learning into four themes: Página 3 de 8
  • 4. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 motivation (enthusiasm, absorption, continuation, attitude); progression (library and information handling skills, information and communication technology (ICT) skills, study skills, reading skills, new knowledge, achievement and application of skills or knowledge); independence (confidence, awareness of need for help, independent study, transference of skills, self-esteem and initiative); interaction (discussion, cooperation, friendships and behaviour). This novel approach had a number of advantages, such as allowing for the consideration of a wide range of benefits which may result from library use, not simply academic attainment. However, in practice, it proved difficult for some school staff to grasp initially. 'The Difference We're Making', produced by Birmingham Advisory and Support Service and Schools Library Service (2002), also focused on the impact of the library on pupils' learning, considering how the library can: motivate pupils; support the development of reading skills; support learning in curriculum subjects; and support independent learning. However, more traditional aspects of library evaluation, such as access, staffing and resources and management, were also dealt with. The documents which, perhaps, had the greatest influence on the research team were the Scottish school library self- evaluation documents. These were considered to be useful tools to evaluate learning and teaching outcomes because they place a strong emphasis on qualitative as well as quantitative indicators. Their structure is based around the Scottish whole school evaluation framework How Good is Our School (HGIOS) and is therefore closely linked to the inspection of schools by HM Inspectorate of Education (2002), the Scottish equivalent of Ofsted. Ofsted and self-evaluation Although, to some extent, the move towards greater self-evaluation in English schools in the latter half of the 1990s arose from the desire by schools and teachers to assess for themselves how well they are doing, it was not simply a bottom-up initiative. The second Ofsted Inspection Framework published in 1996 placed greater emphasis on the school's own evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses (Rudd & Davies, 2000). Later Ofsted publications have offered further advice on self-evaluation, arguing: The school that knows and understands itself is well on its way to solving any problems it has … self-evaluation is the key to improvement. (Ofsted, 1999) By the end of the 1990s, Rudd and Davies (1999) claimed that 'it is clear that Ofsted now views external inspection and self-evaluation as complementary activities' and encourages schools to base any self-evaluation on the same criteria as those used by inspectors (Ofsted, 1999). This movement has continued to develop; as David Bell reported in November 2002, from September 2003, 'there will be a greater emphasis on schools knowing themselves through self-evaluation' (Bell, 2002). This echoed Mike Tomlinson's statement earlier in the year: The development of robust, objective self-evaluation is central to the progress and improvement of schools. (Ofsted, 2002b) From September 2003, Ofsted's Framework for Inspecting Schools will 'take greater account of school self-evaluation to inform inspection' (Ofsted, 2002a). However, some commentators, such as Saunders, have argued strongly against external and internal evaluation conforming to identical agendas; she feels that this runs the risk that 'important things will be lost' (Saunders, 1999, p. 417). A self-evaluation which is driven by identical criteria to external inspections is likely to produce only cosmetic improvements. Rather, self-evaluation should ask different questions to those posed by external evaluators. Even Rudd and Davis (1999), who largely support basing school self-evaluation on the Ofsted criteria, admit that there may be problems because the two types of evaluation differ. Whereas external evaluation is usually seen, primarily, as an accountability exercise, an attempt to drive up standards through competition and comparison, self-evaluation is more Página 4 de 8
  • 5. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 concerned with enlightenment and improvement and presents an opportunity for schools to choose their own measures of effectiveness. Some schools and Local Education Authorities (LEAs) have therefore chosen to adopt alternative frameworks to that advocated by Ofsted, for example, Investors in People, Chartermark, ISO 9000 and the European Business Excellence Model (European Commission, 2001). Devising a school library self-evaluation model Although a number of alternative models were considered by the research team, it was eventually decided to base the structure for school library self-evaluation on the Ofsted Inspection Framework (Ofsted, 2002a). From interviewees with the working party responsible for developing the Scottish school library self-evaluation documents, it appeared that the technique of basing a model of school library evaluation on the external inspection framework had proved successful. It meant that the structure and concepts were familiar to teachers and others in the education sector and that the library could be placed on an equal footing with subject departments and other aspects of school life. The fact that the work was commissioned by a group headed by the DfES and including Ofsted representation also, inevitably, influenced this decision to some extent. However, this does not mean that the self-evaluation process is intended to duplicate an Ofsted inspection. Although the overall structure of the school library self-evaluation model is based on the Ofsted framework, schools are encouraged to focus on just one aspect of library provision to evaluate rather than taking a more general view of the library as would be the case in an inspection. This in-depth approach is intended to complement the overview provided by Ofsted. At present, the school library is rarely examined in any depth during an inspection. A search of Ofsted's Inspection Reports database covering the period 1 September 1999 to 31 August 2001 undertaken on behalf of the SLWG found that the school library was mentioned in 94% of all inspection reports for secondary schools (SLWG, 2002). However, as the 'Inspecting School Libraries and Resource Centres Update' reported: The text [of the inspection report] often gives too little emphasis to their [libraries'] role in the school's curriculum provision and their contribution to standards of attainment and to teaching and learning. (Ofsted, 2001) It is hoped that the models developed during this project may encourage inspectors to look more closely at the library and to reflect on its contribution to teaching and learning rather than simply focusing on more superficial measures such as number of resources or amount of use. MacBeath (1999) has identified four possible purposes for evaluation: accountability, comparison, marketing and diagnosis. Although the model developed during this project can be used for all these purposes, the focus is on diagnosis to improve library provision in schools. However, school libraries should also be encouraged to provide evidence for Ofsted to demonstrate that they are an integral part of teaching, learning and general school life. It is likely to create less work for busy library staff if the method of self-evaluation can be adapted to serve both purposes if necessary. The uses of self-evaluation It was therefore hoped that the self-evaluation models produced would be useful to Ofsted inspectors, both before and during inspections. They would provide a framework within which the inspection of the library can be carried out, ensuring that sufficient emphasis is placed on the role of the library in every school inspection. However, supporting the inspection process is by no means the only reason for evaluating the school library and it is hoped that the models can be used for other purposes. Although the models suggest that schools collect data which would be suitable to present to Ofsted inspectors, the depth of information collected during a self-evaluation is intended to be much greater than inspectors would require and would also allow schools to use the information to formulate plans for improvement. A number of other uses of evaluation findings were identified from the literature review and survey: Improving teaching and learning: by demonstrating the contribution of the library to teaching and learning, evaluation may further teachers' understanding of the strengths of the library and help to suggest ways in which they might make better use of it in lesson planning and activities. Improving working practices: the evaluation might suggest specific changes such as changing opening hours or Página 5 de 8
  • 6. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 improving signage. These should then be monitored to discover how successful they are and whether they improve the performance of the library. Report writing: the evidence collected can be incorporated into the library's annual report to show current success and standing and also areas of need. Improvement planning: self-evaluation can inform improvement planning by allowing library staff to identify key strengths and weaknesses and then prioritize needs and set targets. These should be aligned to actions in the school improvement plan. Budgeting: the evidence collected through self-evaluation can help to inform priorities for budget planning and indicate where greater investment is needed. Bidding for funding: the information can provide evidence to support bids for additional funding, both internally and from external organizations. Staffing: self-evaluation can indicate ways in which staff deployment might be made more effective and indicate when and where greater support is needed. The exercise may also highlight areas where further professional development is needed to allow the library staff to fulfil their roles more effectively. Publicity: evidence can be used to raise awareness of the importance of the library amongst teachers and to promote library use within the school. Advocacy: self-evaluation can be used to highlight the importance of the library within the school and also locally or nationally by school librarians, teachers or groups representing their interests such as the SLA or Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP). An important feature of self-evaluation is that it allows schools to develop their own agenda and to focus on particular aspects of the school which its own staff have identified as areas in need of improvement. The criteria for self- evaluation should reflect the school's own priorities. In the school library evaluation model, self-evaluation is not seen as an alternative to external inspection, but rather as complementary; as they have different focuses and approaches, the two should support each other. It is important that the focus chosen for a self-evaluation is carefully selected. As MacBeath et al. (2000) point out, no school has time to evaluate every aspect of its operation. To ensure evaluation is effective, it should not be focused solely on the most innovative aspects of the work of the school, nor should resources be devoted to what is progressing well or areas which are only of interest to a minority. The school library self-evaluation models encourage schools to focus on a single aspect of library provision at any one time. The theme chosen is likely to reflect the aims and objectives of the library, as set out in the library policy documentation, which, in turn, reflect the concerns of the whole school as stated in the school improvement plan. The focus selected may relate to an area which has been targeted for improvement, perhaps as a result of previous evaluation or an inspection report; areas the school believes to require improvement; new initiatives which have been introduced; or simply areas where the school is not sure how good the standard of provision is. It could also reflect more widespread concerns highlighted by local SLSs, the LEA or national bodies such as the SLA, CILIP, Ofsted or the DfES. Attitudes towards self-evaluation Stenhouse's theory of curriculum research and development gave primacy to the professional judgement of teachers (Stenhouse, 1975) and others such as Elliott (1978) have argued that self-evaluation is not simply a means of addressing demands for accountability, but an instrument to be used by teachers to improve their own performance. The role of school staff, be they teachers or librarians is, therefore, central to the self-evaluation process. According to Simons (1982) a major justification for self-evaluation is enhanced professionalism; it is an activity which should be introduced as a continuing part of professional practice. According to MacBeath, 'teachers are natural evaluators' (MacBeath, 1999, p. 7) and the same could easily be argued to be true of librarians. As Simons (1982) pointed out, evaluation undertaken as shared, coordinated, public effort may be rare, but informal, non-systematic, private evaluation happens all the time. The survey carried out for this project indicated that, while in many cases evaluation was an activity which was undertaken by library staff simply when they happened to find the time, in several schools it formed part of the librarian's annual performance review. Most library staff therefore continually carried out informal evaluation, even if more formal approaches are uncommon. The development of the school library self-evaluation model is an attempt to recognize formally existing processes which the majority of library staff carry out as a matter of course. Rudd and Davies (1999) found that the extent to which schools have ownership of their self-evaluation activity varies considerably in practice. Some staff tend to remain suspicious or see it as an activity which adds unnecessarily to Página 6 de 8
  • 7. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 considerably in practice. Some staff tend to remain suspicious or see it as an activity which adds unnecessarily to existing workloads. To help to overcome resistance, it is essential that evaluation is seen as a participative process. According to Saunders, self-evaluation should be democratic and involve all stakeholders, being based on trust, teamwork and ownership (Saunders, 1999, p. 417). The emphasis in the school library self-evaluation models is on ownership by the school, in particular, library staff. They are encouraged to chose a theme which is relevant to them; collect evidence in ways which best suit their needs and fit in with existing working practices; and use this to determine how library provision might be improved. The models are, therefore, intended not only to give schools an idea of the standard of their library provision, but also to provide a starting point for improvement. Self-evaluation, it is stressed, should be just one part of the overall planning cycle. While some school library staff are clearly keen to evaluate the library and have a clear appreciation of the value of doing so, others may be more reluctant to regard this as an integral part of their job. There is a need to persuade all library staff of the benefits of carrying out evaluation; these include improving working practices; planning library development; bidding for additional funding; or preparing for inspection. There is no doubt that 'word of mouth' will be important, but at a more formal level, articles in the professional press and advocacy by the SLA, CILIP, ASCEL, SLSs and others will be valuable. Conclusion The importance of self-evaluation in schools is widely recognized. However, the evaluation of library provision is an area of the school which is often neglected. Where evaluation of the library does occur, it is usually undertaken with respect to the management of resources rather than the impact of provision on teaching and learning. It is vital that library evaluation is closely linked to the evaluation of other aspects of the school and related to the overall aims of the school, in particular support for effective teaching and learning. Self-evaluation should be a regular part of normal school life which involves everyone: staff, pupils, parents, governors, inspectors and the wider community. It should be a constant process in a cycle which includes identifying priorities for improvement; monitoring provision; and evaluating outcomes. If the value of the library in supporting teaching and learning is to be fully appreciated, its evaluation should be seen as an integral part of whole school self-evaluation. For this reason, there are numerous references in the school library self-evaluation models to the ways in which the library interacts with other parts of the school. Similarly, it is recommended that references to the use of the library are included in departmental and whole-school self-evaluation documents. The self-evaluation of the school library is not solely the responsibility of library staff. The active involvement of senior management is crucial in ensuring that the self-evaluation can be conducted effectively and the findings fed into whole school planning. The support of other staff, such as the Literacy Coordinator and Special Educational Needs Coordinator (SENCO), are also likely to be required. In schools with less well-developed library provision and limited staffing, the incorporation of library issues into wider evaluations may be all that is realistically feasible. However, in those with better-developed library provision and higher levels of staffing, the models devised allow a particular aspect of the library's contribution to teaching and learning to be evaluated in greater depth and specific actions for improvement to be identified. The models are, therefore, intended to be accessible to all schools to enable them to evaluate the current quality and effectiveness of their school library and to identify strengths and weaknesses in order to determine priorities for improvement which will allow them to support teaching and learning more effectively. The models devised through this research are currently being piloted and the final versions are likely to be introduced to schools during the next academic year. In the meantime, the project report and further details are available at Correspondence: Centre for Information Research (CIRT), University of Central England, Perry Barr, Birmingham B42 2SU, UK. E-mail: REFERENCES Página 7 de 8
  • 8. Incorporating library provision in school self-evaluation - Educational Review 08/10/14 22:05 1. Bell, D. ((2002)) Speech by David Bell at the QEII Conference Centre, Westminster, London to mark OFSTED's tenth anniversary. — Available online at: [your library's links] 2. ((2002)) The difference we're making: library provision in Birmingham secondary schools. — Birmingham Advisory and Support Service and Schools Library Service; (Birmingham, Birmingham Advisory and Support Service and Schools Library Service) [your library's links] 3. Elliott, J. and Harlen, W. ((1978)) Classroom accountability and the self-monitoring teacher. A guide for evaluation decision makers — in; (Ed.); (Beverly Hills, CA, Sage) [your library's links] 4. Ericson, J. ((1992)) The development of a self-evaluation project in schools. British Journal of In-service Education 18:(2) , p. 107. [your library's links] 5. ((2001)) Effective school self-evaluation (ESSE) project. — European Commission; Available online at: [your library's links] 6. ((2002)) How good is our school? Self-evaluation using quality indicators (HGIOS). — HM Inspectorate of Education; Available online at: [your library's links] 7. Macbeath, J. ((1999)) Schools must speak for themselves: the case for school self-evaluation. — (London, Routledge) [your library's links] 8. Macbeath, J., Schratz, M., Meurat, D. and Jakobsen, L. ((2000)) Self-evaluation in European schools. — (London, Routledge/Falmer) [your library's links] 9. Markless, S. and Streatfield, D. ((2000)) Becoming more effective: some choices. Education Libraries Journal 43:(3) , p. 5. [your library's links] 10. Norris, N. ((1990)) Understanding educational evaluation. — (London, Kogan Page) [your library's links] 11. ((1999)) The evaluation schedule: short and full inspections. — Ofsted; (London, Ofsted) [your library's links] 12. ((2001)) Inspecting school libraries and learning resource centres (Appendix D). — Ofsted; Available online at: [your library's links] 13. ((2002a)) Inspecting schools: the framework for inspecting schools in England from September 2003, evaluation schedule. — Ofsted; (London, Ofsted) [your library's links] 14. ((2002b)) Overall quality of education still improving, but worries about secondary schools remain, says Chief Inspector. — Ofsted; Available online at: [your library's links] 15. Rudd, P. and Davies, D. ((2000)) Evaluating school self-evaluation, presented at the. British Educational Research Association Annual Conference — 7 September 2000. Available online at:, accessed 24 February 2003 [your library's links] 16. Saunders, L. ((1999)) Who or what is school 'self'-evaluation for?. School Effectiveness and School Improvement 10:(4) , p. 414. [your library's links] [informaworld] 17. ((2002)) Minutes of the fourth meeting of the School Libraries Working Group. — School Libraries Working Group (SLWG); 18 April. Available online at:, accessed 28 February 2003 [your library's links] 18. Simons, H. and Mccormick, R. ((1982)) Process evaluation in schools. Calling education to account — in; (Ed.); (Milton Keynes, Open University Press) [your library's links] 19. ((2001)) Effective school self-evaluation project. — Standing International Conference of Inspectorates; Available online at:, accessed 24 February 2003 [your library's links] 20. Stenhouse, L. ((1975)) An introduction to curriculum research and development. — (London, Heinemann) [your library's links] 21. Williams, D. and Wavell, C. ((2001)) Impact of the school library resource centre on learning. — (Aberdeen, Robert Gordon University) [your library's links] 22. Williams, D., Wavell, C. and Coles, D. ((2002)) Impact of school library services on achievement and learning: critical literature review of the impact of school library services on achievement and learning to inform the work of the DfES Task Group set up to implement actions contained in the Government's response to empowering the learning community. — (London, Resource) [your library's links] Página 8 de 8