Critical thinking extra credit


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Speech 104- Critical Thinking Extra Credit (Claims)

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Critical thinking extra credit

  1. 1. Claims Things to consider when arguing a claim: Clarify what an argument means within an academic context What matters is the quality of the argument The outcome of an argument depends on the willingness of all participants to address the argument in a spirit of intellectual honesty and goodwill Foundation of all arguments is the claim The claim represents the star ting and ending points of an argument and the substance of an argument
  2. 2. Claims are phrased as statements and not questions. The goal of a claim a pro vs. con debating argument Questions encourage discussion while claims occur because of that discussion
  3. 3. Claims should be phrased so that both sides have an equaloppor tunity to advocate, suppor t, and defend their positions.There is a difference between debating different claimsThe focus needs to be clearClaim should be unbiased to engage in a debateClaim should be biased to end a debateLanguage of a claim must be appropriate
  4. 4. Properly phrased claims should be as specific as possible.The best claims indicate who, what, when, and whereSpecific language leads to more focusBeing specific leads to limits the scope of an argumentWhy is not included here
  5. 5. Claims must be phrased against the status quo in order tocreate the potential for controversy. Status quo= current beliefs, policies, rules, behaviors, or institutions Can be three things An individual’s status Some institution’s current beliefs, values, or policies The star ting point for an argument Properly phrased claims must challenge the status quo
  6. 6. The claim should be phrased so that the burdens (obligations andresponsibilities) are clear to both sides involved in the debate. Each side in an academic argument has three burdens to fulfill. Burden of Proof  Side promoting the claim must give good reasons why the status quo is inadequate Burden of Presumption  Defense of the status quo  Presumption that the status quo is desirable Burden of Rebuttal  Obligation to respond to the arguments of the other side• REMEMBER: Both sides debate the same claim.
  7. 7. Types of Claims Claim of fact- something existed, exists, or will exist Claim of value- asser ts qualitative judgments along a good to bad continuum relating to people, events, and things in one’s environment Claim of policy- asser ts that something should or should not be done by someone about something
  8. 8. Types of Debate Environments Scholarly debate- emphasizes factual claims Religious debate- meaning of text is essential Political debate- emphasizes policy claims Business debate- deals with claims of fact, and of future fact Legal debate- deals with claims of fact and policy Educational debate- usually called forensics Social debate- unstructured and deals with all three types of claims
  9. 9. What to do When an Argument Loses Focus1. back-off from the conflict/debate2. Get back to the conflict/debate at a later, more appropriate time3. Go with the flow of the process4. Rework the claim