Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Literature searching for research
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Literature searching for research


Published on

Resources and techniques for literature searching in mental health

Resources and techniques for literature searching in mental health

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Literature searching for researchCatherine EbenezerLibrary and Information Serviceupdated April
  • 2. Purposes of literature searchingIdentify extent and quality of workalready carried out in the subjectareaIdentify key contactsAvoid duplication!
  • 3. Planning your search: PICOPatient/population/problemIntervention/exposureComparison/control (may beimplicit)Outcomes
  • 4. Try it for yourselves!Effect of different types of flooring on incidenceof falls in frail elderly peopleAre ACE inhibitors effective in delayingadmission to nursing/residential care for peoplewith Alzheimer’s disease?What interventions can reduce challengingbehaviour in dementia?
  • 5. A search framework: 1Identify synonyms for each search concept asidentified in your PICO frameworkUse Boolean OR to combine synonyms foreach PICO componentUse Boolean AND to combine the groupedPICO components to execute your search
  • 6. A search framework: 2P I C Oacute stroke blood pressure reduction no treatment secondary preventioncerebrovascular accidentcerebrovascular eventischaemic strokeanti-hypertensive agentshypertension – drugtherapydiuretics, atenolol etc.lowering blood pressure placebosecondary prophylaxisreduce mortalityrisk reductionAND AND ANDOR OR OR OR
  • 7. Search techniques 1Thesaurus terms / subject headings Find using ‘map to subject headings’ feature Hierarchical, structured to indicate relationships between concepts: NT, BT,UF, RT Each database has its own, .e.g. MeSH, EMTREE Describe content / what the article etc. is aboutFree text – terms occurring within a bibliographic record Can limit by field e.g. in title, in abstract, in periodical title Do not necessarily reflect subject content***Use subject headings to improve the specificity andsensitivity of your search***
  • 8. Search techniques: 2To increase the number of results you retrieve:Combine free text with subject headings using ORTruncate Stem: e.g. psychiatr* retrieves psychiatrist, psychiatric Internal / wildcard: Schultz or Schulz? Schul?z will find bothExplode Expands database subject headings to include narrower terms e.g. exp Dementia/ will include Alzheimer’s disease, vasculardementia, Lewy body dementia etc.
  • 9. Search techniques: 3To increase the number of results you retrieve:Related articles – from any relevant articleOVID, PubMed MEDLINE, Google ScholarCited by – for key papersOVID, Google Scholar, Web of ScienceReference lists in CINAHL
  • 10. Search techniques: 4To restrict / decrease the number of results you retrieve:Use ‘restrict to focus’ / ‘major descriptors’Add more subject terms to your search strategy using ANDSelect subheadings (only if you are really swamped!)Use limit features Language - English Age group – your target population Publication type – consider searching for reviews only Date range – most recentUse clinical filters
  • 11. Types of literature: 1Primary literatureJournal articlesPreprintsConference proceedingsInformally published reports –(“grey literature”)Theses
  • 12. Types of literature: 2Secondary literatureReviewsBooks: edited collectionsBooks: monographs / surveysOfficial publicationsCATs, POEMs etc.
  • 13. Sources for literature searching: 1Databases of articles and books Bibliographic e.g. MEDLINE, PsycINFO Full text e.g. PsycArticles, Cochrane DatabaseLibrary cataloguese.g. COPAC, British Library, LIBERO, Teesside UniversityResearch databasese.g. NIHR Portfolio Database / NIHR Research Portal,Virginia Henderson International Nursing Library (USA),Research Register for Social Care
  • 14. Sources for literature searching: 2… not forgetting …Hand searching of core journalsReference lists / footnote chasingPrinted bibliographies (older material)Search engines (NB Google Scholar, Google Books)Specialised Web portalsPicking colleagues’ brains / contacting key researchers – can yieldunpublished materialSocial networking with other researchers
  • 15. Characteristics of the literatureMental health literature is problematicmultidisciplinary“poorly controlled” in some areasscattered across many different databases: none is comprehensive all need to be looked at in a thorough searchBrettle A J and Long A F (2001) Comparison of bibliographic databases for informationon the rehabilitation of people with severe mental illness. Bull Med Libr Assoc 89(4) 353-361
  • 16. Bibliographic databases: 1MEDLINE ATHENS4000+ journals indexed; 1948-Produced by National Library of Medicine (USA)Available free at and via NHSEvidenceEuropean journals not particularly well coveredMental health coverage reasonableStrong on acute medical specialitiesPubMed version has useful ‘related articles’ feature
  • 17. Bibliographic databases: 2Psychological Abstracts(PsycINFO, PsycLIT, ClinPsyc) ATHENSProduced by American Psychological Association: 1806-Not available anywhere free, but short-term access viaweb can be purchasedCovers all aspects of psychologyComprehensive but some US bias
  • 18. Bibliographic databases: 3EMBASE ATHENSEuropean commercial product: 1980-Comprehensive psychiatry coverageStrong on pharmacology and drug therapyissuesThesaurus terms very “old-fashioned”First resort!N.B. OVID EMBASE now includes non-overlapping MEDLINE records
  • 19. Bibliographic databases: 4CINAHL ATHENSCovers nursing, allied health professions, healthmanagement, health librarianship; 1982-Recent records include references – can search –good for tracking down older materialUS bias but increasingly strong coverage of UK andAustralasian literatureGood for psychiatric nursingIncludes detailed abstracts of US / Canadian nursingthesesSome journals very obscure
  • 20. Bibliographic databases: 5Psychology and Behavioral Sciences CollectionATHENS575 full text publicationsnearly 550 peer-reviewed titlescovers emotional and behaviouralcharacteristics, psychiatry and psychology,mental processes, anthropology, andobservational and experimental methods
  • 21. Bibliographic databases: 6AMED ATHENSProduced in UK by British Library: 1985-Allied and Complementary MedicineAims to complement MEDLINEBest source of UK allied health literature
  • 22. Bibliographic databases: 7Cochrane Library Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews NHS Economic Evaluations Database (EED) NHS CRD Database of Abstracts of Reviews ofEffectiveness (DARE) HTA Database Cochrane Methodology Register Central Register of Controlled Trials
  • 23. Bibliographic databases: 8Citation indexesIdentify a significant piece of published research inyour fieldFind out who has cited it in later workWeb of Science citation indexes(available in university libraries)OVID databases – ‘ find citing articles’ featureGoogle ScholarBMJ Journals
  • 24. Bibliographic databases: 9Others …ChildData (child health and welfare)ASSIA (applied social sciences)Social Care Online (social work)OTSeeker (occupational therapy)PEDRO (physiotherapy)HMIC (health management) ATHENSDissertation Abstracts
  • 25. Bibliographic databases: 10lots of web-accessible databases on specialist areas: BiblioSleep: sleep Autism Data autism /ASD Aegis: AIDS-HIV NARIC: disability CIRRIE: rehabilitation PIE: mental health policy Campbell Collaboration: social policyreviews CAMEOL: complementary therapies speechBITE – speech pathology POPLINE – population / reproductivehealth NSPCC library catalogue – childprotection BEI: education (UK) AgeInfo (UK), Ageline (US) ERIC: education (US) Alcohol Concern Knowledge Base:alcohol DrugData: substance misuse PEP-WEB: psychoanalysis Health Systems Evidence: healthmanagement Dementia Catalogue PsycBITE – psychological effects ofABI
  • 26. Bibliographic databases: 11Google Scholar Incorporates results from bibliographic databases (e.g. MEDLINE) preprint servers and institutional repositories library catalogues publishers’ catalogues Ranks results by relevance (how?) Links to: full text where available(NB links to content of TEWV e-journals on site) references citing the work ‘related articles’ Can use limits and Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT)BUT – what does it contain? And not contain? Inconsistent!
  • 27. Specialist search enginesScirus: scientific content - includes scientistshomepages, courseware, pre-print server material,institutional repository and website informationOAIster: institutional repository contentSHERPA Search: full-text search of UK repositoriesOpenDOAR: world-wide directory of open accessinstitutional repositoriesEThOS – BL electronic theses online
  • 28. Specialist portalsUseful for background information, contactsNHS EvidenceNational Institute for Mental Health in EnglandCentre for Mental HealthPsychNet-UKPsychology WikiPsychCentral
  • 29. Current awareness servicesCurrent awarenessbulletinsElectronic tables ofcontentsSubject-basedalertingRSS feedsMonitoring changesin web pagesHealth news servicesSaved searches inhealth databasesNetvibes
  • 30. Managing your referencesMany bibliographic databases will allow you to exportand save your search results in different formats (e.g.XML, WebCharts, HTML, PDF, tagged text) and / oremail them to yourself or to other peopleBibliographic management applications can beused to manage references. These let you: collect and organise references from many different resources into your ownpersonal, searchable database create formatted bibliographies and reading lists develop lists of cited articles as footnotes or as endnotes at the conclusion ofpapers
  • 31. Managing your referencesInstalled on your PCEndNoteReference ManagerProCiteJabRef (free!)Web-basedRefWorksConnotea (free!)CiteULike (free!)Mendeley (free!)Wikipedia article:Comparison of reference management software
  • 32. Research information: 1Current / ongoing researchNIHR portal and National Research Register archive: ongoing andrecently-completed research projects funded by or of interest tothe NHSResearch Register for Social Care: current and completed UKsocial care researchNIH RePORTER (USA): federally-funded biomedical researchCurrent Controlled Trials: information about RCTsDatabase of Uncertainties about the Effects of Treatment:publishes uncertainties about the effects of treatmentwhich cannot currently be answered via systematic reviews
  • 33. Research information: 2Current / ongoing researchMental Health Research NetworkDementias and NeurodegenerativeDiseases Research NetworkRCN Research and DevelopmentCo-ordinating Centre
  • 34. Research information: 3Guidance and funding for researchers: nationalAssociation of Medical ResearchCharities: good practice in researchRDInfo / RDFunding: training, fundingopportunities, adviceResearch Councils UK
  • 35. Research information: 4Guidance and funding for researchers: localMental Health Research Centreat Durham UniversitySPIRE seminarsInvolvement in MHRN studiesResearch clinicsResearch training: modules in research methods upto master’s level
  • 36. Catherine EbenezerLibrary and Information ServicesManagercatherine.ebenezer@tewv.nhs.uk01642 838380 / 838112