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Us Pacific Empire

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rundown of US expansion at the turn of the century

rundown of US expansion at the turn of the century

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  • 1. Pacific Empire
  • 2. Isolationism vs. Expansionism
    • Isolationism
    • George Washington’s Farewell Address
    • Expansionism
    • Overseas Markets
    • Social Darwinism
    • Navy (coaling)
    • What else?
  • 3. Expansionism wins Debate
    • Navy
      • 1870 US has 12 th ranked Navy in world
      • By 1896, US has 5 th ranked Navy in world – influence of Alfred Mahan on US policy & T.R. himself
  • 4. Japan
    • Japan was an isolationist country (?)
    • US wanted to trade with Japan
    • 1853 Commodore Matthew Perry enters Tokyo harbor
    • Japanese had never seen steam powered ships before—they were very afraid
    • Perry says he will return in 1 year to sign a treaty
    • 1854 Japan signs Treaty of Kanagawa granting US trading rights in Japan
  • 5. Early Expansion
    • 1867 Secretary of State William Seward convinces Congress to annex (?) Midway Island – why?
    • Seward then buys AK from Russia for $.02/acre
    • HA HA Seward’s Folly & Seward’s Icebox
    • But wait, there’s gold there & timber & fish & oil…Seward has last laugh
  • 6. Samoa
    • US, Great Britain, & Germany all want the island mostly for naval reasons
    • It was almost war, but a storm lead to a peaceful settlement.
    • US & Ger. Divide the island & England took some other pacific islands
  • 7.  
  • 8. Hawai’i
    • Hawai’ian islands famous for their growing season & beauty
    • 1820 American missionaries & planters arrive
    • Planters imported laborers from Japan, Korea & Philippines
    • Foreign population of Hawai’i grows
    • 1887 planters force King Kalakaua to sign a new constitution… it gives king less power
    • 1893 Kalakaua dies, his daughter Liliuokalani becomes Queen
  • 9. Hawai’i
    • Liliuokalani rejected new constitution, wanted Hawai’i for the Hawai’ians
    • 1893, Planters revolt & rebel against Queen
    • US Ambassador to Hawai’i calls in Marines
    • Queen forced to abdicate under threat of violence
    • Planters set up their own gov’t: The Republic of Hawai’i
  • 10. Hawai’i
    • Should the US annex (?) Hawai’i?
    • Congress debates
    • President Grover Cleveland calls overthrow of native Hawai’ian gov’t “disgraceful”
    • 1898 McKinley is elected & he annexes Hawai’i
    • Hawai’i becomes a state in 1959
  • 11. China
    • China had been carved up by European countries & Japan into spheres of influence
    • Basically, European countries took over parts of China. Inside each sphere, China could only trade with that specific country & any citizens of that country who committed a crime in that sphere could not be prosecuted by China
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. China
    • US calls shenanigans on spheres of influence!
    • US demands “Open Door Policy” (anyone can trade with China)
    • Chinese angered about foreigners taking over their country
    • Fists of Righteous Harmony organize Kung Fu rebellion ( The Boxer Rebellion)
    • Rebellion put down by international army
    • US insists on Open Door Policy again
    • 1911 China descends into civil war
  • 15. Spanish American War
    • Causes
      • 1) Cuban revolution
        • Many Americans supported Cuban Independence
        • Spanish mistreatment of Cubans by Gen. Weyler; e.g. Reconcentration camps
    • 2) USS Maine & Yellow Journalism
        • Newspapers sensationalized sinking of Maine, many Americans started to believe Spain was responsible (act of war!)
  • 16. WAR!
    • Easy Victory for USA
    • Philippines: US warships destroy Spanish fleet (islands taken with help of Filipino rebels)
    • Cuba: Rough Riders (TR) & Buffalo Soldiers take San Juan Hill. US defeats Spain (with help from Cuban rebels)
  • 17. Splendid Little War?
    • Outcome: Spain frees Cuba
    • Spain gives US Puerto Rico & Guam.
    • US pays Spain $20 million for Philippines
  • 18. Debate in US
    • Should USA become an empire with overseas possessions?
    • Pro-expansion: Need bases for Navy, overseas markets, Christianize people
    • Anti-expansion: USA is a democracy not an empire, most people in Spanish colonies were Christian already
    • Outcome: 1899, McKinley approves treaty with Spain, US gets overseas empire
  • 19. What do we do with this new empire?
    • Cuba: US allowed Cuba to be free, but insisted that the Platt Amendment be part of their constitution.
    • Platt Amendment: US can intervene in Cuba whenever it wants & Cuba must allow US to have naval base at Guantanamo Bay
    • Cuba not really an independent country with Platt Amendment
    • Why not? (don’t write that)
  • 20. Managing our Empire
    • 1900; The Foraker Act gave Puerto Rico a new government, but also made it a protectorate of the US. 1917 Puerto Ricans made US citizens, though many wanted to be an independent nation
  • 21. Puerto Rico Today
    • Puerto Rico is a US commonwealth, a majority of Puerto Ricans prefer being a commonwealth rather than independent or the 51 st state.
    • As a Commonwealth, residents of Puerto Rico lack voting representation in Congress and do not participate in presidential elections. As U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans are subject to military service and most federal laws.
  • 22. Should the USA annex The Philippines?
    • What to do?
    • McKinley heard "the voice of God," and "there was nothing left for us to do but take them all and educate the Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them."
    • Most Filipinos already Christians
  • 23. The Philippine War
    • Filipino rebels who had fought against Spanish (Emilio Aguinaldo) now fought for their independence from the US
    • Accused USA of hypocrisy
    • All out war in Philippines. Lasted 3-4 years
  • 24. Atrocities
    • US had trouble fighting a war against insurgents, both sides did unforgivable things
    • "We bombarded a place called Malabon, and then we went in and killed every native we met, men, women, and children. It was a dreadful sight the killing of those poor creatures. The natives captured some of the Americans and literally hacked them to pieces, so we got orders to spare no one."
    • --Anthony Michea, of the Third Artillery
  • 25. The Philippine War
    • 220,000 Filipino rebels & civilians killed
    • 4,000 American soldiers killed
    • USA annexed Philippines, gave them independence in 1946

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