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Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
Us Pacific Empire
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Us Pacific Empire


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rundown of US expansion at the turn of the century

rundown of US expansion at the turn of the century

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  • 1. Pacific Empire
  • 2. Isolationism vs. Expansionism
    • Isolationism
    • George Washington’s Farewell Address
    • Expansionism
    • Overseas Markets
    • Social Darwinism
    • Navy (coaling)
    • What else?
  • 3. Expansionism wins Debate
    • Navy
      • 1870 US has 12 th ranked Navy in world
      • By 1896, US has 5 th ranked Navy in world – influence of Alfred Mahan on US policy & T.R. himself
  • 4. Japan
    • Japan was an isolationist country (?)
    • US wanted to trade with Japan
    • 1853 Commodore Matthew Perry enters Tokyo harbor
    • Japanese had never seen steam powered ships before—they were very afraid
    • Perry says he will return in 1 year to sign a treaty
    • 1854 Japan signs Treaty of Kanagawa granting US trading rights in Japan
  • 5. Early Expansion
    • 1867 Secretary of State William Seward convinces Congress to annex (?) Midway Island – why?
    • Seward then buys AK from Russia for $.02/acre
    • HA HA Seward’s Folly & Seward’s Icebox
    • But wait, there’s gold there & timber & fish & oil…Seward has last laugh
  • 6. Samoa
    • US, Great Britain, & Germany all want the island mostly for naval reasons
    • It was almost war, but a storm lead to a peaceful settlement.
    • US & Ger. Divide the island & England took some other pacific islands
  • 7.  
  • 8. Hawai’i
    • Hawai’ian islands famous for their growing season & beauty
    • 1820 American missionaries & planters arrive
    • Planters imported laborers from Japan, Korea & Philippines
    • Foreign population of Hawai’i grows
    • 1887 planters force King Kalakaua to sign a new constitution… it gives king less power
    • 1893 Kalakaua dies, his daughter Liliuokalani becomes Queen
  • 9. Hawai’i
    • Liliuokalani rejected new constitution, wanted Hawai’i for the Hawai’ians
    • 1893, Planters revolt & rebel against Queen
    • US Ambassador to Hawai’i calls in Marines
    • Queen forced to abdicate under threat of violence
    • Planters set up their own gov’t: The Republic of Hawai’i
  • 10. Hawai’i
    • Should the US annex (?) Hawai’i?
    • Congress debates
    • President Grover Cleveland calls overthrow of native Hawai’ian gov’t “disgraceful”
    • 1898 McKinley is elected & he annexes Hawai’i
    • Hawai’i becomes a state in 1959
  • 11. China
    • China had been carved up by European countries & Japan into spheres of influence
    • Basically, European countries took over parts of China. Inside each sphere, China could only trade with that specific country & any citizens of that country who committed a crime in that sphere could not be prosecuted by China
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. China
    • US calls shenanigans on spheres of influence!
    • US demands “Open Door Policy” (anyone can trade with China)
    • Chinese angered about foreigners taking over their country
    • Fists of Righteous Harmony organize Kung Fu rebellion ( The Boxer Rebellion)
    • Rebellion put down by international army
    • US insists on Open Door Policy again
    • 1911 China descends into civil war
  • 15. Spanish American War
    • Causes
      • 1) Cuban revolution
        • Many Americans supported Cuban Independence
        • Spanish mistreatment of Cubans by Gen. Weyler; e.g. Reconcentration camps
    • 2) USS Maine & Yellow Journalism
        • Newspapers sensationalized sinking of Maine, many Americans started to believe Spain was responsible (act of war!)
  • 16. WAR!
    • Easy Victory for USA
    • Philippines: US warships destroy Spanish fleet (islands taken with help of Filipino rebels)
    • Cuba: Rough Riders (TR) & Buffalo Soldiers take San Juan Hill. US defeats Spain (with help from Cuban rebels)
  • 17. Splendid Little War?
    • Outcome: Spain frees Cuba
    • Spain gives US Puerto Rico & Guam.
    • US pays Spain $20 million for Philippines
  • 18. Debate in US
    • Should USA become an empire with overseas possessions?
    • Pro-expansion: Need bases for Navy, overseas markets, Christianize people
    • Anti-expansion: USA is a democracy not an empire, most people in Spanish colonies were Christian already
    • Outcome: 1899, McKinley approves treaty with Spain, US gets overseas empire
  • 19. What do we do with this new empire?
    • Cuba: US allowed Cuba to be free, but insisted that the Platt Amendment be part of their constitution.
    • Platt Amendment: US can intervene in Cuba whenever it wants & Cuba must allow US to have naval base at Guantanamo Bay
    • Cuba not really an independent country with Platt Amendment
    • Why not? (don’t write that)
  • 20. Managing our Empire
    • 1900; The Foraker Act gave Puerto Rico a new government, but also made it a protectorate of the US. 1917 Puerto Ricans made US citizens, though many wanted to be an independent nation
  • 21. Puerto Rico Today
    • Puerto Rico is a US commonwealth, a majority of Puerto Ricans prefer being a commonwealth rather than independent or the 51 st state.
    • As a Commonwealth, residents of Puerto Rico lack voting representation in Congress and do not participate in presidential elections. As U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans are subject to military service and most federal laws.
  • 22. Should the USA annex The Philippines?
    • What to do?
    • McKinley heard "the voice of God," and "there was nothing left for us to do but take them all and educate the Filipinos, and uplift and Christianize them."
    • Most Filipinos already Christians
  • 23. The Philippine War
    • Filipino rebels who had fought against Spanish (Emilio Aguinaldo) now fought for their independence from the US
    • Accused USA of hypocrisy
    • All out war in Philippines. Lasted 3-4 years
  • 24. Atrocities
    • US had trouble fighting a war against insurgents, both sides did unforgivable things
    • "We bombarded a place called Malabon, and then we went in and killed every native we met, men, women, and children. It was a dreadful sight the killing of those poor creatures. The natives captured some of the Americans and literally hacked them to pieces, so we got orders to spare no one."
    • --Anthony Michea, of the Third Artillery
  • 25. The Philippine War
    • 220,000 Filipino rebels & civilians killed
    • 4,000 American soldiers killed
    • USA annexed Philippines, gave them independence in 1946