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The French Revolution


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comprehensive overview

comprehensive overview

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  • 1.  
  • 2. The French Revolution, Overview Causes Revolution Effects 1) Social Estates General End of French Inequality Meeting Monarchy 2) Absolute Violent Global Spread of Monarchy Revolution Revolution 3) Economy Robespierre’s Napoleon Reign of Terror conquers Europe
  • 3. The Estate System 1 st Estate : Clergy. .5% of Population, owned 10% of land in France. Paid no taxes 2 nd Estate : Nobility. 1.5% of Population, owned 25% of land in France. Paid almost no taxes 3rd Estate : Everyone else, from middle class to peasants. 98% of Population. Paid almost all of the taxes
  • 4.  
  • 5. Analyze this cartoon in light of what you’ve just learned about the Estates System in Pre-Revolution France
    • Which estate is which? Why?
    • What is this cartoonists point of view?
    • Which estate might the cartoonist be a member of?
  • 6. Revolution
  • 7. What does that word mean?
    • a drastic and far-reaching change in ways of thinking and behaving; the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
  • 8. The French Revolution (Beginnings)
  • 9. The Revolution Begins
    • Inequalities in the old (ancien) regime helped cause the French Revolution
  • 10. The Old Order
    • The Old (ancien) Regime
    • Old Regime: Social and political system of France during the 1770’s
    • Estates: The three social classes of France’s old regime
    • The Privileged Estates
    • 1st Estate is the Catholic clergy, they are < 1% of population, own 10% of land
    • 2 nd Estate, rich nobles, 2% of population, own 20% of land
  • 11. The Third Estate
    • 97% of the people are peasants, workers, or middle class (bourgeoisie)
    • They have few privileges, pay heavy taxes, and want change
  • 12. The Forces of Change
    • 1) Enlightenment ideas: These ideas inspired some in the Third estate
    • 2) Economic Troubles
      • High taxes and rising costs damaged economy by 1780’s
      • King Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette spent money extravagantly
      • Louis XVI doubled nation’s debt; banks refused to lend more money
  • 13. Size of Versailles: ¼ mile
  • 14. Cost of Versailles is disputed by historians. Anywhere from $2 billion to $300 billion
  • 15. Hall of Mirrors
  • 16. The King’s Chapel
  • 17. Who paid for the palace? Merci beaucoup!
  • 18. Louis XVI: A Weak Leader
    • Louis’ poor decisions and lack of patience added to France’s problems
    • He called Estates General – meeting of representatives from all three estates
  • 19. Meeting of the Estates General
    • Each Estate had one vote
      • 3 rd estate = 97% of population…1 vote
      • 2 nd estate = 2% of population… 1 vote
      • 1 st estate = <1% of population…1 vote
      • Math Question: What’s the problem with this voting system?
      • How do you think the Third Estate wanted votes to be counted?
  • 20.  
  • 21. Meeting of the Estates General, continued
    • Members of the 3 rd Estate delegation declared themselves the National Assembly
    • Members of the 3 rd estate delegation ( National Assembly ) were locked out of meeting hall
  • 22. The Tennis Court Oath
    • Fearing dismissal by Louis XVI, members of the delegation swore an oath to establish a constitution on a nearby tennis court.
  • 23. Storming the Bastille
    • Rumors circulated through Paris that Louis wants to suppress the National Assembly
    • Mob attacked and seized Bastille killing guards on July 14, 1789
  • 24. A Great Fear Sweeps France
    • Rumors and panic spread throughout France
    • Great Fear : attacks by peasants took place across France
  • 25. Great Fear
    • Political crisis combined with famine in 1789
    • Peasants were starving and left their homes
    • Price of bread rose
    • Rumors told of government troops seizing peasants crops
    • Peasants panicked, attacked homes of nobles, destroyed feudal records , and stole grain
  • 26. The Women’s March on Versailles
    • In October 1789, Parisian women revolted over the price of bread
    • They demanded action, forcing Louis XVI to return to Paris from Versailles
  • 27. The National Assembly Reforms France
    • The Rights of Man
    • National Assembly adopted Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
    • Modeled on U.S. Declaration of Independence
  • 28. Declaration of Rights of Man vs. Declaration of Independence
    • Declaration of Independence
    • “… all men are created equal”
    • “… among these rights are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
    • Declaration of Rights of Man
    • “… all men remain free and equal in rights”
    • “… rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression”
  • 29. DON’T FORGET!
    • Both of these documents were heavily influenced by Enlightenment thinkers, especially John Locke
  • 30. Slogan of the French Revolution
    • “ Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité”
  • 31.  
  • 32. National Assembly Reforms… continued
    • A State controlled church
    • National Assembly seized church lands, turned clergy into public officials
    • This action alarmed many peasants, who were devout Catholics
  • 33. Louis Attempts to Escape
    • Concerned for his future, Louis XVI fled Paris disguised as a servant.
    • He was caught near the border of The Netherlands
    • Someone recognized him from a coin
    • Louis XVI was dragged back to Paris as a traitor
  • 34. A Limited Monarchy
    • In September 1791, the National Assembly finished the new constitution
    • They created a new body, the Legislative Assembly to pass laws
  • 35. Factions Split France
    • Major problems including debt and food shortages remained
    • Assembly split into Radicals, Moderates, & Conservatives
    Radical Conservative Moderate
  • 36. The Conservatives
    • Émigrés
    • Nobles who fled the country
    • Want the old regime back
  • 37. The Radicals
    • Sans-culottes
    • Literally those without culottes (short pants worn by the wealthy or nobility in France)
    • Lower class who wanted more change from the revolution
  • 38. WAR!
    • Austrians and Prussians wanted Louis in charge of France
    • Radicals in charge of French revolutionary government declare war!
    • Prussian forces threatened Paris
    • The war went on from 1792 to 1815
  • 39. Remember!
    • It’s long wars like that which made Europeans pursue the “Balance of Power”
  • 40.  
  • 41. Panic in Paris!
    • With Prussians threatening the capital, Parisian mobs jailed the royal family and killed their guards
    • The mob broke into prisons, killing over 1,000 people, including many who supported the king
    • Pressured by the mob, the Legislative Assembly deposed the king and then dissolved
    • The National Convention took office in December, forming the French Republic
  • 42. The Jacobins take control
    • The Jacobins were the radical political organization behind the 1792 governmental changes
    • After a close vote, Louis XVI was found guilty of treason
  • 43. The War continues
    • The French army won a great victory against Prussia and Austria
    • In 1793, Britain, Spain, & Netherlands joined forces against France
  • 44. Draft!
    • The National Convention (new French governing body) ordered emergency draft of 300,000 French citizens to reinforce army.
  • 45. The Terror Grips France
    • France was divided: Not all people supported all the changes of the Revolution… look back at your notes and THINK!
    • What are some issues that would have divided the French people?
  • 46. Robespierre assumes control
      • Jacobin leader rules France for a year
      • Becomes leader of the Committee for Public Safety.
      • Robespierre = dictator
      • “ Liberty cannot be secured unless criminals lose their heads!” – Robespierre
  • 47. Reign of Terror
    • Robespierre’s rule in which thousands of people are killed becomes known as the Reign of Terror
    • 85% of those killed during the Terror are middle or lower class
    • Many who were killed were former revolutionaries and allies of Robespierre
  • 48. The Reign of Terror
    • Revolutionary committees conduct hasty trials and issue thousands of death sentences to “traitors to the revolution.”
  • 49. Why were people executed?
    • Jean-Baptiste Henry:
    • Marie Plaisant:
    • Henriette Marboeuf
    • Jean Julien
    • Francois Bertrand:
  • 50. The Reign of Terror
    • No one feels safe, everyone is afraid (Reign of Terror)
    • Ordinary people are fearful because anyone and everyone can be denounced as a traitor to the Revolution and beheaded
    • People start denouncing neighbors or others whom they have a grudge against (think Salem witch trials)
  • 51. End of the Terror
    • Another change in government
      • In July 1794, Robespierre arrested and executed
      • Terror results in public opinion shifting away from radicals
  • 52. End of the Terror…continued
    • Moderate leaders write new constitution
    • Two house legislature and 5 man directory restore order
    • Middle class and professional people of the bourgeoisie were now the dominant force in government.
    • The directory held power from 1795-1799
  • 53. The Directory in trouble
    • France made peace with Prussia and Spain, but war with England and Austria continued
    • Corrupt Directory leaders began stealing money
    • Bread prices rose causing sans-culottes to riot
    • Émigrés returned to France, reviving reactionary, royalist feelings in peasants
    • Peasants upset about church reforms
    • During the election of 1797 supporters of constitutional monarchy won majority of seats in legislature.
  • 54. The Directory becomes desperate!
    • With their government threatened from within and without, the directory appoints Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies
    • They hope he will be able to control the threats so that they can govern
    • Whoops!