The cold war global
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The cold war global

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overview of the cold war

overview of the cold war

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The cold war global The cold war global Presentation Transcript

  • OR Nuke Japan Invade Japan
  • Nuclear weapons have only been used twice Was the USA forced to drop the bomb on Japan Or Were Hiroshima & Nagasaki the first shots of the Cold War?
    • When you’ve finished doing that begin preparing for the debate… that is: consider what each of the documents says; what are your most compelling arguments?
  • Your Tasks Today
    • 2) Discuss your group’s perspective and debate strategy (What are you going to say?)
    • 3) Homework: Explain whether or not YOU think the bombings were justified (give three reasons why or why not, use complete sentences)
  • Right now
    • Get your arguments organized
    • Get ready to verbally make those arguments
    • You will have 2 minutes to make your opening statement
    • Next group makes opening statement
    • 1 minute each for rebuttal
    • Each group will make a closing statement (no more than 2 minutes)
  • The Cold War
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  • FEAR
    • Fear was the motivation behind many decisions made during the cold war
    • The West was afraid of communist USSR
    • The USSR was afraid of the West
  • Why was Communism scary?
    • “ the communist revolution will not merely be a national phenomenon but must take place simultaneously in all civilized countries “- Marx
  • “ (Communists) openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win!” - Marx.
  • Why was the USSR afraid of the West?
    • The USA, UK, & France had sent soldiers to Russia in 1917 to stop the Revolution
    • Their “communist” revolution was not very successful
    • The USSR had just lost tens of millions of people in the war and Stalin’s purges… they were not prepared to fight the USA & UK
    • They were a paper tiger
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  • Causes of the Cold War
    • 1) Capitalism vs. Communism
      • US & Great Britain don’t like or trust communist ideas such as the rejection of private property & religion. Soviets wanted to destroy capitalism & overthrow democratic governments in Europe.
      • USSR afraid US & England would attack them (they had before) & that they would rebuild Germany & Germany would attack USSR again .
  • Capitalism vs. communism Karl Marx, wrote Communist Manifesto (no real founder) Adam Smith, wrote Wealth of Nations Founder Communism Capitalism
  • Desperate people, people who’ve never had very much . (lower classes, peasants) “ When you ‘aint got nothing, you’ve got nothing to lose” People seeking freedom, people who aren’t totally desperate (middle & upper class) Who does this appeal to?
  • Everything is owned by the government Government closely regulates the economy (sets prices, tells factories what to make, etc.) Government should not interfere with economy: laissez-faire View of Government
    • Government determines the job you get
    • Religion is the “opiate of the masses” and should be done away with
    • Sacrifice freedom for security
    • People are free to choose their own careers
    • Freedom of religion
    • Freedom is more important than security
    Individual Freedoms
    • Capitalism will destroy itself
    • Workers will eventually rise up in a violent revolution and take power
    • The future of the world is communism
    Capitalism is the only efficient economic system “ It’s not perfect, but it’s the best we can do” On the future
  • The Cold War in Europe
    • As WWII was ending, the Soviet army occupied all of Eastern Europe (except Yugoslavia)
    • Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, & Albania became Soviet satellite countries
    • The Iron Curtain
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  • IRON CURTAIN
  • Soviet Threat in Europe; America Responds
    • Fear of a Communist takeover of all of Europe led to The Truman Doctrine
    • The Truman Doctrine: Encourage countries to resist Soviet Influence
    • Containment: Do not allow communism to spread or expand to any more countries in the world.
  • Truman Doctrine in full effect
    • 1) $400 million in aid to Greece & Turkey
    • 2) The Marshall Plan : $12 billion in aid to help western European countries rebuild after the war
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  • Germany
    • After the war, the Allies divided up Germany into 4 zones
    Berlin
  • Berlin Airlift
    • Berlin (capital of Germany, largest city) was in the Soviet Zone & the city itself was divided
  • Berlin Airlift
    • Stalin blockaded West Berlin, trying to make the entire city part of East Germany.
    • Truman ordered supplies to be airlifted to West Berlin.
    • Stalin ended blockade, W. Berlin remained part of W. Germany.
  • Operation Vittles
  • Berlin Wall
    • Many people in East Berlin were very poor and ruled by a dictator, so they fled to West Berlin
    • The Soviet Government was embarrassed by this, so they built a wall around West Berlin.
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  • Cold War Alliances
    • NATO:
    • USA
    • UK
    • France
    • W. Germany
    • Italy
    • Greece
    • Turkey
    • Norway
    • Warsaw Pact
    • USSR
    • Poland
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Hungary
    • E. Germany
    • Romania
    • Bulgaria
    • Albania
  • United Nations
    • League of Nations…the Sequel
    • Created in 1945
    • Settle arguments between countries
    • Humanitarian Aid (UNICEF, etc.)
  • 1949… a scary year
    • Soviets successfully test atomic bomb
    • Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong take over. China becomes a communist country
    • The West feels very threatened by International Communism
  • Superpowers
    • The US & the Soviet Union are now the two most powerful countries on earth and they both have nuclear weapons
    • They are the two superpowers
  • Communism in Asia
    • Korea
    • Japanese colony for decades
    • Kim Il Sung very popular communist leader/resistance fighter
    • After Japanese surrender, USA & USSR divided Korea at 38 th parallel.
    • North Korea = communist
    • South Korea = capitalist
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  • The Korean War
    • June, 1950: North Korean troops crossed 38 th parallel, and invaded the South
    • South Korean Army defeated quickly
    • UN sent military force to help South Korea at Truman’s request
    • 16 countries involved, 80% of troops from USA
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  • The War
    • North Korean forces almost won right away.
    • MacArthur lead daring landing at Incheon
    • North Korea retreated, MacArthur pursued
    • Chinese enter the war, beat back Americans
    • Armistice ended fighting in 1953
    • Still technically at war, but no shooting
    • Demilitarized Zone between two countries
    • N. Korea still communist, S. Korea still capitalist
  • DMZ Fortifications
  • Panmunjeon Treaty Sight
  • Treaty Room
  • Door to North Korea That way to the PRK
  • “ Freedom” Bridge to North Korea
  • The DMZ
  • North Korean Tunnels of Aggression
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  • North Korean Tunnels of Aggression
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  • The U-2 Incident (how the Cold War almost ended early)
    • The spy plane had been spying on the USSR since 1956.
    • President Eisenhower knew that the USA had far more bombers, missiles, & weapons than the USSR.
    • Because of this,
    • Ike wanted to end the
    • Cold War at a peace
    • conference in Paris
    • in 1960.
  • Shot Down!
    • 1960: Francis Gary Powers was shot down flying a U-2 Spy plane over the USSR
    • Eisenhower refused to apologize to Khrushchev, so Khrushchev (Soviet Premier) cancelled the Paris Summit.
    Whoops!
  • Africa & Asia
    • Issue:
    • After WWII many colonies began demanding and fighting for their independence
  • Cold War Conflict Chart After WWII many colonies began demanding and fighting for their independence Africa & Asia Superpower Actions Issue or Conflict Region or Country
  • Superpower Actions
    • US grants independence to the Philippines
    • In Africa the US and Soviet Union gave $ & weapons to opposing sides in many civil wars (Angola, Somalia, Ethiopia)
    • Pakistan became an ally of the US, India stayed neutral, but took $ & weapons from the US & USSR
  • Cold War Conflict Chart US grants independence to the Philippines In Africa the US and Soviet Union gave $ & weapons to opposing sides in many civil wars (Angola, Somalia, Ethiopia) Pakistan became an ally of the US, India stayed neutral, but took $ & weapons from the US & USSR After WWII many colonies began demanding and fighting for their independence Africa & Asia Superpower Actions Issue or Conflict Region or Country
  • Cuba
    • Issue: In 1959 Fidel Castro led a successful communist revolution in Cuba
  • Superpower Actions (part 1)
    • The Bay of Pigs Invasion : The Soviet Union gave Cuba a lot of $ and support. The CIA trained a group of Cuban exiles to invade Cuba & overthrow their government. The invasion was a total failure.
  • Superpower Actions (part 2)
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis: USSR begins building missile bases in Cuba. Nukes threatened the US. JFK warned that he would stop any Soviet boat carrying missiles to Cuba. The USSR backed off.
    • The closest the world has ever come to total nuclear war
  • “ The Button”
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  • Other Parts of Latin America
    • Issue: Many parts of Latin America were desperately poor. They thought becoming communist countries might help stop their suffering
  • Superpower Actions
    • US provides aid to many Latin American countries:
    • US intervenes militarily to overthrow suspected communist leaders in Honduras, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Panama, Chile, Grenada, El Salvador
  • Arms Race
    • By the 1950’s The US & USSR both had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other several times over
    • 1957 USSR launched 1 st ever satellite: Sputnik .
    • “ Space Race” began, NASA is created
    • Both countries develop rocket technology
  • Vietnam
    • Vietnam was a French colony
    • Vietnamese communists led by Ho Chi Minh (Uncle Ho) defeated the French in 1954
    • International Peace Conference temporarily divided Vietnam into 2 zones (not separate countries)
    • North Vietnam (Communist) {USSR}
    • South Vietnam (Capitalist) {USA}
  • Things go South in the South
    • South Vietnam led by corrupt leader (Diem)
    • By 1960 communist guerrillas (Viet Cong/Viet Minh) begin fighting in South Vietnam
    • USA worried that Vietnam would become a communist country
    • Domino Theory: when one country “falls” to communism, countries near it will fall to communism as well.
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  • Burma
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  • US Involvement
    • During the 1950’s & 1960’s, both Presidents Eisenhower & Kennedy sent “military advisors” to Vietnam (1,000’s of US soldiers)
    • 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Incident lead to US escalation in Vietnam.
    • By 1968 there were over 50,000 American soldiers in Vietnam
  • Insurgent War
    • American troops were fighting a difficult, insurgent war in the jungle
    • They couldn’t tell friend from foe.
    • Draft was instituted
    • 1 st TV war led to decreasing popularity of draft & war at home
    • Tet Offensive 1968 = turning point for the Viet Cong & North Vietnam
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  • 1970: Nixon authorizes bombing Cambodia
  • The End of the War
    • Longest, most unpopular war in US history
    • US forces left Vietnam in 1975
    • Vietnam is now a communist country
  • Evacuation of Saigon 1975
  • Khmer Rouge
    • Khmer Rouge :  The Khmer Rouge were a group of communist guerillas, led by Pol Pot
    • Gained control of Cambodia after the withdrawal of American troops from the Vietnam War . 
    • They initiated a reign of terror, killing over a million people to remove all western influence from the country. 
    • This gross violation of human rights ended when Vietnam invaded and occupied the country in 1979.  In the 1990s, the United Nations negotiated a peace settlement, and began the democratic process in Cambodia
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  • The End of the Cold War
    • Beginning with the Nixon administration, the US pursued less hostile relations with the USSR ( Détente)
    • The policy of détente led to agreements
    • SALT I & SALT II: S trategic
    • A rms
    • L imitation
    • T alks
  • End of the Cold War
    • Building more and more weapons to keep up with the USA crippled the Soviet economy
    • USSR collapsed in 1991 despite attempts by Gorbachev to make structural changes (glasnost & perestroika)
    • By 1992, the Berlin wall had fallen, Eastern Europe became independent (satellites no more!)
    • USA! USA! USA! USA! ...
  • Berlin Wall comes down 1989
  • You’re Welcome
  • Communism ends in Russia The Soviet Union breaks up
  • The Cold War
    • Causes
    • Effects
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  • Your Assignment now:
    • I have chosen the 22 most important events of the Cold War.
    • Using your notes, your textbook (855-879), and the attached summary create a timeline of 20 events with your group. This is a 20 point assignment; you can only pick 20 events. I will award you points based on whether or not the events you choose match mine.
    • Your timeline should be in chronological order
    • PLEASE USE PENCIL!
    • On the back of your timeline, list and explain the top 10 events of the Cold War. Three sentences at least for each event