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The Cold War
 

The Cold War

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Survey of the Cold War

Survey of the Cold War

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    The Cold War The Cold War Presentation Transcript

    • Right now
      • Get your arguments organized
      • Get ready to verbally make those arguments
      • You will have 2 minutes to make your opening statement
      • Next group makes opening statement
      • 1 minute each for rebuttal
    • The Cold War
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    • Causes of the Cold War
      • 1) Capitalism vs. Communism
        • US & Great Britain don’t like or trust communist ideas such as the rejection of private property & religion. Soviets wanted to destroy capitalism & overthrow democratic governments in Europe.
        • USSR afraid US would attack them (they had before) & that they would rebuild Germany & Germany would attack USSR again .
    • The Cold War in Europe
      • As WWII was ending, the Soviet army occupied all of Eastern Europe (except Yugoslavia)
      • Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, & Albania became Soviet satellite countries
      • The Iron Curtain
    • IRON CURTAIN
    • Soviet Threat in Europe; America Responds
      • Fear of a Communist takeover of all of Europe led to The Truman Doctrine
      • The Truman Doctrine: Encourage countries to resist Soviet Influence
      • Containment: Do not allow communism to spread or expand to any more countries in the world.
    • Truman Doctrine in full effect
      • 1) $400 million in aid to Greece & Turkey
      • 2) The Marshall Plan : $12 billion in aid to help western European countries rebuild after the war
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    • Germany
      • After the war, the Allies divided up Germany into 4 zones
      Berlin
    • Berlin Airlift
      • Berlin (capital of Germany, largest city) was in the Soviet Zone & the city itself was divided
    • Berlin Airlift
      • Stalin blockaded West Berlin, trying to make the entire city part of East Germany.
      • Truman ordered supplies to be airlifted to West Berlin.
      • Stalin ended blockade, W. Berlin remained part of W. Germany.
    • Operation Vittles
    • Berlin Wall
      • Many people in East Berlin were very poor and ruled by a dictator, so they fled to West Berlin
      • The Soviet Government was embarrassed by this, so they built a wall around West Berlin.
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    • Cold War Alliances
      • NATO:
      • USA
      • UK
      • France
      • Portugal
      • W. Germany
      • Italy
      • Greece
      • Turkey
      • Norway
      • Warsaw Pact
      • USSR
      • Poland
      • Czechoslovakia
      • Hungary
      • E. Germany
      • Romania
      • Bulgaria
      • Albania
    • United Nations
      • League of Nations…the Sequel
      • Created in 1945
      • Settle arguments between countries
      • Humanitarian Aid (UNICEF, etc.)
    • 1949… a scary year
      • Soviets successfully test atomic bomb
      • Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong take over. China becomes a communist country
      • US feels very threatened by International Communism
    • Superpowers
      • The US & the Soviet Union are now the two most powerful countries on earth and they both have nuclear weapons
      • They are the two superpowers
    • Communism in Asia
      • Korea
      • Was a Japanese colony for decades
      • Kim Il Sung very popular communist leader/resistance fighter
      • After Japanese surrender, USA & USSR divide Korea at 38 th parallel.
      • North Korea = communist
      • South Korea = capitalist
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    • The Korean War
      • June, 1950: North Korean troops cross 38 th parallel, invade the South
      • South Korean Army defeated quickly
      • UN sends military force to help South Korea at Truman’s request
      • 16 countries involved, 80% of troops from USA
      • Gen. Douglas MacArthur in command
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    • The War
      • North Korean forces almost win right away.
      • MacArthur leads daring landing at Incheon
      • North Korea retreats, MacArthur pursues
      • Chinese enter the war, beat back Americans
      • Armistice ends fighting in 1953
      • Still technically at war, but no shooting
      • Demilitarized Zone between two countries
      • N. Korea still communist, S. Korea still capitalist
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    • Another Red Scare
      • Spies!
      • 1953; The Rosenbergs arrested and eventually hanged for passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union
      • Alger Hiss State Department official discovered spying for the Soviet Union
    • McCarthyism
    • Senator Joe McCarthy
      • Claimed to have a list of 205 known communists working for the government
      • Never showed anyone the list
      • For 4 years, McCarthy went around the country “hunting communists”
      • Businesses questioned employees & fired anyone they suspected of being a communist
      • “ Blacklists” in Hollywood and elsewhere
    • Censure
      • McCarthy held televised hearings. He looked like a bully
      • The Senate censured him, he died of liver failure 3 years later
      You have done enough. Have you no sense of decency sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?
    • Cold War Conflict Chart
      • Draw this chart in your notes
      Superpower Actions Issue or Conflict Region or Country
    • Africa & Asia
      • Issue:
      • After WWII many colonies began demanding and fighting for their independence
    • Superpower Actions
      • US grants independence to the Philippines
      • In Africa the US and Soviet Union gave $ & weapons to opposing sides in many civil wars (Angola, Somalia, Ethiopia)
      • Pakistan became an ally of the US, India stayed neutral, but took $ & weapons from the US & USSR
    • Cuba
      • Issue: In 1959 Fidel Castro led a successful communist revolution in Cuba
    • Superpower Actions (part 1)
      • The Bay of Pigs Invasion : The Soviet Union gave Cuba a lot of $ and support. President Kennedy & the CIA trained a group of Cuban exiles to invade Cuba & overthrow their government. The invasion was a total failure and embarrassed the US.
    • Superpower Actions (part 2)
      • The Cuban Missile Crisis: USSR begins building missile bases in Cuba. Nukes threatened the US. JFK warned that he would stop any Soviet boat carrying missiles to Cuba. The USSR backed off.
      • The closest the world has ever come to total nuclear war
    • “ The Button”
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    • Other Parts of Latin America
      • Issue: Many parts of Latin America were desperately poor. They thought becoming communist countries might help stop their suffering
    • Superpower Actions
      • US provides aid to many Latin American countries: Alliance for Progress, Peace Corps
      • US intervenes militarily to overthrow suspected communist leaders in Honduras, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Panama, Chile, Grenada, El Salvador
    • Arms Race
      • By the 1950’s The US & USSR both had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other several times over
      • 1957 USSR launches 1 st ever satellite: Sputnik .
      • “ Space Race” begins, NASA is created
      • Both countries develop rocket technology
    • Kennedy Assassination
      • On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed in Dallas, Texas.
      • The man found guilty of his murder was Lee Harvey Oswald
      • Oswald was assassinated by Jack Ruby
      • Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) became President
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    • Vietnam
      • Vietnam was a French colony
      • Vietnamese communists led by Ho Chi Minh (Uncle Ho) defeated the French in 1954
      • International Peace Conference divided Vietnam into 2 countries
      • North Vietnam (Communist) {USSR}
      • South Vietnam (Capitalist) {USA}
    • Things go South in the South
      • South Vietnam led by corrupt leader (Diem)
      • Communist Guerrillas (Viet Cong/Viet Minh) begin fighting in South Vietnam
      • USA worried that Vietnam would become a communist country
      • Domino Theory: when one country “falls” to communism, countries near it will fall to communism as well.
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    • US Involvement
      • During the 1950’s & 1960’s, both Presidents Eisenhower & Kennedy sent “military advisors” to Vietnam
      • 1964: Gulf of Tonkin Incident leads to US escalation in Vietnam.
      • By 1968 there were over 50,000 American soldiers in Vietnam
    • Insurgent War
      • American troops were fighting a difficult, insurgent war in the jungle
      • They couldn’t tell friend from foe.
      • Draft was instituted
      • 1 st TV war led to decreasing popularity of draft & war at home
      • Tet Offensive 1968 = turning point for the Viet Cong & North Vietnam
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    • Protests at home
      • Massive demonstrations and protests against the Vietnam war took place
      • “ Hippies” and college students staged protests and burned their draft cards
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    • The End of the War
      • Protests led to fighting between pro & anti war demonstrators
      • Anti-war demonstrators killed by national guard at their college in Kent State, Ohio
      • Longest, most unpopular war in US history
      • US forces left Vietnam in 1975
      • Vietnam is now a communist country
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    • The End of the Cold War
      • Beginning with the Nixon administration, the US pursued less hostile relations with the USSR ( Détente)
      • The policy of détente led to agreements
      • SALT I & SALT II: S trategic
      • A rms
      • L imitation
      • T alks
    • End of the Cold War
      • Building more and more weapons to keep up with the USA crippled the Soviet economy
      • It collapsed in 1991 despite attempts by Gorbachev to make structural changes
      • By 1992, the Berlin wall had fallen, Eastern European became independent (satellites no more!)
      • USA! USA! USA! USA! ...
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    • Communism ends in Russia The Soviet Union breaks up