The Cold War


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Survey of the Cold War

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The Cold War

  1. 1. Right now <ul><li>Get your arguments organized </li></ul><ul><li>Get ready to verbally make those arguments </li></ul><ul><li>You will have 2 minutes to make your opening statement </li></ul><ul><li>Next group makes opening statement </li></ul><ul><li>1 minute each for rebuttal </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Cold War
  3. 8. Causes of the Cold War <ul><li>1) Capitalism vs. Communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US & Great Britain don’t like or trust communist ideas such as the rejection of private property & religion. Soviets wanted to destroy capitalism & overthrow democratic governments in Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USSR afraid US would attack them (they had before) & that they would rebuild Germany & Germany would attack USSR again . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 9. The Cold War in Europe <ul><li>As WWII was ending, the Soviet army occupied all of Eastern Europe (except Yugoslavia) </li></ul><ul><li>Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, & Albania became Soviet satellite countries </li></ul><ul><li>The Iron Curtain </li></ul>
  6. 11. Soviet Threat in Europe; America Responds <ul><li>Fear of a Communist takeover of all of Europe led to The Truman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>The Truman Doctrine: Encourage countries to resist Soviet Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Containment: Do not allow communism to spread or expand to any more countries in the world. </li></ul>
  7. 12. Truman Doctrine in full effect <ul><li>1) $400 million in aid to Greece & Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>2) The Marshall Plan : $12 billion in aid to help western European countries rebuild after the war </li></ul>
  8. 14. Germany <ul><li>After the war, the Allies divided up Germany into 4 zones </li></ul>Berlin
  9. 15. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>Berlin (capital of Germany, largest city) was in the Soviet Zone & the city itself was divided </li></ul>
  10. 16. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>Stalin blockaded West Berlin, trying to make the entire city part of East Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Truman ordered supplies to be airlifted to West Berlin. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin ended blockade, W. Berlin remained part of W. Germany. </li></ul>
  11. 17. Operation Vittles
  12. 18. Berlin Wall <ul><li>Many people in East Berlin were very poor and ruled by a dictator, so they fled to West Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Government was embarrassed by this, so they built a wall around West Berlin. </li></ul>
  13. 20. Cold War Alliances <ul><li>NATO: </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>W. Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact </li></ul><ul><li>USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>E. Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Albania </li></ul>
  14. 21. United Nations <ul><li>League of Nations…the Sequel </li></ul><ul><li>Created in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Settle arguments between countries </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian Aid (UNICEF, etc.) </li></ul>
  15. 22. 1949… a scary year <ul><li>Soviets successfully test atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong take over. China becomes a communist country </li></ul><ul><li>US feels very threatened by International Communism </li></ul>
  16. 23. Superpowers <ul><li>The US & the Soviet Union are now the two most powerful countries on earth and they both have nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>They are the two superpowers </li></ul>
  17. 24. Communism in Asia <ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Was a Japanese colony for decades </li></ul><ul><li>Kim Il Sung very popular communist leader/resistance fighter </li></ul><ul><li>After Japanese surrender, USA & USSR divide Korea at 38 th parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea = communist </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea = capitalist </li></ul>
  18. 26. The Korean War <ul><li>June, 1950: North Korean troops cross 38 th parallel, invade the South </li></ul><ul><li>South Korean Army defeated quickly </li></ul><ul><li>UN sends military force to help South Korea at Truman’s request </li></ul><ul><li>16 countries involved, 80% of troops from USA </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. Douglas MacArthur in command </li></ul>
  19. 28. The War <ul><li>North Korean forces almost win right away. </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur leads daring landing at Incheon </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea retreats, MacArthur pursues </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese enter the war, beat back Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Armistice ends fighting in 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Still technically at war, but no shooting </li></ul><ul><li>Demilitarized Zone between two countries </li></ul><ul><li>N. Korea still communist, S. Korea still capitalist </li></ul>
  20. 30. Another Red Scare <ul><li>Spies! </li></ul><ul><li>1953; The Rosenbergs arrested and eventually hanged for passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Alger Hiss State Department official discovered spying for the Soviet Union </li></ul>
  21. 31. McCarthyism
  22. 32. Senator Joe McCarthy <ul><li>Claimed to have a list of 205 known communists working for the government </li></ul><ul><li>Never showed anyone the list </li></ul><ul><li>For 4 years, McCarthy went around the country “hunting communists” </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses questioned employees & fired anyone they suspected of being a communist </li></ul><ul><li>“ Blacklists” in Hollywood and elsewhere </li></ul>
  23. 33. Censure <ul><li>McCarthy held televised hearings. He looked like a bully </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate censured him, he died of liver failure 3 years later </li></ul>You have done enough. Have you no sense of decency sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?
  24. 34. Cold War Conflict Chart <ul><li>Draw this chart in your notes </li></ul>Superpower Actions Issue or Conflict Region or Country
  25. 35. Africa & Asia <ul><li>Issue: </li></ul><ul><li>After WWII many colonies began demanding and fighting for their independence </li></ul>
  26. 36. Superpower Actions <ul><li>US grants independence to the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa the US and Soviet Union gave $ & weapons to opposing sides in many civil wars (Angola, Somalia, Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan became an ally of the US, India stayed neutral, but took $ & weapons from the US & USSR </li></ul>
  27. 37. Cuba <ul><li>Issue: In 1959 Fidel Castro led a successful communist revolution in Cuba </li></ul>
  28. 38. Superpower Actions (part 1) <ul><li>The Bay of Pigs Invasion : The Soviet Union gave Cuba a lot of $ and support. President Kennedy & the CIA trained a group of Cuban exiles to invade Cuba & overthrow their government. The invasion was a total failure and embarrassed the US. </li></ul>
  29. 39. Superpower Actions (part 2) <ul><li>The Cuban Missile Crisis: USSR begins building missile bases in Cuba. Nukes threatened the US. JFK warned that he would stop any Soviet boat carrying missiles to Cuba. The USSR backed off. </li></ul><ul><li>The closest the world has ever come to total nuclear war </li></ul>
  30. 40. “ The Button”
  31. 42. Other Parts of Latin America <ul><li>Issue: Many parts of Latin America were desperately poor. They thought becoming communist countries might help stop their suffering </li></ul>
  32. 43. Superpower Actions <ul><li>US provides aid to many Latin American countries: Alliance for Progress, Peace Corps </li></ul><ul><li>US intervenes militarily to overthrow suspected communist leaders in Honduras, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Panama, Chile, Grenada, El Salvador </li></ul>
  33. 44. Arms Race <ul><li>By the 1950’s The US & USSR both had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other several times over </li></ul><ul><li>1957 USSR launches 1 st ever satellite: Sputnik . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Space Race” begins, NASA is created </li></ul><ul><li>Both countries develop rocket technology </li></ul>
  34. 45. Kennedy Assassination <ul><li>On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed in Dallas, Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>The man found guilty of his murder was Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul><ul><li>Oswald was assassinated by Jack Ruby </li></ul><ul><li>Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) became President </li></ul>
  35. 49. Vietnam <ul><li>Vietnam was a French colony </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese communists led by Ho Chi Minh (Uncle Ho) defeated the French in 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>International Peace Conference divided Vietnam into 2 countries </li></ul><ul><li>North Vietnam (Communist) {USSR} </li></ul><ul><li>South Vietnam (Capitalist) {USA} </li></ul>
  36. 50. Things go South in the South <ul><li>South Vietnam led by corrupt leader (Diem) </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Guerrillas (Viet Cong/Viet Minh) begin fighting in South Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>USA worried that Vietnam would become a communist country </li></ul><ul><li>Domino Theory: when one country “falls” to communism, countries near it will fall to communism as well. </li></ul>
  37. 53. US Involvement <ul><li>During the 1950’s & 1960’s, both Presidents Eisenhower & Kennedy sent “military advisors” to Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>1964: Gulf of Tonkin Incident leads to US escalation in Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1968 there were over 50,000 American soldiers in Vietnam </li></ul>
  38. 54. Insurgent War <ul><li>American troops were fighting a difficult, insurgent war in the jungle </li></ul><ul><li>They couldn’t tell friend from foe. </li></ul><ul><li>Draft was instituted </li></ul><ul><li>1 st TV war led to decreasing popularity of draft & war at home </li></ul><ul><li>Tet Offensive 1968 = turning point for the Viet Cong & North Vietnam </li></ul>
  39. 56. Protests at home <ul><li>Massive demonstrations and protests against the Vietnam war took place </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hippies” and college students staged protests and burned their draft cards </li></ul>
  40. 58. The End of the War <ul><li>Protests led to fighting between pro & anti war demonstrators </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-war demonstrators killed by national guard at their college in Kent State, Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>Longest, most unpopular war in US history </li></ul><ul><li>US forces left Vietnam in 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam is now a communist country </li></ul>
  41. 61. The End of the Cold War <ul><li>Beginning with the Nixon administration, the US pursued less hostile relations with the USSR ( Détente) </li></ul><ul><li>The policy of détente led to agreements </li></ul><ul><li>SALT I & SALT II: S trategic </li></ul><ul><li>A rms </li></ul><ul><li>L imitation </li></ul><ul><li>T alks </li></ul>
  42. 62. End of the Cold War <ul><li>Building more and more weapons to keep up with the USA crippled the Soviet economy </li></ul><ul><li>It collapsed in 1991 despite attempts by Gorbachev to make structural changes </li></ul><ul><li>By 1992, the Berlin wall had fallen, Eastern European became independent (satellites no more!) </li></ul><ul><li>USA! USA! USA! USA! ... </li></ul>
  43. 64. Communism ends in Russia The Soviet Union breaks up