Sumeria

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Brief overview of the ancient city of Ur

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Sumeria

  1. 2. What is Civilization? <ul><li>5 characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced cities </li></ul><ul><li>Complex institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced technology </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized workers </li></ul><ul><li>Record keeping </li></ul>
  2. 3. CIVIL ization <ul><li> C ities; advanced </li></ul><ul><li> I nstitutions; complex </li></ul><ul><li>ad V anced technology </li></ul><ul><li> I ndividual jobs (specialized workers) </li></ul><ul><li> L iterate (record keeping) </li></ul>
  3. 4. The First Civilizations <ul><li>The Neolithic revolution allowed people to settle down in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Villages grew into cities and complex societies emerged </li></ul><ul><li>Religion developed </li></ul><ul><li>People took on specific occupations (specialization) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Craftsman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Ur <ul><li>Bronze Age civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 30,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Around 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul>Ur
  5. 6. Sumerian Firsts <ul><li>1 st irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>1 st libraries </li></ul><ul><li>1 st written contract </li></ul><ul><li>1 st written laws (Code of Hammurabi) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st literature (Epic of Gilgamesh) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st effective use of wheel </li></ul>
  6. 8. Ziggurat farming Lower & middle class homes Central city (homes of priests & royalty)
  7. 9. The King The Governors The Aristocracy The Peasantry <ul><li>Social and political organization: </li></ul><ul><li>The King : had military powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Governors : governed the territories of the kingdom. Were generals and judges at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>The aristocracy : Were priests and traders. </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants : People who work the land. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Life in Ur <ul><li>Irrigation & specialized agricultural workers lead to food surpluses </li></ul><ul><li>Government officials supervised and planned irrigation and harvests </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans such as bronze workers, potters, and textile workers produced items for trade </li></ul>
  9. 11. Trade in Ur <ul><li>People in the city’s bazaar (marketplace), bartered for different items {no Sumerian money} </li></ul><ul><li>Scribes (people who could write) used cuneiform to record complex trades </li></ul>
  10. 12. Sumerian Religion <ul><li>Polytheist </li></ul><ul><li>Religious life centered around giant temple or ziggurat </li></ul><ul><li>Animal sacrifices </li></ul><ul><li>Each city focused on one particular god </li></ul>

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