Negative Effects Of The Industrial RevolutionPresentation Transcript
Negative Effects of the Industrial Revolution
The entrepreneurs (Individuals who start a new business) who opened factories and shipping companies became very rich during the early industrial revolution.
The people who worked in the factories for the entrepreneurs (the working class), were soul-crushingly poor
Urbanization: The movement of people to the cities
The Industrial revolution brought rapid urbanization.
Causes of Urbanization
High demand for workers
The enclosure movement pushed people off the farms and into the cities
Cities grew around factories
These cities grew rapidly, without planning
Working people lived in tenements in hellish slums
The lack of planning meant that there was no sewage, running water, or sanitation system
No sanitation meant the streets were filled with trash
The crowded, filthy slums were a breeding ground for diseases such as cholera
Working Life in Factories
Factory work was difficult and dangerous
Typical shifts lasted 12 to 16 hours
If you complained, you were fired.
If you got sick, you were fired.
If you got hurt and could no longer work, you were fired.
Women at Work
Factory owners hired women because they could pay them less
Women with families worked 12 hours a day and were still expected to cook, clean, etc. when they finally got home.
Children at Work
Families needed the income working children could provide.
Children could be hired at very low wages
Children worked in the same dangerous factories, for the same long hours
Workers respond to the awful conditions of their lives
1) Workers protested their conditions
These protests were put down violently by the British government
2) Luddites: skilled workers rejected the new machines that cost them their jobs by smashing them
3) Methodism: a new religious movement founded by John Wesley . Working people tried to focus on a better life to come rather than their lives on earth
New Ways of Thinking
The industrial revolution changed the way people thought about everything from economics to the way governments should work.
“ The Iron Law of Wages”
Workers should be paid only enough to survive
If they make more money, they will have more children, become poor & die off from starvation
Iron Law of Wages…continued
Workers should be satisfied with their wages, because they are at a “natural level”
Ricardo’s ideas lead many to the conclusion that people are poor because of some personal flaw in their character
The Rise of Socialism
Critics of the industrial revolution wanted a more equal distribution of wealth
Many were labeled “Utopians” because people thought their ideas would be impossible to put into practice.
Rise of Socialism
Robert Owen: Set up ideal working community called “New Harmony.” Workers worked less, children were taken care of while parents worked… productivity and profits increased.
Communism & Capitalism
Karl Marx and Frederic Engels witnessed the horrors of industrialization
Together they wrote The Communist Manifesto .
The following chart outlines the differences between capitalism & communism
The Communist Manifesto Das Kapital The Wealth of Nations Books Karl Marx Adam Smith Founder Communism Capitalism
Everything is owned by the government Government closely regulates the economy (sets prices, tells factories what to make, etc.) Government should not interfere with economy: laissez-faire View of Government Communism Capitalism
People should cooperate to achieve success, no competition Everyone should have an equal share of the wealth/property People become wealthy because they offer a good or service that people want to buy View of people:
Government ownership of the economy will end hunger, poverty, and slave-like working conditions “ From each according to their abilities to each according to their needs” If people work hard enough, they can lift themselves out of poverty How to improve social conditions?
Government determines job placement
Religion is the “opiate of the masses” and should be done away with
Sacrifice freedom for security
People are free to choose their own careers
Freedom of religion
Freedom is more important than security
Capitalism will destroy itself
Workers will eventually rise up in a violent revolution and take power
The future of the world is communism
Capitalism is the only efficient economic system “ It’s not perfect, but it’s the best we can do” On the future
Legislation & Reform
Early attempts to regulate factories were weak and ineffective
Unions were outlawed because they would interfere with the “natural order”…remember Ricardo
Legislation & Reform
Child labor was only limited, not abolished
Kids in textile mills only were limited to 12 hour workdays. Those in mines, shipyards and factories worked more than 12 hours a day
Legislation & Reform
Factory Acts of 1833, 1842 & 1847
limited child labor
Prohibited children under 10 in the mines
Set the maximum number of working hours for women and children at 10.